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How much did the Israeli military influence the Vietnamese military modernization?

Q. How much did the Israeli military influence the Vietnamese military modernization? Vietnam, an Emerging Partner in Israel’s ‘Asia Pivot’ Policy The Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Economic and Trade Department of the Israeli Embassy at Vietnam-Israel business forum in Hanoi, image by Mark Neyman, Israel GPO BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 468, May 17, 2017 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Israel is increasingly looking for partnerships in economic, political, cultural, and military sectors with countries in Southeast Asia, and relations with Vietnam, in particular, are on the upswing. While cooperation between Israel and Vietnam is largely focused on civilian sectors, defense ties are also growing more robust, with Israel getting involved in upgrading aging Vietnamese weapons systems and collaborating on weapons development. There is a visible bonhomie between the nations, and Israel-Vietnam ties are likely to deepen. Vietnam’s relationship with Israel has been getting steadily stronger over the past few years., In what could be considered an extended, modern-day ,“peripheral doctrine”,, Israel is doing all it can to enhance cooperation with the Asian countries. This can be seen with regard to China, India, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines, Myanmar, South Korea, and Japan. Thriving economic and military-security cooperation has become the hallmark of its relations with these countries (though in some cases, political relations have yet to be strengthened). Israel and Vietnam are carefully crafting a potential partnership based on their respective national interests – economic, military, and political. Contemporary Israel’s Vietnam policy resembles the overtures it made during the 1950s and early 1960s towards the Sub-Saharan countries, with which it shared technical expertise in agriculture and healthcare. With the aim of forging friendly, supportive relations, Israel focused on multifaceted initiatives in Africa, including technical assistance, training programs, joint-economic enterprises, trade, and so on. Military cooperation and arms trading were also important elements of Israel’s relations with African countries, including Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Zaire, and Ghana. A similar trend is now being followed with Vietnam. Israeli-Vietnamese relations are expanding in the fields of agriculture, commerce, science, and technology, and – most importantly – in the defense sphere. Israel and Vietnam established diplomatic relations in July 1993, and their economic relationship is relatively healthy. ,Bilateral trade volume touched US$1.3 billion last year,, and the countries, aspire, to take it to an annual ,US$2 billion., In 2004, the countries signed the Agreement of Economic and Trade Cooperation for further development of trade. Israel imports cellular phones, electronic components, seafood, coffee, textiles, and footwear from Vietnam, and exports machinery and equipment, hi-tech goods, and fertilizer. In the first quarter of 2017, Israel had 25 foreign direct investment (FDI) projects in Vietnam worth over US$46 million. In December 2015, during a visit by Vietnamese Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung Hai to Israel, formal discussions were launched on a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). This raised the prospects for further growth in the investment, finance, services, science and technology, and labor sectors. ,Cooperation in the health sector, is also expanding: the two countries have signed an agreement in which Israel has agreed to assist Vietnam in the construction of a ,300-bed hospital, with some of its latest technology and equipment. Israel’s ,agricultural involvement, with Vietnam – an area in which Israel has deep expertise over many decades – is significantly on the rise. To augment cooperation, Israel’s Agency for International Development Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MASHAV), and embassy in Hanoi have implemented a training program in the country for Vietnamese citizens. In December 2013, Israel’s Agriculture Minister Yair Shamir and Vietnamese officials agreed to establish a joint Research and Development (R&D) program in agriculture to expand businesses in this area. Some of the areas in which Israeli companies can offer assistance to Vietnam are breeding, preservation technology, water use, and models for scientific research. Remarkable progress can already be seen, and Israel has become an important partner for Vietnam’s, dairy industries, – so much so that it has become an essential component of Vietnam’s, “dairy diplomacy”,. Israel-developed agricultural technology is now widely used in almost every province in Vietnam. Simultaneously, there is steady growth in openly acknowledged ,military-security relations, between the countries. In addition to ,trading arms, Israel and Vietnam are engaged in joint ventures in the production of weapons systems suitable to the needs of the Vietnamese armed forces., Israel’s entry into this defense market is timely, as Hanoi is undergoing, modernization programs for all three military services., It is increasing defense expenditures, which touched nearly ,US$4.6 billion in 2015, and are expected to reach ,US$6.2 billion by 2020., These steps have likely been taken by the Vietnamese government in ,response to the Chinese military build-up in the South China Sea. Israel has carved a niche in the global arms market by developing and manufacturing some of the most technologically advanced systems for maritime security, air defense, electronic warfare systems, reconnaissance drones, arms and ammunition, short/long-range missiles, and avionics and other subparts. These systems are reasonably priced, and the securing of deals to acquire them is relatively easy as they tend to come with fewer strings attached. Vietnam’s large army is equipped with aging weapons systems, and Israel has the potential to upgrade some of them., Elbit Systems, is reported to have secured an ,upgrading contract for Vietnam’s Mil Mi-17 helicopters. In 2011-12, Israel Weapon Industries established a production facility (at a cost of $100 million) in Vietnam to help supply Galil ACE 31 and 32 assault rifles to the Vietnam People’s Army (VPA)., In ,2014,, the countries worked towards signing agreements to establish a, “formal framework” to upgrade their bilateral defense relations,, including promotion of ,future technology transfer and industrial cooperation. In 2015, ,Israel set up a ,defense attaché in Vietnam. The frequency of visits by military officials, which has become an annual phenomenon, is another manifestation of the keenness on both sides to intensify defense ties. In January 2017, General Pham Ngoc Minh, Deputy Chief of Staff of the VPA, met Mishel Ben-Baruch, Director of the Israeli Ministry of Defense’s International Defense Cooperation Division (SIBAT), to explore ways to expand military cooperation to include training, education programs, and exchanges. Following a meeting in Hanoi in late February between Vietnamese President Tran Dai Quang and Israel Military Industries (IMI) chairman Yitzhak Aharonovitch, Vietnam began to consider ,purchasing Israeli-made Delilah standoff-range air-to-surface missiles ,(including, for example, the Orbiter-2 Unmanned Aerial System [UAS], manufactured by Aeronautics). Vietnam has also fortified some of the islands in the disputed South China Sea with the, EXTRA rocket system acquired from Israel. Between 2010 and 2016, Vietnam imported Spyder, Derby, and Python-5 missiles and ELM2288/ ER and ELM2022 air defense radars from Israel., ,More trade ,in such items can be expected, as the ,lethal arms embargo against Vietnam was lifted by then US president Barack Obama in May 2016., At this stage, immediate competition from other international arms vendors is unlikely, as Israel’s share in Vietnam’s imports is relatively low. Russia, for instance, is accountable for 80% of Hanoi’s recent military purchases. However, this possibility cannot be ruled out, as a Moscow-based military expert has already questioned the capability of Israel-made missiles. Arms exports remain an important instrument of Israel’s foreign policy for both politico-diplomatic and economic reasons., The perpetual nature of the security challenges emanating from its hostile neighbors, and their unrelenting attempts to isolate and castigate Israel politically from the standpoint of regional and international groupings, continue to motivate Israel’s arms sales diplomacy. Israel’s economic and technological assistance and arms transfers to Vietnam can be understood as emanating from this strategy. While Israel’s arms diplomacy helps it to build political relationships,, the ,funds generated by arms exports sustain its R&D programs in military technology,, which it needs to maintain its edge over its regional adversaries. This applies to almost all its relations with Southeast Asian