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What are some of the best interview questions asked for a mechanical engineering student?

I'm sharing this question list to fellow mechanical engineers that I made to prepare for an interview. It contains two sections viz. technical questions followed by HR questions. 1. Technical questions:, Type of technical questions asked will be definition type and that too from basic. Your favorite subjects will be asked first and then they start questioning what they want you to answer.Some of the questions are... 1. Why we do not use same technology to start both SI/CI engine? 2. Which one is more efficient? A four stroke engine or a two stroke and why? 3. 4 Stroke engine is more efficient primarily Because of the presence of valves which precisely control the flow of charge into the chamber and exit the exhaust gases with proper timing which is hard to achieve by ports in a 2 stroke engine. 4. Why there is no differential in a train. What happens when a train takes a turn? 5. A cantilever beam is loaded a point on its ends what will be the effect in shear force? 6. Why vehicle does not move when its gear is applied though parked in slope area? 7. What is shear force in fluid particle? 8. How gear ratio helps in power variation? 9. What is the angle of twist in drill? 10. What is the difference between impact force and sudden force? 11. How to calculate the turbine efficiency? 12. Why centrifugal pump casing is called involutes casing? 13. What will happen if reciprocating compressor run in exactly opposite direction? 14. What is the effect of clearance volume in performance of air- compressor? 15. What is the advantages and disadvantages of critical speed of turbine? 16. What will happen if oil is mixed with boiler feed water? 17. What is difference between fan and blowers? 18. What are the protections required to protect turbine? 19. what is critical temperature? 20. Air is a bad conductor of heat. Why it becomes hot in summer? 21. How many stages in compressor in there in gas turbine? 22. Which is more efficient? A rear engine Volvo Bus or a Front engine Volvo Bus? (Engine Capacity is same for both) why? 23. What is difference between stress and pressure? 24. What is Boiler HP? 25. What is Auto Dosing? 26. What happens when too much oil is injected in the working cylinder? 27. How many manholes should be there on boiler? Why? 28. What is used to check the amount & quality of fuel in two stroke IC engine? 29. Work done in throttling process is given by which formula? 30. Function of the strainer in IC engine? 31. What is the difference between the air pre-heater & air blower? 32. Why the compression ratio of the diesel engine should be high? 33. A vertical plate and a horizontal plate are suspended in an open room. Both are heated to the same temperature. Which one will cool first? Why? 34. What is the color of flame if the boiler is running? 35. Which is the best lubricant-air, oil or water? 36. Tell the octane number in Indian petrol? 37. Difference between enthalpy & entropy? 38. What is the difference between safety valve and relief valve? 39. Explain cooling and its types? 40. What is the working principal of air compressor? 41. What is cryogenics and what are its fundamentals? 42. What is the difference between a shaper machine and a planner machine? 43. Why stress relieving of stainless steel is not proffered? 44. What are the advantages of PID controllers compared with those of a PLC? 45. Which two continents are mirror images of each other? 46. Where half nut is used? 47. What is the need for drafting? 48. Turbo charger driven by.............? and what its speed 49. Why...? Turbo charger used in DG....? 50. The stage below saturation is called? 51. Why is a condenser used in a Rankin cycle? 52. What is servo motor? 53. Can we use light duty vehicle axle into the heavy duty machinery axle? If no then why? 54. Stress strain diagram for fluid? 55. Where manning formula used? 56. What is level of documentations for a ISO 9001 certified company? 57. What is back plate in centrifugal pumps and its purpose? 58. Why tyres are manufactured in black colour? 59. Whether ductile material can fail in brittle manner? When? 60. On what property u can distinguish material as brittle or ductile? 61. Name fuels used in nuclear power plant? 62. On what thermodynamic cycle nuclear power plant works? 63. How can you increase the efficiency of power plant without changing in effort? 64. What is purpose of governor in Diesel engine? 65. Why petrol engines have more power than diesel engines of same capacity? 66. What is the difference between Torque and Power ( layman Idea)? 67. What will be the induced stress in the bar? 68. What is the Difference between Rated Speed and Economic Speed? 69. How to convert from HP to BHP or CC to Bhp please explain???????? 70. How the material no. 2062 will mild steel of density 7.85? What are the other codes? 71. Why petrol engine gives more power than diesel engine even though diesel engine has high compression ratio? 72. What is mean by Resistance welding? 