countries. Given that the Asia-Pacific countries contributed US$2.6 billion to the Israeli arms business in 2016 out of a total global export of US$6.5 billion, Israel will certainly continue to encourage defense cooperation with Vietnam and other nations as a means of diversifying its revenue sources. The state visit of ,Israeli President Reuven Rivlin, to Vietnam in late March 2017 added further impetus to the already flourishing ties. He ,pushed, not only for the existing cooperation to continue but also for ,Vietnam’s political support,, especially in multilateral fora such as the ,UN., If good relations are to last, this element – in addition to economic and military cooperation – will be very necessary. That said, an atmosphere was created by the Rivlin visit, and more avenues for cooperation have opened in all the sectors. It is now up to the two countries to determine how they can most effectively take advantage of the plethora of opportunities they can offer one other. ,Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s “pivoting to Asia” policy is taking shape, and Vietnam is emerging as a crucial partner. Alvite Ningthoujam is a Senior Research Associate at the New Delhi-based think tank Vivekananda International Foundation, where he focuses on Middle Eastern security dynamics, international terrorism, and ISIS. His other research areas include Israel’s arms exports, Indo-Israeli relations, and Israeli-Southeast Asian ties. Vietnam Eyes Israel's Delilah Standoff Missile And F-16s Could Be Next KGYST/WIKICOMMONS China's ,militarization of its man-made islands, in the South China Sea, and the resulting ,anti-access/area-denial bubbles that will cover massive, swaths of that body of water, in the not-so-distant future has ,Vietnam, shopping for weaponry that can counter Beijing's grand plans. Hanoi has already ,forward-deployed ,Israeli-built GPS-guided Extra multiple launch rocket systems, to their own islands in the South China Sea,—a weapon system that could rain down rockets on China's outposts with little warning. Now, Vietnam is looking towards Israel once again for its weapons needs, this time to provide a standoff multi-role cruise missile that can strike targets over 150 miles away with pinpoint accuracy. US LIFTS BAN ON ARMS SALES TO VIETNAM AMID TURMOIL IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA ISRAEL RETIRES THE F-16A/B “NETZ” AND PUTS 40 UP FOR SALE According to ,Flightglobal.com,, Israel's Delilah missile system was a topic of discussion between Vietnam's President Tran Dai Quang and Israel Military Industries chairman Yitzhak Aharonovitch while he was visiting Hanoi. Israel Military Industries, Delilah air-launched cruise missile, has evolved over the last decade to become a ,reliable, highly flexible and extremely accurate standoff weapon., Delilah is quite compact when it comes to cruise missiles, weighing in at just over 400 pounds. It can pack different warheads in the 50 to 75-pound weight class and flies to its target at subsonic speeds and at various altitudes. The missile evolved from an air-launched decoy design, having roots going back decades, but its first known operational use was in 2006 against targets in Lebanon. Since then it has been a front-line weapon of choice for the IAF and it would have been heavily used in an Israeli offensive against Iranian nuclear and air defense sites if that operation were to have been launched. IAF Delilah uses ,inertial navigation with embedded GPS, coupled to an autopilot for down-range navigation, and then it can switch to imaging infrared or CCD imaging for terminal guidance. It does this via data link allowing for man-in-the-loop control of the missile for final targeting. What this means is that a weapon system officer in the back of a fighter jet 150 miles away can make fine-tuned adjustments on the missile's point of impact, giving the missile an extreme level of accuracy. For instance, instead of hitting a designated building, a controller can have Delilah fly through an air duct or window on that building. It can also hit moving vehicles and can be used as an anti-ship missile. Israel has long chosen a man-in-the-loop control option for some of their most capable air-to-ground missiles. The much larger ,AGM-142 Have Nap/Popeye missile,, and even the much smaller ,anti-armor Spike/Tammuz missile, use similar control concepts. Delilah can also loiter over a target area,, throttling back its turbojet engine to conserve fuel and be retargeted on the fly. It can even be told to "go around" if the target cannot be identified clearly by the operator. Although it is a key feature of the missile's design, this man-in-the-loop control concept is not absolutely necessary. The weapon can also attack fixed targets autonomously using GPS/INS guidance alone. Delilah can also be configured for the suppression/destruction of enemy air defenses role where it loiters over an area for a period of time. Once it ,detects an enemy radar emitter it homes in, on that target and destroys it. Although Delilah is best known as a fighter-launched medium range multi-role missile, because of its small size and relatively lightweight it can also be carried by helicopters and can even be deployed via ground launchers. IMI has been working on more advanced versions of the Delilah for export purposes, ones that could feature more range and warhead choices, and are capable of avoiding or attacking air defenses autonomously. Additionally, automatic target recognition and scene mapping capabilities could take the place of man-in-the-loop targeting for certain missions. Similar abilities are being integrated into the ,latest Tomahawk cruise missiles, as well as Lockheed's promising and very stealthy ,Long-Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM),, among others. So what you have here is a single missile that can accomplish what a series of discreet missiles types would be traditionally needed to do so. Which along with its range and size make it perfect for a country that needs a diverse set of standoff missile capabilities but is on a tight budget. As an air-launched system, a Vietnamese fixed-wing aircraft would have to fly just 150 miles from Vietnamese mainland before launching a Delilah missile at a target on ,China's sprawling Fiery Cross Reef island outpost,. A Delilah missile could reach China's ,strategic Hainan Island without, needing an aircraft delivery system at all, instead, it could be shore-launched. As such, you can see how the system is uniquely suited for Vietnam's regional needs, and the fact that it can attack ships too makes it all that more attractive. IAF There is the issue of what Vietnamese aircraft would put such a missile to use. Their Su-30MK2 Flankers could possibly be adapted to employ the missile, and it would not be the first time Israeli avionics found their way into to Russia's iconic heavy-fighter design. Vietnam's Russian-built helicopters could also be adapted to sport the missile, but it would not be ideal. Beyond their existing fighter platforms, Vietnam may also opt to procure western fighter aircraft, and there are rumblings that this could be underway as part of a larger initiative to ,turn away from Hanoi's traditional sources of weaponry. Israel may have just the jets to sell them with their new missiles—,40 surplus F-16A/Bs "Netz" fighters, that are currently up for sale. Israel Aerospace Industries could refurbish these jets indigenously with advanced multi-mode radars, electronic warfare suites, and new cockpit avionics. Additionally, IAI can also apply structural upgrades to the used jets to give them thousands of hours of additional service life. Doing so would give Vietnam a uniquely capable and supportable western fighter aircraft that is tailored to employ the Delilah missile, along with other Israeli-built air-ground and air-to-air munitions—and they would not have to deal with the Washington bureaucracy to obtain them. IAI If Vietnam were to execute such a strategy, China would not be happy. But considering the changing geopolitical and military realities in Southeast Asia, Vietnam has to do something to further bolster its offensive capabilities. Seeing that a unique Israeli weapon system is already being by Vietnam used to counter-balance China's military expansion in the region, it makes sense that Hanoi would go to the same source to continue doing so, especially if that source can provide big capabilities at a relatively low price. Not just that, but with Vietnam spending increasing defense dollars with Israel for other air combat needs, including ordering ,high-end SPYDER air defense systems,, getting a fighter aircraft that can interoperate intimately with these systems is only logical. One thing is for certain—fielding a couple squadrons of highly upgraded F-16s armed with Delilah missiles would give Vietnam a considerable boost in power projection capabilities, and would be a worthwhile step in countering China's military expansion into the South China Sea. Contact the author: ,Tyler@thedrive.com Rivlin tour is proof Israel,, ,Vietnam are brothers in arms Israeli President Reuven Rivlin’s tour of Vietnam indicates ties between both countries are improving, especially in the area of defense area. The state visit, which ends today, is just the second to Vietnam by an Israeli head of state. In November 2011, former President Shimon Peres became the first Israeli leader to visit Vietnam. The bilateral relationship has progressed rapidly since then, with both nations exchanging high-level visits and extending cooperation across many fields, including trade. According to Vietnamese statistics, the two-way trade between was US$1.3 billion last year, rising from US$68 million in 2005. Trade will increase rapidly in the next few years, with both countries committed to striking a free-trade agreement. The core of the relationship is, and continues to be, cooperation in defense. In March 2015, Vietnam’s Deputy Minister of Defense Nguyen Chi Vinh and Israel’s Director General of the Ministry of Defense, Dan Harel, signed a ,memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation,, that strengthened cooperation in areas such defense sales and technology transfer. Earlier this year, Pham Ngoc Minh, the Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Vietnamese People’s Army (VPA), received Mishel Ben-Baruch, the Director of the International Defense Cooperation Directorate of Israel’s Ministry of Defense. The meeting ended with a resolution to improve bilateral defense cooperation. One month later, Yitzhak Aharonovitch, chairman of Israel Military Industries Ltd (,IMM,), a state-owned weapons developer and manufacturer, was in Hanoi. In hosting Aharonovitch, who already visited Vietnam in February 2014 in his role as Minister of Public Security, Vietnam’s President ,Tran Dai Quang, said bilateral cooperation, especially in defense, “has consistently advanced.” Quang, who toured Israel in November last year in his former role as Minister of Public Security, said Israel “has become a big partner of Vietnam in the defense field.” Lieutenant General ,Nguyen Chi Vinh,, said he hoped that Aharonovitch and his company would continue contributing to advancing cooperation on defense. That Vietnam’s president and a high-ranking VPA official received the head of one of Israel’s leading arms companies indicates Hanoi’s desire to enhance its defense ties with Israel and upgrade its defense capabilities. In an ,IMI statement,, Aharonovitch said he hoped “both countries will work on streamlining the mutual collaboration and high technology knowledge transfer.” He stressed that the “advanced weapons systems developed and manufactured by IMI Systems correspond to the advanced technology used by the Vietnam army.” While the main purpose of President Rivlin’s week-long visit is to foster cooperation in fields such as agriculture, education, health and trade, defense cooperation remains top of the agenda. Like his predecessor six years ago, the 77-year old traveled to Hanoi accompanied by a big defense industries delegation, which reportedly includes MMI Systems, Elbit Systems, Israel Aerospace Industries and Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. Elbit, Israel Aerospace and Rafael are ranked 29, 32 and 43 in the ,2016 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute ,index of the world’s top 100 arms-producing and military service companies. On Monday, Vietnam’s Defense Minister General Ngo Xuan Lich received the leaders of the Israeli defense businesses. A day later, the first Vietnam-Israel defense industry forum was held in Hanoi. Lich, Rivlin and many other officials from both sides attended. Also on Tuesday, Lich, a Politburo member, met with Rivlin and both toured an exhibit of Israeli defense equipment. During the tour, several Israeli companies, whose products were displayed, presented them with developments and advancements in unmanned planes and drones, sophisticated tanks, rocket launchers, and others. While acknowledging that much has been achieved, both ,the host, and ,the guest, underlined the demand for and potential of ongoing, significant deals in defense. According to his ,spokesperson,, Rivlin said to Lich as “you and I were raised in countries which were battlefields, we all know that quiet, security, and peace cannot be taken for granted. The military and security forces have a role, not just in times of war, but also in times of peace.” The message would have been well received not only because of Vietnam’s battles against foreign aggression but also for the country’s need to strengthen the military to safeguard sovereignty and territory. China’s expansive territorial claims and its military build-up in the disputed waters of the South China Sea are now Vietnam’s biggest concern. They are also the key reason why Hanoi is seeking closer defense ties with countries that have advanced military technologies and know-how, such as Israel. Russia and Eastern European states have been Vietnam’s main arms suppliers. That has changed in the past decade with the purchase of Western-made arms. It has, for example, ordered Israel’s surface-to-air Python and Derby (Spyder) missiles. Vietnam has increased its military spending and turned to Israel not only because it is one of the world’s top exporters of military equipment but also because the Middle East military power is willing to share its expertise. In his talks with Vietnam’s Defense Minister, the Israeli President said his country was “a pioneer in that it recognizes the need to establish advance production lines with Israeli know-how in Vietnam, and to produce with Vietnam and in Vietnam.” Lich expressed Vietnam’s appreciation for Israel’s “extensive and excellent cooperation in the field of defense”. That Vietnam places the greatest importance in Rivlin’s visit was evident earlier this week when he was greeted by the president, prime minister and Communist Party secretary general, the three most powerful positions in Vietnam. VIETNAM, ,ISRAEL, ,TRADE, ,DIPLOMACY Xuan Loc Doan Xuan Loc Doan is a UK-based researcher. He holds a PhD in International Relations and researches and writes on a number of areas. These include Vietnam’s domestic and foreign policy, ASEAN, EU, UK’s politics and international politics in the Asia-Pacific region. Vietnam-Israel Military Ties in the Spotlight with Bilateral Meeting, ,(diplomat.com) Image Credit: ,Wikimedia Commons Last week, an ,Israeli defense delegation paid a visit to Vietnam, as part of an ,ongoing effort to explore further opportunities ,in the defense realm. The interaction spotlighted the growing defense relationship between the two sides that often remains under the radar relative to some of Hanoi’s other defense partnerships. Though Vietnam and Israel, established bilateral ties back in 1993,, over the past few years, that has grown to include defense cooperation as well. A series of steps have been taken by both sides, at times quietly, with, Israel opening a defense attaché office in Vietnam in 2014,, the inking of a, memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation in 2015,, Vietnam’s ,purchase of Israeli weapons systems, ,and both sides exploring other areas of cooperation such as ,technology transfer and defense industry ,through meetings, fora, symposia, and other interactions. Last year’s visit by, Israeli President Reuven Rivlin,, just the second to Vietnam by an Israeli head of state, touched on defense issues as well. 2018 was expected to be an active year for bilateral ties, including the defense realm. Apart from the convergence of interests and continuity in ties, the fact that both countries were commemorating the 25th anniversary of their establishment of diplomatic ties and Israel was commemorating the 70th anniversary of the establishment of the state of Israel meant that we were likely to see some developments tied to these occasions. Indeed, the newly appointed Israeli ambassador to Vietnam has been highlighting the quest to boost bilateral ties this year, including in the defense realm. Tavor TAR-21 Fielded By Vietnam Special Forces - The Firearm Blog IWI To Produce Weapons In Vietnam - The Firearm Blog Báo Người đưa tin 24h - Đọc báo tin tức hôm nay mới nhat, ,reports, that ,Israeli Weapons Industry, is looking to open a ,factory in Vietnam to produce weapons for the Far East market., They could invest up to $100 million in the plant. The ,Vietnamese military ,has adopted a wide range of Israeli small arms including the ,Tavor, Negev LMG, Galil SAR rifle and Galil Sniper rifle. As part of this context, the bilateral defense relationship was in the headlines again with an Israeli defense delegation in Vietnam last week. A ,delegation ,from the ,International Defense Cooperation Directorate of the Israeli defense ministry (SIBAT),, led by Director Mishel Ben Baruch, was in Hanoi for meetings with Vietnamese personnel and officials. According to Vietnam’s defense ministry, the meeting provided the opportunity for both sides to evaluate the current state of cooperation in areas like education and training as well as defense industry, as well as to expand future collaboration. Unsurprisingly, few specifics were released about exactly what the shape of that future bilateral defense collaboration