73. Compare Brayton and Otto cycle. 74. Why we have to know the specific frequency of any equipment? does anybody know about specific frequency ? 75. What is pulverization? 76. What is the function of an isolator? 77. Why the back wheel of tractor is bigger than front wheel? 78. Flow will increase or decrease or remain same? 79. Why Mechanical seal used in Pumps? 80. The ratio of Emissive to absorption power of heat by a body is equal to heat emitted by a perfect black body. Who said the statement 81. What is colour of flame if the of Halide Torch detects a refrigerant leakage? 82. How can we remove paint from (painted over)plastic or nylon objects with out damaging the object? 83. How to calculate or arrive the capacity of a mechanical press? 84. The property of a metal that is determined by the indentation on a metal surface 85. The amount of thickness of the metal sheet that can be welded by ultrasonic welding is? 86. The amount of carbon present in Cast Iron? 87. Numeric control is used for? 88. The amount of moisture that is to be present in wood to be called dry wood is? 89. The pattern material used in Investment casting Process is? 90. What is the use of offset follower in cam? Why and where we have to use this type of follower? 91. What is the use of offset follower in cam? Why and where we have to use this type of follower? 92. State the difference between Forging & Fabrication? 93. What is flange rating? 94. What amount of heat energy loss in ESP? 95. What happen when diesel is injected in petrol engine? 96. What do you mean by property of system? 97. Why joule-Brayton cycle is not suitable for a reciprocating engine. 98. How does “turbulence” differ from swirl? 99. Is octane number beyond 100 is possible? 100. Explain the effect of fuel structure on knocking. 101. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of LPG as a fuel in S.I. Engine? 102. What is the impact of using throttling device instead of expander in vapour compression cycle? 103. What is moisture choking? Which refrigerants are more prone to it? 104. What is Montreal protocol and why CFCs are being phased out? 105. Why reverse Joule Brayton is used in aircraft refrigeration system? 106. Explain how solar-energy can used in refrigeration system? 107. Is wet bulb temperature a thermodynamic property? 108. What is the utility of comfort chart? 109. How would you decide whether a reciprocating compressor or centrifugal compression is to be used in a refrigerating system? 110. Why smoking is not allowed in air conditioned enclosure? 111. Why desert coolers become ineffective in raining season? 112. Why package units are being preferred over central air conditioning system? 113. What is MAPI. 114. What is capital budgetary? 115. What is group technology layout? 116. What is leveling & smoothing in production technology? 117. What is deference between method study & work measurement? 118. What you know about drilling? 119. How oil is produced? What is the size of well? 120. Pumps used in drilling procedure and why? Why not centrifugal pump? What if we want high head and high discharge? 121. Difference between Pipeline and Piping ? 122. Use of CNG, LNG, LPG etc. ,Additional questions subject wise: Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machinery What is the difference between impulse & reaction turbine. Explain unit speed, unit discharge unit power & specific speed. Explain NPSH, in which parameter it depends on. What is jet ratio? What is Deriaz turbine? Which turbine is good for tidal power plant? What is Navier-stroke equation. What are the significance of Mach number Weber number Material Science What is quazi-crystal? What do you understand by a free cutting steel? What elements are usually added to make a steel free cutting, & how they make the steel free cutting? Explain various method of hardening of steel? What do you understand by the term “Arrest point” in connecting with heat treatment of plain carbon steel? What influence does grain size have on the mechanical properties of metals. Describe the difference between brittle and ductile fracture. What is the difference between natural & artificial aging? Thermodynamics What is availability function for a closed system? If it is possible that entropy of a system can decrease during a given process? What is dead state in thermodynamics? What is exergy? What happens to triple point line when projected to P-T plane? What is compressibility factor and what is its value for Vander walls gases. What are initial conditions for formation of shock waves? What do you understand by choking in nozzle flows? Is it possible that pressure and velocity decreases simultaneously/ Distinguish between “Available energy” & Availability? What is pure substances. What is critical point? What is the value f critical temperature, pressure & volume of water? What is sublimation curve, fusion curve & vaporization curve? What is Rayleigh Line & Fanno Line? What is normal shocks & when its occurs? What is High Grade Energy & Low Grade Energy? Heat & Mass Transfer What is Newton’s Law of