would look like. The defense ministry said that in a reception held for the delegation, Vietnam’s Deputy Defense Minister Nguyen Chin Vinh had expressed his appreciation for the results of Vietnam-Israel defense cooperation and expressed hope that the visit would further enhance the bilateral relationship. Vietnam, Israel to expand defense cooperation (qdnd.vn) Defense Minister receives Israeli ambassador Ho Chi Minh City wants to cooperate with Israel in various fields Defense Minister receives outgoing Israeli Ambassador At the reception, General Vinh highly valued the ,Vietnam,-Israel defense cooperation which has achieved positive results over the past time. He also hoped that the visit of the SIBAT delegation to ,Vietnam, would enhance the bilateral relationship. Senior Lieutenant General Nguyen Chi Vinh (R) and Director Mishel Ben Baruch The host also affirmed that ,Vietnam, will create favorable conditions for the Israeli delegation to visit and look for cooperation opportunities in line with ,Vietnam,’s laws. The two countries should also continue exchanging and improving practical cooperation in the fields of education and training, search and rescue, and defense industry, he added. For his part, Mr. Ben Baruch briefed General Vinh on the results of the earlier meeting between the Israeli delegation and the Department of External Relations under the ,Vietnam, Ministry of National Defense. He affirmed that the Israeli side is willing to expand defense cooperation with ,Vietnam,, especially in the previously-mentioned fields. Translated by Minh Anh Israel’s top arms clients: India, Vietnam, Azerbaijan Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and his wife, Sara, watch as Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi flies a kite in Ahmedabad in January. (photo credit: REUTERS/AMIT DAVE) Arms sales do not ensure support in international forums, as the top three markets for Israeli military equipment – India, Vietnam and Azerbaijan – almost always vote against Israel in the United Nations. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute’s updated data, ,India, is by far Israel’s largest weapons market, having bought $715 million worth of weaponry in 2017, down slightly from the $767m. it bought in 2016. This represents a whopping 650% increase in arms sales to India over the last decade. Israel is India’s second largest source of arms, lagging far behind Russia, which sold New Delhi $1.9 billion’s worth, but significantly ahead of both France and the US. According to the database, ,Vietnam is Israel’s second largest customer, having purchased $142m. in arms in 2017, making Israel its second largest arms supplier, after Russia. Azerbaijan – a Muslim country on Iran’s border – is the third largest weapons market for Israel, having bought $137m. worth in 2017, a steep decline, however, from the $248m. it bought in 2016. Israel is Azerbaijan’s largest arms supplier. While India at times abstains on key Israel-related votes in the UN, Vietnam and Azerbaijan can be counted on always to vote against Jerusalem. The institute ranked Israel as the fifth largest arms supplier in the world, with $1.26b. of sales last year, following the US, Russia, France and Germany. The data place Israel in 18th place regarding the import of arms, having spent $528m. on arms last year, fully 97.5% of it imported from the US, and the rest coming from Germany. In the past decade Israel has only imported arms from the US, Germany, Italy and Canada. According to the SIPRI data, in 2017 Israel sold $11m. in arms – Dvora patrol boats – to Myanmar. Israel came under fire last year for arms sales to that regime, accused of carrying out ethnic cleansing. Jerusalem’s sales represented 6.5% of Myanmar’s arms expenditures in 2017, with China and Russia making up the bulk of sales to that country, and Ukraine and the Netherlands selling more to Myanmar than does Israel. Last year was the first year Israel sold arms to Myanmar since 2011. Among other interesting trends culled from the data: • For the second year in a row, Israel sold no military equipment to Turkey, a country that in 2009 bought some $320m. worth of Israeli weapons, making it far and away Israel’s top arms client that year. • The Philippines emerged as a major market for Israel for the first time in 2017, having spent $21m. on radar and antitank systems. • Weapons deals with two Asian countries, Singapore and South Korea, slipped precipitously last year, the SIPRI data said, with South Korea, which bought $52m. in military equipment in 2016, not making any purchases in 2017, and the amount sold to Singapore dropping from $43m. to $2m. last year. • Italy is the fourth largest purchaser of Israeli arms, and the biggest customer in Europe, having spent $87m. in 2017 for Israeli airborne early warning and control systems. • Israel sold $25m. worth of radar systems to Canada last year, the first time Israeli arms have been sold to Canada since 2009. • Cyprus spent $23m. on an offshore patrol vessel for its coast guard to protect the Cypriot Exclusive Economic Zone and the Aphrodite gas field. The only other time that country has ever bought military equipment from Israel was a million dollar deal in 2002. Vietnam seeks closer defense trade ties with Israel TEL AVIV, Israel – In a rare public acknowledgment of growing defense trade with Israel, Vietnam President Tran Dai Quang said Israel "has become a big partner of Vietnam" and should work to deepen bilateral ties in research, development and technology transfer. Quang's remarks came at a reception held in Hanoi for Yitzhak Aharonovitch, chairman of Israel's state-owned IMI Systems, where the Vietnamese leader cited "consistently growing" cooperation, "especially in the areas of security and defense." According to an IMI statement released Monday, Aharonovitch, a former minister for public security, said the Israeli company he now chairs has been investing in Vietnam since 1999 and hoped that "mutual collaboration and high technology knowledge transfer" with Vietnam would continue to grow. "Aharonovitch stressed that the advanced weapon systems developed and manufactured by IMI Systems correspond to the advanced technology used by the Vietnamese Army," the statement read. Although the press release did not identify specific IMI products that have been sold to Vietnam, sources said the list includes advanced tank rounds, artillery systems and the firm's Extra, a four-meter-long precision artillery rocket designed to carry a range of warheads up to distances of 150 kilometers. According to the IMI statement, Aharonovitch last visited Vietnam in 2014 in his role as Public Security minister. "President Quang praised the contribution of Aharonovitch in expending Vietnamese-Israeli cooperation during his tenure as Minister of Public Security and expressed the hope that Aharonovitch will continue to further promote bilateral relations, especially in training quality personnel in the field of technology." In March 2015, the two countries concluded a memorandum of understanding on defense cooperation that codified areas for expanded defense trade, technology transfer, and licensed production. The IMI Chairman's visit to Vietnam comes on the heels of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's week-long visit to Singapore and Australia; a trip that the Israeli leader defined as an "Asia pivot" aimed at strengthening regional ties among a spectrum of industries, including aerospace and defense. Deputy PM’s visit beefs up Vietnam-Israel cooperation Why does Israel work with Vietnam in military? (Quora)

What sort of questions do you like to be asked to answer on Quora?

Since I’m over 70 I’m older than most people here and like to answer questions about life in the US in the 1950’s and 1960’s. And for the same reason, I like to answer what it’s like being a full-time programmer at my age. I love computer history, and like to answer questions about first and second-generation computers. I also like question about programming the first personal computers in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. I have degrees in both hardware (BSEE) and software (MSCS), and so like to answer questions in either field, and in particular ones involving embedded systems, which combines the two. (the left L of my desk at work) I like answering questions where I can include a diagrams or pictures. I often draw up simple logic circuits to answer questions re Boolean algebra. I also like answering arithmetic puzzle questions when I can solve it with a simple Python program. cnt = 0 for x in {0,1,2,4}: for y in {1,2,4,6,7,8}.difference({x}): for z in {1,2,4,6,7,8}.difference({x}.union({y})): #print (x*100+y*10+z) cnt = cnt + 1 print ("cnt = ",cnt) I read a lot, both “real” books, plus eBooks (mostly Kindle) and audio books (mostly from audible.com). So I answer questions on those topics. We recently bought a new Subaru that can almost drive itself — it has adaptive cruise control and lane assist. So I like questions re self-driving cars. I like questions like this one.

Can someone provide me a resume sample for a software programmer?

Software Engineer Resume - Sample 2 , Akash saini Mob no. - 99111xxx Mail ID - ,Akash@gmail.com Professional Summary Overall X years of experience in the development of Web & Enterprise applications using JAVA and J2EE Technologies. Working with XXXX from June 20XX to till date. Hands on experience in Core Java, Servlets, JSP, JDBC, RichFaces, JPA, JSF. Knowledge of Eclipse tool for the development of Java projects. Hands on experience Glass Fish and Tomcat web servers. Cohesive team worker, having strong analytical, problem solving and interpersonal skills. Technical Skill Operating Systems :, Windows-2000/2007/XP Professional. ,Programming Languages:, Java ,Databases :, Oracle 10g. ,Web Technologies :, JSF/Richfaces, HTML, JavaScript ,Web/Application Server :, Tomcat, Glass Fish 2.1. ,Java Technologies :, JDBC, J2EE, JPA ,Frameworks :, Jboss Seam, Struts 1.x Personal Qualities High Grasping Power. Keen Intellect. Can work under pressure to meet deadlines. Flexible team player. Key Responsibilities Handled Developing the Code as per the requirements. Developing the JSF/Richfaces pages. Writing UI/Business validations for the owned use cases. Unit testing and integration testing of owning use cases. Handling different types of issues. Project Details Project 1:, Project XXXX ,Customer:, XXXX Pvt Ltd. ,Period:, June 20XX to Aug 20XX ,Description The project is being developed for the organization named XXXX. The web application is used in all the branches and customers of the company. The project consists of mainly three modules like****. The XXXX module automates entire the process of organization, which helps for the better understanding between the employees and management. The XXXX is helpful to maintain the good relationship between the organization and the customers, i.e. which maintains the detail information about particular customer which makes the organization to grow faster. The XXXX contains the details of the products and also makes the customers to purchase the products online. Role:, Team Member (Developer) ,Environment:, JBoss Seam 2.0.2, JSF, Richfaces, Facelets, JPA, Oracle 10g, GlassFish ,Tools:, Eclipse 3.5 Responsibilities Developing the Code as per the requirements. Involve in developing the JSF/Richfaces pages. Writing UI/Business validations for the owned use cases. Unit testing and integration testing of owning use cases. Project 2:, Project XXXX ,Customer:, ***** ,Period:, Sep 20XX to till date Description ***** is a comprehensive, modular, enterprise wide travel management system that automates and integrates all the business processes of travel organizations such as travel agents, airlines, tour operators. The product suite addresses all the critical business functions such as Operations, Sales management and Distribution, Financial Management, Revenue Accounting and Interline Billing, etc. It consists of different modules like flight, hotel, car, and cruise. Role:, Team Member (Developer) ,Environment:, JBoss Seam 2.0.2, JSF, Richfaces, Facelets, JPA, Oracle 10g, GlassFish ,Tools:, Eclipse 3.5 Responsibilities Developed the Code as per the requirements. Involved in developing the JSF/Richfaces pages. Handled different types of issues. Unit testing and integration testing of owning use cases. Achievements Received score of X on known customer satisfaction survey. Directed a team of management trainee. Employers Working in XXXX India Pvt Ltd from June 20XX to till Date and current designation “Software Engineer”. Qualifications M.C.A from Institute XXX, University XXXX, in the year 20XX with an aggregate of 73%. http://B.Sc, (computer science) from Institute XXXX affiliated to University XXXX, in 20XX with aggregate 70%. Personal Strength High Grasping Power. Keen Intellect. Can work under pressure to meet deadlines. Flexible team player. Personal Details Date of Birth:, 15/05/19XX ,Address:, Pune, Maharashtra ,Languages Known:, English, Telgu. Software Engineer Resume - Sample 2 Amit Diwakar E-mail: ,amit.XXXXX@yahoo.in, Phone: +91 90XXXXXXXX08 Objective To contribute to the success of an organization by fully utilizing my skills and knowledge in the field of Embedded System and networking in a position offering continuous growth and development. Educational Qualification P.G. Diploma in Embedded Systems Design from XXXXXXXX. B.E. (Computer Science & Engineering) from XXXXXXX Institute of Management and Technology. 12th, CBSE March, 2004 Work Experience 2.8 years of experience in Embedded Network. Currently working as a Software Engineer at XXXXXX Global, Bangalore (Feb 2010 to Till Date) Strengths Innovative and creative. Keen Intellect. Can work under pressure to meet deadlines. Flexible team player. Key Skills Programming Language:, C, C++, Device Driver, Python ,Operating Systems:, LINUX, window ,Other Soft skills:, IPC Programming, Socket Programming, MS-OFFICE, Coverity, GDB Projects vSP(Virtual Service Provider) vSP is targeted for mounting anywhere in the data center, typically top of rack, end of rack or at the administration desk. It is an appliance, which sits in a data centre and greatly improves the efficiency of data center operations. It does this by watching everything that is going on – both data and devices. It is also able to adjust data center operation by vitalizing services and by load balancing data flow through devices. It has 16 to 24 ports that collect data for analysis of internal service applications. These Ports also as a fully functional 10Gb Ethernet switch. Continuous non-interfering monitoring of all L2 traffic Content and Context awareness Services Virtualization Policy Integrity Engine Component:, vNOS, vProbe, vView, vServices, vPlane, vFlow. vNOS(Virtual Network Operating System) vNOS is an application that executes in a LINUX environment. The switch by default automatically passes command packets to vNOS on the network CPU. The Management interface includes Command Line (CLI) and SNMP. The CLI interface is similar to the widely known Cisco IOS CLI. The Marvell switch device is controlled by the Network Processor which is running vNOS. vNOS provides full Layer2 support using point-to-point MAC addressing. It provides full layer 3 routing support using network wide IP addressing. Layer3 support is not enabled for the vSP appliance. vNOS supports all the major, and many minor, features of Layer2 switching. Responsibilities: Implementation of STP, RSTP, TACACS+ client. SNMP (using net-snmp agent) Support for Layer 2 Protocol, HA Services, System Manager, Interface Manager, QoS (Quality of Service). CLI support for STP, RSTP, TACACS+ Client , SNMP, HA Services. Provide HA service to all modules (Check Pointing Services, Event Manager and Communication Manager). Code Cleanup (According to Ceeyes Standard). Apply Coverity. Programming Language:, C ,Duration:, STP, RSTP (6 months), TACACS+ (2 Months), SNMP (7 Months). vView vView is an application that executes in a LINUX environment. vView is a general interface to the GUI display. It presents well defined API to services that needs to interact with the user. vNOS has a telnet Command Line Interface. vFrame established the TELNET through 1Gb Ethernet port. vFrame parse command to vNOS and sends the returned responses up to vNOS_UI. Responsibilities TELNET script for Config and Interface mode command for vNOS. TELNET Script for Show mode command for vNOS. Discover the devices in a network using TELNET (i.e. Cisco device, Extreme Ethernet etc.) Programming Language:, Python ,Duration:, 6 months Personal Information Date of Birth:, ,Permanent Address:, ,Languages known: Software Engineer Resume - Sample 3 Deva ****** Address: 16 Road, Prawns Corner, LA-453 Contact no.: 954******** Email Id: ,abf***@gmail.com Career Summary 4 years software engineer with a strong educational background and experience, seeking a challenging position in the software field for growth with the organization. Skilled programming and testing. Technical Skills Languages:, C++, C#, Java, Ruby, Visual Basic ,Development Tools, Methodologies & Environments:, Rapid Application Design (RAD), Object-Oriented Analysis & Design (OOAD), Waterfall Approach, Net Beans, Prototyping Approach, Integrated Software Development, Microsoft Visual Studio ,Software:, Apache, Sun ONE, Business Objects, JBoss, BEA WebLogic, MS Silverlight 2 ,Systems:, Unix, Windows, Next Step, .Net Framework ,Networking:, TCP/IP, SunLink X.25 ,Databases:, Oracle, SQL, Sybase Key Responsibilities Handled Designing and developing computer software systems in conjunction with hardware product development, for medical, industrial, communications, applications, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Modify existing software to correct errors. Adapting software to new hardware or upgrade interfaces and improve performance. Consult with customers on project status, proposals and technical issues. Advise customer on perform and maintenance of software systems. Coordinating the installation of software system in the company. Monitor functioning of equipment to ensure system operates in conformance with specifications. Store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements. Conferring with data processing and project managers to obtain information on limitations and capabilities for data processing projects. Directing software programming and development of documentation. Analyzing software requirements to determine feasibility of design within time and cost constraints. Consulting with hardware engineers and other engineering staff to evaluate interface between hardware and software and operational and performance requirements of overall system. Formulating and designing software system using scientific analysis and mathematical models to predict and measure outcome and consequences of design. Prepare reports and correspondence concerning project specifications, activities and status. Evaluate factors such as reporting formats required, cost constraints, and need for security restrictions to determine the configuration. Assigning work to programmers, designers, technologists and technicians and other engineering personnel. Train users to use new equipment. Utilize microcontrollers to develop control signals. Implement control algorithms and measure process variables such as temperatures, pressures and positions. Recommend purchase of equipment to control dust, temperature, and humidity in area of system installation. Specify power supply requirements and configuration. Design and develop software systems, using scientific analysis and mathematical models. Predicting and measuring outcome and consequences of design. Consulting with engineering staff to evaluate interface between hardware and software. Developing specifications and performance requirements and resolve customer problems. Analyze information to determine, recommend and plan installation of a new system or modification of an existing system. Developing and directing software system testing and validation procedures. Developing and directing software system testing procedures, programming, and documentation. Consulting with customer concerning maintenance of software systems. Coordinating the installation of software system. Employers BSS company as Project Manager from 20** to till date. AJJ Pvt. Ltd. as software engineer from 20** to 20**. Achievements Won best employee award for 2 consecutive year by BSS association. President of AMC association in year 20**. Best student of the year during graduation. Personal Details Date of Birth:, 15/07/20** ,Languages known:, English, Marathi, Hindi.

What is the most controversial film of all time?