cooling. What is Recuperator & Regenerators? Whether fin can actually reduce heat transfer? is it possible? When? What is difference between Biot no. & Nusselt no? Which one is greater, thermal boundary layer or hydrodynamic boundary layer? What is film temperature in forced convection flow? What is fully developed region and where it is applicable? What is the critical radius of insulation, explain clearly in terms of thermal resistance and heat transfer rate? At what case do you recommend Fin? What is the difference between free convection & forced convection in what parameter forced & free convection depend. Internal Combustion Engine What is the use of Carburetor in SI Engine, There is trend towards increases of injection system in Automobiles, Explain. Why Supercharging is not popular with SI Engines? What is performance number. Explain Knocking in SI Engine & Mention, the factor that tend to reduce Knocking? Explain the difference between Knocking in SI Engine & CI Engine? How does “Turbulence” differ from “Swirl”? Name some Antiknock additive and explain the Mechanism by which they reduce the knock? Power Plant engineering What is slip ratio in thermal power plant? In Pendant super heater whether parallel flow or counter flow heat exchange between steam and flue gases. What happens to mass flow in case of supersaturated flow? Why clearance are provided in reciprocating compressor? Explain turbojet & Rocket Engine. What’s the advantage of compounding of steam turbine? What’s are boiler mounting & accessory. Draw the sketch of pulse jet engine. What are its main advantage & disadvantage? Explain working principal of scram jet engine, what is advantage over the ramjet? What are the advantage of nuclear power plants over thermal power plants. What is fast breeder reactor? What is circulation ratio and what is its range in power plant? One 2-row Curtis turbine is equivalent to how many reaction turbines for same value of blade velocity and angle of nozzle? What are thermal neutrons? What is breeding ratio? What is the application of jet and rocket technology? Which is used in missiles? Strength of Materials What do you mean by equal strength in a beam? What is difference between pure shear and simple (normal) shear? Is it possible that decrease in area gives a decrease in stress? Whether shear stresses are always parallel to shear forces? By which experiment, you find it toughness of material. Distinguish between direct stress & bending stress. What do you mean by Torsional rigidity & lateral rigidity? Define “slenderness ratio”. How it is used in long and short column? Machine Design What are rolling contact bearing? What are the anti friction bearings? What is stress concentration factor? What is the bolt of uniform strength? What is the difference Static Load carrying capacity & Dynamic Load carrying capacity? Why we are not using the unit joule for torque instead of N-m. What is Low cycle fatigue failure and High cycle fatigue failure? What are considerations of these while designing a machine? What is mechanical advantage? How trains take turns though there is no differential gear? Do you know epicyclical gear box? What is the practical application of epicyclical gear box? What is tooth profile? Which one is better? Theory of Machines What is Keneddy theorem? Do we need a screw with efficiency less than 50%? What is backlash? What is damping ratio? Define Resonance. Define critical speed or whirling speed or whipping speed. What is machine? Giving example, Differentiate between a machine & structure. What is Mechanical advantage. Refrigeration and Air-conditioning What is utility of comfort chart? hat is wet compression? To maximize COP what should be the condition of vapour at suction to compression? What is the range of NBP (normal boiling point) in case of most refrigerants? Why COP of CO2 gas is less and still why it is used in transport refrigeration? What are the most crucial parts in reciprocating compressors? How compressors are selected based on type of refrigerant? What is correlation between wet bulb temperatures an adiabatic saturation temperature? Why isothermal compressor is Desirable? What is desirable property of ideal refrigerant? Define effective temperature & what is the optimum design condition for comfort for summer A/C? Production Engineering Why arc is slowly extinguished in case of arc welding? Which inert gas is commonly used for thin work piece and which inert gas for thick work piece? What is friction welding? What is difference between brazing & braze welding? Why hole basis system is adopted in manufacturing? What is 3- 2-1 principle? Where diamond pin locator is used? How presses are rated? What is spring back? What is difference between fillet and corner radius? What are overhead costs? Why depreciation is to be taken into account in industrial management? Why breakeven point is important in any industry? What is sine bar? What is marginal cost and marginal revenue? What is shear and where it is provided in case of punching and blanking? What is angle of bite? What is extrusion ratio? What is gutter and where it is used? Which process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel rods? What is difference between Amorphous and crystalline solids? What are the various method of inspection of casting for internal & external defects? Why are allowances provided for in the production of patterns? What do they depend on? What is the deference between soldering & brazing? What is meant by solid-state welding explain. What is cold welding? Describe the principal behind resistance welding processes. What function should a lubricant perform in manufacturing process? Explain the difference between punching & blanking. Explain the difference between discontinuous chips and segment chips. Explain the different type of tool wear. What is difference between oblique & orthogonal cutting. What are the main difference between jig and fixture? What is AOQ What is LTPD What is Producer risk What is Consumer’s risk What is JIT approaches? What is group technology? What are its main advantages? Define the term “production & productivity. What is the significance of ISO 9000 series & 1400 series. What is artificial intelligence? Which welding process does not required any filler material? What is tack weld? Which process used for cutting thicker plates? Where drooping characteristics of power source is required in arc welding? 2. HR questions: Tell me about yourself? What is your hometown famous for? Tell about your achievements in life. Your strengths and weakness Are you a team player? Tell me about your ability to work under pressure. How would you know you will be successful on this job? Describe your management style. Global warming Chief justice of India Vice President of India CEO of Apple, when did he die? Gas scenario RBI policy Corporate Governance Corporate Laws Cast system is boon or bane ? What’s the difference in the modus operandi of Amir Khan’s “Satyameva jayate” and Anna Hazares movement? What will u do on your part to remove corruption? If you travel in a train without confirmed ticket will u bribe the TT for a seat? What do u mean by optimistic. Is it always good to be optimistic or it helps sometimes to be pessimist? What is difference between confidence and over confidence? What is the difference between hard work and smart work? What are your goals? What motivates you to do a good job? What makes you angry? Give an example of your creativity Describe ideal company, job, and location? What are your hobbies? Inspiration in your life and why? What was the toughest decision you ever had to make? Define success? and how do you measure up to your definition About present job (if employed) Why did you resign from your previous job? Why have you been unemployed so long? What was the toughest challenge you have ever faced? What would you say to your boss if he is crazy about an idea, but you think it stinks? Why should I hire you? Explain how you would be an asset to this organisation. If we give you a job will you leave IIT B or your organisation? What changes would you make if you came on board? Thanks Akshay.

Have you ever driven a Ford Mustang?

Yes! 1991 LX 5.0 Hatchback from 1994–1997 Very light platform and supported by a huge aftermarket so upgrading this car is cheap and due to the effort put in by Ford to produce it efficiently it is by extension easy to work on. Unfortunately the platform was developed in the mid 70’s and was part of Ford’s early attempts at a cost effective modular platform that would underpin a variety of cars from the original pony car to personal luxury cars like the Thunderbird and even small sedans and station wagons (all of which works great if want to mix and match parts to create a neat one off like a supercharged 4,6 4v powered station wagon with independent rear suspension and 6 speed manual). Its light weight comes at the expense of safety and by comparison where much later cars (the 2005+ Mustang) would allow you to walk away from a crash the 2004 and below Mustangs (which are fox platform based) would mean a trip to the hospital and in those later cars a trip to the hospital would mean a trip to the morgue. Cost cutting also meant less than ideal suspension design and geometry with its hybrid strut front suspension and four link rear suspension which used angled upper and lower control arms to keep the axle centered with the lower control arms also supporting the rear springs forcing them to do double duty keeping the gas tank from dragging on the ground will also allowing the rear axle to move around. Most of these vices can be fixed via the aftermarket and the car by dint of its light weight makes for a great hot-rod and giant killer (if a bit rough around the edges) and my only real caveat is that in stock or modified form it requires a steep learning curve to drive competently. 