Cinema is meant to be challenging. But some movies caused such a stink that they inspired complaints and protests and got themselves banned around the globe. These are the 14 most notoriously controversial movies of all time – films that'll still raise an eyebrow now. How many have you seen – and how offended ,were, you? Advertisement - Continue Reading Below Related: ,Controversial castings that really caused a stink 1. The Birth of a Nation (1915) Where do we begin with DW Griffith's infamous magnum opus? It portrayed black people (many played by white actors in blackface) as violent brutes and the Ku Klux Klan as heroes, and is believed to have been responsible for a resurgence of the real KKK, as well as inciting violent attacks against people of colour. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People protested the movie, which led to it being banned in a few places, but didn't prevent it from also becoming a runaway success in the US. Today, it is remembered as a technical masterpiece... and an appalling work of racist propaganda. 2. A Clockwork Orange (1971) © Warner Bros. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below Stanley Kubrick – who, lest we forget, was once accused of faking the moon landing – has never shied away from controversy. But ,A Clockwork Orange, was the jewel in his 'upsetting the establishment' crown. The old ultra-violence attracted the ire of censors, including the The National Catholic Office for Motion Pictures, whose 'C' rating for 'Condemned by the Legion of Decency' meant that American Catholics were strictly forbidden from seeing the film. The movie is now considered a landmark in terms of reducing controls on violence shown in the cinema. But attempts to link ,A Clockwork Orange, to several violent crimes, as well as threats made against Kubrick's family, led to the man himself requesting that the film be withdrawn. 3. mother! (2017) © Paramount Critics (mostly) liked it while audiences (mostly) hated it with the opening weekend crowd awarding Darren Aronofsky's intense horror an F rating. The controversy mainly springs from the levels of abuse that Jennifer Lawrence's 'mother' (aka mother earth) is subjected to, along with the fact that the film portrays God (Javier Bardem) as kind of a dick. Other people just thought the religious allegory was a bit adolescent and heavy handed. After a disappointing opening at the box office, Paramount decided to embrace the furore, with Aronofsky himself tweeting a poster branding the film 'the most controversial movie in decades' – a poster which was itself pretty darn controversial. 4. The Devils (1971) © Warner Bros. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below Read More Something about this sexually explicit, violent film, which explores religious themes and features national treasure Vanessa Redgrave as a hunchback abbess shouting ,"Cock!",, really got people's backs up in the '70s. The naked, fornicating nuns probably didn't help. Accusations of blasphemy meant that director Ken Russell's uncompromising historical movie was subject to cuts wherever it was released. Some of the original material was restored after Mark Kermode discovered the deleted scenes. The new version has been screened, but never given a wide release. 5. Deep Throat (1972) © Getty Images Archive Photos As a highly visible movie early in the 'Golden Age of Porn' which aspired to be more than a ten-minute diversion in a seedy Time Square cinema, no one will be surprised to hear that the creators of ,Deep Throat, were charged with obscenity. The movie was banned outright in 27 states, and wasn't available in the UK until 2000. Then there were the mob connections of producer Louis 'Butchie' Peraino, who used his Mafia associates to distribute the movie, as well as star Linda Boreman's later accusations that her abusive husband forced her to make the film. The ,Deep Throat ,controversy remains more than just a less-permissive society getting hot under the collar about a little slap and tickle. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below Related: ,9 movies from the '80s that would be totally unacceptable now 6. The House That Jack Built © Curzon Artificial Eye Lars von Trier is basically Mr Controversy, from the orgies and the faking of learning disabilities in ,The Idiots,, the genital mutilation of ,Antichrist,, or just turning up at a press conference and making jokes about Nazis, which he did to promote his movie, Melancholia,. Cannes 2018, the first time he'd been allowed to return in 7 years, kind of topped the lot though. His serial killer movie ,The House The Jack Built,, starring Matt Dillon,, ,featured the brutal murder and dismemberment of several women, the execution of two kids and a really nasty scene involving the mutilation of a little yellow ducking. Reports suggest ,around 100 people walked out, of the premiere. 7. The Last House on the Left (1972) © Hallmark Releasing Horror legend Wes Craven's unapologetically sleazy film about two girls tortured and raped in the woods by a gang of thugs was especially controversial in the UK. Firstly, it was refused a certificate by the BBFC, pre-empting the moral panic around films like ,The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, and ,I Spit on Your Grave,. In 1984, it made the infamous 'video nasties' list, and was banned in the UK for the next 20 years. It's still considered one of the first and most powerful of the extreme post-Vietnam horrors which changed the face of the genre forever. 8. Last Tango in Paris (1972) © United Artists Bertolucci's tale of an anonymous love affair is best known for the controversy, on and off screen, surrounding an anal rape scene where Marlon Brando's character uses butter as a lubricant. At the time, audiences and critics were shocked by the sexualised violence, and more recently this was compounded when lead actress ,Maria Schneider revealed that the butter element was not in the script or disclosed to her before the take,. Schneider has said the movie ruined her life and "during the scene, even though what Marlon was doing wasn't real, I was crying real tears. I felt humiliated and to be honest, I felt a little raped, both by Marlon and by Bertolucci". She stayed mates with Brando but never made up with Bertolucci. 9. Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom (1975) © United Artists Advertisement - Continue Reading Below Banned in several countries and only released uncut in the UK in 2000, Passolini's ordeal, which sees a group of youths systematically raped and tortured, is possibly the most controversial and notorious movie of all time. As recently as 1994, a bookstore owner in the US was arrested when he sold a copy to an undercover cop (the case was overturned) and it still causes a fuss today due to its relentless bleakness and shocking set pieces. Many critics talk about how brilliant and important the movie is as a critique of fascism. But not many of them are to be found watching it with a pizza on a Friday night. 10. Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979) © Orion Life of Brian,'s tale of Jesus's next-door neighbour is considered one of the greatest comedies of all time, but not everyone was in on the joke. Christian activists called blasphemy and, with no sense of irony, picketed screenings of a film lampooning baseless moral panic. The film was banned all over the place, including Ireland, parts of the UK and Norway (famously leading to the movie's Swedish tagline "So funny it was banned in Norway"). In 2009, Terry Jones and Michael Palin attended a screening of ,Life of Brian, in Aberystwyth, where the ban had just been lifted – alongside the town's mayor Sue Jones-Davies, who played Judith Iscariot in the film. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below 11. Cruising (1980) © Warner Bros. William Friedkin's middle name is unknown, but we suspect that it might be 'Controversy'. This time, it was the marginalised gay community of 1979's New York City who were angered by his decision to make a film about Al Pacino as an undercover policeman investigating murders in the leather-bar scene. Opposing the representation of their community as "a validation of ,Anita Bryant,'s hate campaign" (in the words of journalist Arthur Bell), activists did their best to disrupt filming. They threw things at the cast and crew, chanted and played loud music, and shone mirrors across the set to mess with the lighting. After release, ,Cruising, was allegedly the inspiration for several hate crimes, including a fatal shooting at one of the clubs where the movie was filmed. 12. Natural Born Killers (1994) © Warner Bros. Oliver Stone's tale of a couple of mass murderers who become a media sensation – based on a script by a young man called Quentin Tarantino – has been linked to a series of terrible events. The film's release was delayed in the UK for six months while the BBFC investigated reports of ,Natural Born Killers,' connections to several copycat crimes. More followed, including the Columbine shootings, where the two student killers were revealed to be fans of the movie. The UK home entertainment release of the film was also delayed following the (unrelated) Dunblane killings. 13. Kids (1995) © Shining Excalibur Films This collaboration between 52-year-old first-time director Larry Clarke and 19-year-old first time screenwriter Harmony Korine (and featuring young unknown actors Chloë Sevigny and Rosario Dawson) knew exactly how to enrage conservative audiences with teenagers engaged in sex, drug-taking and criminal behaviour, not to mention an HIV-positive protagonist with a thing for virgins. The Washington Post, called it ,"virtually child pornography",, and a debate raged over whether it was a timely cautionary tale or appalling smut. Miramax's parent company Disney refused to allow ,Kids,' release, forcing their little sister to set up the temporary Shining Excalibur Films to distribute the movie. 14. Crash (1996) © Fine Line Features Not Paul Haggis's 2004 race relations drama, but David Cronenberg's adaptation of JG Ballard's novel of "semen, blood and motor-oil", which sees James Spader join a group of people who get off, sexually, on car crashes. Scenes of sex and violence caused quite the stir, include one memorable moment where Spader has sex with a scar on Rosanna Arquette's leg, and the film, though given a UK release, was banned in Westminster. It still managed to scoop a bunch of awards though and remains less controversial than the decision to give the other ,Crash, the Oscar over ,Brokeback Mountain,. 15. A Serbian Film (2010) © Contra Film Wilfully provocative, this horror satire by Srđan Spasojević nabbed column inches for its graphic depiction of sex, violence, pornography, rape and paedophilia. It follows a retired porn actor who takes 'one last job' which turns out to be a snuff movie, and includes one particularly outrageous scene where the phrase 'newborn porn!' comes into effect (though it's off-screen and played with very dark humour). For its trouble, ,A Serbian Film, was cut in the UK and banned in Spain, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore, Norway and South Korea. Source: ,15 most controversial movies of all time

How good is the Euro-Fighter Typhoon?