2002 Mustang GT from 2002–2007 This was based on an extensively modified fox platform (often referred to as the SN95/New Edge cars or fox 4 platform) after Ford disastrously attempted to convert the Mustang to front wheel drive (which ended up being the Ford Probe itself a derivative of a Mazda platform). The SN95/New Edge cars being the result of Ford having spent its development money on the Probe and having to hastily cobble together a rear wheel drive car with little money and pass or wiggle by federal vehicle safety standards as well as improve on some of the vehicle dynamics that the older platform lacked. The most famous example of the breed are the 2003–2004 SVT Cobras which featured a 4.6 liter 32 valve supercharged V8 coupled to a six speed manual and independent rear suspension often referred to SVT’s internal working name “Terminator” since the car was supposed to end the long standing dispute between GM and Ford as to who was the king of the pony cars (it was in no way responsible for GM terminating production of the 4th generation Camaro and Firebird). Safer than the car it replaced the SN95/New Edge cars were still sub-par compared to its contemporaries although ultimately with the Cobra Mustangs an independent rear suspension designed to bolt into the space occupied by a live axle helped a lot in the dynamics department (putting it in terms of handling on par with its crosstown rival the Camaro until GM rolled out its own specialty models with the fourth gen car). Another notable mistake with this platform was Ford’s abandonment of the 5.0 pushrod V8 for an anemic 4.6 2 valve overhead cam engine that was physically larger and heavier than the engine it replaced (indeed Ford’s Explorer and Lightning performance trucks received better V8 pushrod engines in 5.0 and 5.8 liter form). Ford would address the issue somewhat with the 1999 4.6 V8 featuring PI (performance improved) cylinder heads and few more tweaks but the damage had been done by Ford’s apathy in the matter and probably drove a generation of performance enthusiast right into GM’s arms not to mention other brands. 2007 Mustang GT from 2007–2009 The venerable Fox based chassis was replaced with an almost clean sheet design (the chassis used some bits from Lincoln which had borrowed from Volvo when the brand was under Ford ownership) that seized on the retro styling ushered in by the likes of Volkswagen with the new beetle and Chrysler with the PT cruiser. While almost completely new the Mustang retained its live rear axle in three link configuration but featured a more modern coil over front strut suspension. The really big news though was a 300% stiffer platform that was much better in crashes than previous cars. Although it was heavier. Ford also ditched the poorly performing 4.6 2v for a 4.6 3 valve single over head cam V8 with variable valve timing which featured 40 more horsepower and 40 more pound feet of torque which Ford deemed adequate due to a lack of competition although the sales success of the car eventually guaranteed the return of the Camaro and Challenger in the same way the first Mustang helped to usher in those rivals in the 60’s Coming from the older foxed based cars, handling and braking were a revelation. Ford had improved the capability of these cars substantially and in some trims (notably the 2011–2013 Boss 302) the car could compare favorably to some of its European and Japanese competitors although it still lacked a degree of refinement and owing to its live axle rear could be unsettling to drivers used to those machines. For lack of a better description these cars were very much modern muscle cars especially when ordered as a Shelby Mustang with its 5.4 liter supercharged V8. Like the previous cars there is large aftermarket supporting them allowing a somebody to personalize the car to their tastes. This generation also saw the return of the 5.0 V8 in the form of a 32 valve double overhead cam design with independent variable cam timing for both the intake and exhaust valves (as opposed to the more limited design on the 4.6 3v single overhead cam engine). In both cases the 4.6 3v and 5.0 4v were all aluminum engines with the former coupled to a five speed manual or automatic and later a six speed manual or six speed automatic. 2009 Mustang Shelby GT500 2009–2016 Introduced in 2007 the Shelby GT500 was very much a tribute to the older 60’s Shelby big-block Mustangs. It was by default the best handling Mustang from 2007 to 2011 by dint of Ford not wanting a properly tuned Mustang GT making its top car look bad and also due to the massive lump under the hood which from 2007–2011 utilized a taller cast iron block mounted with huge 32 valve double overhead cam heads and an aluminum supercharge mounted on an aluminum intake housing an air to water heat exchanger all of which resulted in about 300 more pounds over the front axle with a noticeably higher center of gravity. Where this car lacked aplomb in handling it made up for it in brute power. 500 horsepower and 480 pound feet of torque although that was tempered somewhat but comparatively sedate gearing in the rear end and transmission plus the added weight on the nose of the car made them harder to launch from a standstill. The 2007–2009 engines were also fairly primitive compared to the later engines since it utilized older oxygen two-way sensors and a lack of knock sensors (supposedly because Ford hadn't quite figured out how to tune out noise from the supercharger) requiring very conservative fuel and ignition timing. Ultimately this engine would evolve into a an all aluminum 5.8 liter supercharged V8 making in excess of 660 horsepower. In all cases it was easy to add power since a variety of larger aftermarket superchargers are available for the engine easily allowing another 200–300 horsepower and in some cases nearly doubling the factory output. An inherent issue with all S-197 Mustangs (the alpha numeric code for this platform program) is the design of the firewall (or more correctly dash) which unlike earlier cars isn't intended to be a structural component. Instead it is more or less a part of the passenger cell enclosure and a place to hang components. As such the brakes despite improved hard and soft lines will always feel a bit mushy since the firewall can flex by a fair amount and some pedal feel is lost in doing so (again there are aftermarket braces to address the issue and add much to the brake pedal feel of the car) Also being a new chassis using new manufacturing equipment build quality was noticeably better than previous generations. 2015 Mustang GT from August to December of 2015 (victim of a head on collision) Again a clean sheet design using the internal designation S550 for development this car in terms of handling dynamics and feel is as ahead of the S-197 cars as the S-197 was ahead of the fox based cars. Steering and braking were real improvements over the S-197 and this car saw the return and full line implementation of an independent rear suspension. The front suspension featured a more advanced dual pivot coil over strut arrangement which helped reduced scrub in the front suspension. It was again stiffer than the preceding car although the percentage increase escapes me. Larger and heavier still compared to the previous car the suspension improvements ultimately lead to much better handling and a car that feels smaller at speed. This was also the first Mustang purposefully designed to be sold all over the world. Although not as space efficient as some other cars in its class this car is a really competent and comfortable car to take on a trip as long as its only one or two people and starting with 435 horsepower it has plenty of power for most people. In its current configuration Ford claims 460 horsepower with the 2018 cars but acceleration and power to weight indicate a much higher 470–480 horsepower which on a cool day at sea level can translate into a blistering sub four second zero to sixty and sub 12 second quarter mile both of which are much faster than the 2007–2009 Shelby GT500 was capable of in stock form. Ford also addressed the spongy feel of the brakes in the previous car. 2017 Mustang Shelby GT350 from August of 2016 to current People have often referred to the Mustang as a “sports car” and it wasn’t (not even really a proper muscle car since it wasn't an intermediate with a big engine). This car however is perhaps for the first time you can accurately call a Mustang a “sports car”. It is easily the best handling, best braking most balanced performance Mustang Ford has ever produced and the most capable Mustang on a road course as well. While every bit as fast my earlier 2009 GT500 in terms of acceleration when that car was stock it is easily two or three magnitudes in handling better. To quantify it the current GT350 can run with the older C6 Corvette Z06 on the road course (only giving up acceleration to the lighter Corvette) and is more than a match for the current Corvette Stingray when it comes to the same environment. By comparison its rival the Camaro requires the completely track focused SS 1LE (which as of 2018 rides on more aggressive rubber compared the GT350 - the former being an extreme performance summer tire to the GT350’s high performance summer tire) or the monster Camaro ZL1. Detractors will argue that the Camaro is a better deal but ignore a rougher riding suspension and tires that are unsuitable in wet weather and that's what makes this car so good! You can drive it every day with more comfort and usability compared to its Camaro rival which asks the driver to make allowances for its slavishly copied first generation F-body silhouette mated to Cadillac’s cramped alpha architecture sacrificing some usability in the effort. Also by way of comparison given Ford tends to err more toward sporty than sports with the Mustang ( it’s GM rival has almost universally been more performance orientated compared to the Mustang over its life) which makes the GT350’s performance that much more remarkable since it is more or less the dumpy kid that tries out for sports and makes it onto the all-star team through sheer determination compared to its Camaro rival which was blessed with the right attributes from the start and breezed its way onto the all-star team. For 2019 the GT350 will utilize a retuned suspension and a switch to tires similar to the SS 1LE’s extreme summer performance type which should produce