Modern warfare has become highly technological and strategic. Contemporary wars are won by Air forces - The modern fighter jets are complex fighting machines which form a ‘critical component’ of any world class air force. Those Critical Assets are : LM JSF F - 35 Lightning II LM F - 22 Raptor Euro Fighter Typhoon Su - 35 Super Flanker E Rafale Omni Role Super french FR3 / M variants Gripen SAAB Smart Fighter JAS - 39 C / D / E Chengdu Stealth J - 20 Mighty Dragon Strike Eagle F - 15 E Advanced Fulcrum MiG - 35s F / A - 18 Super Hornets F - 21 Viper Fighting Falcon F - 16 Block - 52 & 60 CAC J - 10s C Fire Bird Super Multi Role Su - 30 Flanker variants Eagle F - 15 Variant C Su 27 s ‘Base Flanker’ Fulcrum MiG - 29s are considered PRIME assets for their air forces. They carry expensive tools of destruction with them such as : AIM 120 D MBDA Meteor Russian R - 77 Storm Shadow Vympel R - 73 MICA R - 27 Chinese Ultra long range PL - 15 SD - 10 JSM Paveway Brimstone AIM 120 C AIM 132 R - Darter Derby Python K - 100 Astra & Cruise Missile & Stand Off A SMP Variants Hence one can safely say that No Manufacturer of Fighter jet will give away the Real / true Warfare or combat capability, let alone the full limits of it. Hence One has to wait for the real combat - the real showdown to see the real capability. Base Specifications & information related to Systems , Components , Weapons and Electronics are issued for marketing tactics or for disinformation purposes. So maybe all the information available is, NOT 100% accurate. __________________________________________________________________________________ A generation of Airmen seems to have forgotten a simple lesson from history: ‘It was leadership, not fancy equipment, that made the difference.’ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ THE EURO FIGHTER EF-2000 Tranche 4 NICKNAMED “TYPHOON” Its a highly discussed Fighter jet , having mixed reviews by its supporters and by its opponents, has sparked a public argument. With predecessors such as JAGUAR, PANAVIA & HARRIER, Its a European consortium Fighter UK, Germany , Italy & Spain - first proto type released in Mid 1990s. Hence It was a European solution to a European scenario. In the Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) role as interceptor the Typhoon is arguably the best in the world. No other fighter has as brief a response time as the Typhoon. DESIGN & AERODYNAMICS The ability to patrol and intercept hostile aircraft is known as Quick Reaction Alert. Typhoon is a master in it. Designed for Single Seat - STOL Capable - Twin Engine - Initially developed as ,Supersonic BVR interception and close combat, , Multi Role adaptations. Typhoon is designed to perform at least five air missions very efficiently : Air superiority Air interdiction Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) Close Air Support (CAS) Maritime Attack. Its in active operational service with 9 Operators.(Consortium members plus Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Austria ). More than 550 Euro fighter Typhoon aircraft have been successfully delivered to seven countries: Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Austria, Oman and Saudi Arabia; and ordered by two more: Kuwait and Qatar. Participated in combats during operations in Libya, Iraq and Syria. Length 15.96 m x Wingspan 10.95 m. Length 15.67 mtrs x Wingspan 10.67 mtrs for F- 35A Hence slightly Big in Size then lets say F-35 Lightning II Max Altitude Above 59,000 ft Euro Fighter is based on a Typical European Design of ,Unstable air frame , a fore-plane Delta - wing forward canard configuration, with dual intakes under the fuselage & a single vertical stabilizer . The ‘conventional statically stable’ aircraft has a ‘built-in’ inherent stability which requires a large wing area and causes a lot of drag that slows the aircraft under a turn. Fighter jets require ,Agility, which is exact opposite of Stability. You want a fighter to be able to make turns & loops as quickly & easily as possible. Consequently, fighter aircraft rely on configurations that are unstable or neutrally stable. Canards help in this regard. CANARDS AND THEIR IMPACT An aeronautical device wherein a small fore-wing is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. A wide variety of canard designs have been proposed and flown over . Canards are used on aircraft whose main wings are well behind the center of gravity, such as the Euro fighter Typhoon.. Canards can be used as horizontal stabilizers as they being ahead of the C.G of the aircraft, acts directly to reduce longitudinal static stability. The aerodynamic advantages derived from the delta wing canard configuration : AERODYNAMIC FLOW RESULTING IN HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK : Angle of attack is the angle at which the oncoming air meets the wing. At low angle of attack, the vertical tail provides directional stability. However, as the angle of attack increases, its effectiveness decreases. High angles of attack (AOA) can be translated into a very high instantaneous turn rate and gives maneuverability advantages. Modern fighter jets can exceed 90 degrees AOA - Yet the software limit’s them from 30 - 60 Degrees to prevent Air frame damage owing to Stresses and fatigue factors. Layman terms - Higher the angle of attack, the more lift is generated by the wing… ONLY UP TO A POINT. Thereafter the wing reach its ‘,Critical Angle of Attack’ ,, and at higher angles of attack the amount of lift generated drops dramatically. Beyond the critical angle of attack , the wing no longer effectively generates lift and jet is stalled. Canards stall before the wings. Canards smoothen the turbulence and create Laminar (non-turbulent) flow. Good vortex flow is obtained and a High Angle of Attack may be obtained. UN-STABILITY : Create Un-stability which is preferred. Results in Agility. The result is balanced by applying Controlled by FBW Computer Systems. A statically unstable basic aircraft needs continuous stabilization with the help of an active flight control system with full authority. The high angle of attack recovery (HAoA) function is an extension of the flight control system’s angle of attack limitation. If the aircraft has a low speed and high nose angle, the angle of attack will be low at first but will increase and exceed the angle of attack limit as the speed drops further. The HAoA function and command will return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope in a controlled manner. CREATES LIFT : The canard essentially moves horizontal tail up to the nose and places the wing's center of lift behind the center of gravity. To balance the natural nose down tendency, Canard generates an upward lifting force - which helps oppose weight. Note that Canards results to produce ‘induced drag’ , it is usually countered by high aspect ratio canards i.e long and narrow. Combined delta canard configuration and 538 ft2 wing size confer very low wing loading on 50% internal fuel, and are optimized for transonic maneuver and supersonic dash performance. The loosely coupled canard is intended to provide high control authority at high angles of attack, by placing the surfaces ahead of the main vortices, but also to provide lower trim drag in supersonic flight. A Modern Composite Airframe with constituents : Carbon Fiber Composites 70% Metals 15% Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) 12% Only 15% of the aircraft’s surface is metal. This gives a small Radar Cross section of RCS < 0.5 m2. Hence Typhoon makes slightly greater use of RAM and active canard signature management for frontal RCS reduction ,(As a comparison this is probably offset in the high-end survivability department by Active Stealth of Gripen E or Rafale’s superior SPECTRA electronic warfare system). POWER PLANT & PROPULSION EXCELLENCE The Euro Jet EJ - 200’s components were developed by ,Rolls-Royce plc, MTU, Avio Group SpA, and Industria Turbo Propulsores SA ,– all well-respected names. And, like the Eurofighter, The Euro-jet consortium hails from the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Spain. The EJ-200 is the most modern combat engine in its class – with the best thrust-to-weight ratio, thrust retention and smallest fan diameter – the EJ200 sets new standards for reliability and adaptability. Typhoon is powered by 2 x Eurojet EJ-200 after-burning turbofans , each develops a DRY THRUST of 65 KN / 14,000 LBS & 90 KN / 20, 500 LBS Thrust with REHEAT. It takes about 1 minute 30 seconds after take-off to reach more than 30,000 feet, all the while maintaining intercept airspeed. The engine is compact, approximately 4 meter in length, 800 mm (30 inches) in diameter and weighs around 1,000 kg. The two-spool design with single-stage turbines drives the three-stage fan and five-stage HP compressor with annular combustion with vaporizing burners. Engines powering the Typhoons of UK Royal Air Force (RAF) routinely achieve a mean time between repairs of over 1,000 flying hours, while the fleet