a greater delta in performance over that competitor since they will be riding on equivalent rubber. Late 2019 will also see the end of GT350 production and the introduction of the 2020 Shelby GT500 which is suspect will be faster as far as the numbers go since it is rumored to have somewhere around 700–720 rear wheel horsepower which translates into 800 or more crankshaft horsepower but will probably lack the very balanced performance of the GT350 which didn't overwhelm the chassis even with its 526 horsepower and 429 pound feet of torque and in fact complimented it. Ford did a really good job with the GT350 and it is a very rewarding car to drive and drive fast. The most compelling argument I can make is the first time I took the car out to a road course (Dominion Raceway near Thornburg Virginia to be exact). Bone stock I took the car out there with zero track experience and proceeded to lap my field once and by the end of my 30 minute session had worked my way around to the back of the pack to begin lapping them again. I pitted and swapped seats with my instructor who proceeded to take the car back out onto the track and ran the course with dedicated track cars running them down and passing several including a purpose built circle track car over the proceeding 30 minutes. The icing on the cake came from getting in the car earlier that morning and tossing me helmet in the passenger floor board driving to the track and running it for nearly an hour straight then after my session and letting the car sit for lunch and a ride in the instructor's race prepped Miata I jumped in and drove the three hours back to my house just needing to add gas to the car up and back. It was run with the stock brakes, stock suspension, and stock tires on the original brake fluid from the factory with no hint of problems on a track that in some sports was less than smooth.

Why do lug nuts have to tightened back unto a vehicle’s rim every other one after rotating the tires?

Lug nuts should get tightened following a patern like every other one and or across from each other. My manual in SUV does share how to do this. Plus a Volvo I owned asked for specific torque range of each bolt. I recall 60 ft lbs. Yes, carry at torque wrench around! SURE… I found out after over-tightening the Volvo wheels that they bent! Expensive cost unnecessary. They needed to be torqued gently. Re-tightening each bolt after initial seating can insure its properly seated. I personally had a issue while driving across USA with a 15 ft Travel trailer. I heard a noise from rear tire. My car had hubcaps. I found one of the lugnuts off and others loose. The steel rim fitted on a axle and had 5 or 6 studs with lug nuts attached. I found the holes in steel wheel elongated somewhat and was worried wheel was useless. I removed entire wheel and realized the axle supported the wheel thru center opening as well as lugnuts. I tightened all the nuts and had no further issue. But the loose nuts made me very aware of a need to be sure the bolts were tight!

What really scares you about your career?

That someone will get hurt. At any given time I oversee 100 to 300 Class 8 trucks. Sometimes even more. They have all been surplussed by the big fleets and it is my job to oversee the processes, ready them for sale and get my sales guys on them to get them sold. These trucks come in from all over the Western States. You see these stacked piggyback 3 or sometimes 4 at a time going down the interstate. The lead truck is the “horse” the “saddles” are on the 5th wheels and the front axle of the next truck is bolted to the saddle. Bolts and clamps hold this all together and it’s all put together by the driver. If the driver skips a step or a bolt fatigues or wheel isn’t torqued correctly a catastrophic accident could and will occur. When the trucks arrive the driver uses an AFrame crane to lift the trucks off the saddles. He does this unsupervised. More potential for an accident. Then the trucks get inspected repaired, detailed and sent individually out to our outlying stores scattered across two states. These trucks are driven bobtailed. No trailer. The trickiest driving in any weather is bobtailing. We do hundreds of short and long movements each month. My drivers are old retired drivers. Most in their 70’s. They are patient and experienced. But they never drive the same truck twice. KW, Volvo, Pete, Mack and Freightliners each one is unique. There is great risk if they miss something on their cursory inspection (pre-trip). When things go wrong with such big stuff the injury tends to never be slight. Just getting in and out of these trucks is like working on a step ladder. Not the easiest for my old guys. There is just so much opportunity for failure I get all paranoid about that. Up in the Northwest rain is constant. We have 6 stores that require mountain passes to be crossed so chain ups are common as well. My biggest fear is that phone call that I have a wrecked truck a hurt driver and god forbid a passenger vehicle is involved.

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