leader in RAF has achieved over 1,700 flying hours on-wing without need for repair. This is unprecedented in combat engines where on-wing hours can often be measured in the low hundreds for previous generation engines. Reliability centric Predictive Maintenance is achieved through use of advanced integrated Health Monitoring for class-leading reliability, maintainability and through Life Cost. Capability to cruise at supersonic speeds without the use of reheat (After Burners) for extended periods. it can fly at sustained speeds of MACH 1.5 AT FULL COMBAT EXTERNAL LOAD without the use of afterburner. CRITICAL SUB SYSTEMS OF PROPULSION SYSTEM LP Compressor HP Compressor A.C.C Turbine Stage Re Heat or After burner Systems DECMU 1- LP - LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR EJ-200 consists of a 3-stage Low-pressure compressor (LPC) module & 5-stage High-pressure compressor. This provides a ‘High Surge margin’ (Typhoon pilots feedback often states it is virtually impossible to surge the engine), needs no heating devices to combat ice and has a high bird strike resistance. Each stage of the LPC is equipped with wide-chord integrated blade/disk (blisk) assemblies that are low in weight (each stage in the LPC consists of a single blisk with no removable parts) and are a major factor in the reduction of complexity easing the burden on maintenance cost and personnel. At the end of the Low Pressure Compression module, core air is compressed by a factor of 4.2. 2 -HP - HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR Air is then directed to the High Pressure Compressor (HPC), which is again designed achieve high reliability and minimum maintenance effort. Like the LPC, HPC is also equipped with single blisks in the first three stages. HPC further compresses core air by a factor of 6.2, leading to air that has been compressed by a factor of 26. The fact that EJ200 achieves this in eight stages, far lesser than the nine or ten stages employed by engines of comparable performance, is testament to the efficient aerodynamic design of the blades. 3 - ACC - ANNULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER EJ-200s annular combustor receives the highly compressed air. Micro-spraying fuel increases combustion-efficiency and also reduces the visible emissions of oxides of nitrogen. The key factors in determining jet engine efficiency and achievable work are the temperature and pressure differences attained between the engine inlet and combustor outlet. Although the maximum temperature of air leaving the combustion chamber is classified, the outlet stator temperature is generally reported to be 200ºC higher than previous generation engines. 4 - TURBINE STAGE Downstream of the annular combustion chamber is the High Pressure Turbine (HPT). In order to handle the large temperatures generated in the combustion chamber, the HPT uses air-cooled single-crystal blades. The HPT guide vanes utilise a special Thermal Barrier Coating which increases the life of the blade and increases the achievable operating temperature .Following the HPT is a single Low Pressure Turbine stage, again employing single crystal blades. 5- AFTER BURNING SYSTEMS EUROJET has installed an innovative three-stage thrust augmentation system to supply reheat as and when required by the pilot. Downstream from the low-pressure turbine, in the exhaust duct, are the first two stages of the thrust augmenter. The first stage consists of a radial series of burners and their associated flame cups. Subsequent to this is a stage of ‘primary vaporisers’ that spray fine mists of fuel that combust on contact with the hot exhaust air. Finally, the third stage comprises of fuel injectors located at the back of the bypass duct. These spray fuel into the cold, oxygen rich air that has passed through the duct unburned. It should be noted the dry performance of the engine is so good, pilots do not use reheat as much as other engines in this class. Operationally, this means more performance for less fuel. 6 - DECMU (Digital Engine Control and Monitoring Unit) EJ-200’s Digital Engine Control and Monitoring Unit (DECMU) provides carefree handling for the whole turbo-machinery, automatically activates and controls the various stages of reheat, reduces pilot workload and provides engine monitoring and executive lifting functionalities. Executive Lifing measures actual usage rather than planned mission profiles which can achieve up to 50% Life Cycle Cost savings compared to other engines without this advantage. This is key not only to achieving the unparalleled standards of reliability but also in making the engine cost effective over its performance life. Executive Lifting reduces maintenance costs, especially given that the EJ-200 maintenance philosophy is a modular concept. Rate of Climb 317 Mtrs / Sec With 90KN Thrust Speed 2.1 - 2.2 Mach & 2,900 kms Range Combat Radius Ground attack, lo-lo-lo : 601 km Ground attack, hi-lo-hi : 1389 km Air defence with 3hr CAP : 185 km Air defence with 10-min loiter : 1389 km G Limits : ,+9/-3 w/ int fuel and two AIM-120 Impressive Thrust to Weight Ration of 1.15 Empty Weight 22,000 lb / 9,999 kg Max Take-Off Weight 46,305 lb / 21,000 kg Ferry Range 5,382 km / 3,310 miles — with 4 x drop tanks Typhoon is the faster aircraft and has a significantly superior thrust-to-weight ratio which gives it better acceleration at all altitudes. This also allows Typhoon to retain and regain energy faster (than say Rafale) in a horizontal dogfight situation. Another key factor in maneuverability is Wing Loading ratio ; In aerodynamics, wing loading is the ,loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing,. It is expressed as kilograms per square meter, or pounds per square foot of wing area. Smaller the wing loading ratio , the better the turn performance. Euro Fighter - 310 ; Rafale - 327 ; F15C - 358 ; F-18 - 460 Kg / m2. It also has a significantly higher service ceiling of over 60,000 ft which allows it to operate uniquely well alongside the US F-22 Raptors ‘high and fast’ in the air superiority role which is exactly where it was designed to excel. RADAR , AVIONICS & COMMUNICATIONS Full Authority FCS & Quadruplex digital system. Modern and comprehensive Avionic package. The pilot’s control system is a voice throttle and stick system (VTAS). Heads Up and Heads Down Display systems M.H.D.D installed. Detection technology used in latest tranch is : X-band CAPTOR (I/J-band) ECR-90 pulse-Doppler multi mode radar,. An AESA radar provides an aircraft with a more efficient, more robust, longer-ranged and finer-detailed radar than older, mechanically scanned or passive systems. It has improved Jamming Resistance and acts immensely to increase the situational awareness and effectiveness of a modern fighter jet. The addition of an AESA radar has become necessary because almost all modern fighter aircraft have already transitioned to this architecture. The CAPTOR-E radar , being developed by the Euro RADAR Consortium led by Selex ES, is based on the existing ‘back end’ of the mechanically-scanned (M-scan) CAPTOR radar. All Weather Radar Features Synthetic Aperture, Multi mode A/A and A/G Fire Control Radar and Weapon System Support, with over 1,000 modules and a new AESA antenna mounted on an innovative repositioner. It can also cover low band Frequencies ,VHF/UHF. ,This gives the radar an unmatched field of regard without compromising performance and reliability. P.I.R.A.T.E SYSTEM A, ,Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment (PIRATE) ,system f,or infrared search and tracking or a Supplementary Radar. The Typhoon’s PIRATE IRST is far and away the most capable fighter-mounted system in operation anywhere in the world. Its phenomenal sensitivity caused problems during the first decade of service due to the sheer number of false positive returns but now that processing power has caught up enough to allow the sensitivity to be properly exploited for extremely long range detection of fighter sized targets, including stealth targets, it is becoming one of Typhoon’s strongest advantages in the air superiority arena. However, at present, the systems integration allowing the radar and IRST to be tasked together in an optimal fashion is still superior on Rafale. This is a core focus of capability upgrades in the P3E software package for Typhoon. The system picks up heat changes around it & by this spot subsonic aircraft as far away as up to 100 km+. This means that the Typhoon can still shoot its advanced IR-tracking missiles at a target, even though its enemy has stealth features. PIRATE detects and tracks the Infra-Red signatures of multiple aircraft at long range, over a wide field of view, day & night and adverse weather conditions. Being a passive sensor, it enables the aircraft to gather early intelligence of threats and to maneuver stealthily into an advantageous tactical position without being detected by hostile electronic warfare systems. PIRATE is integrated with other on-board sensor systems for maximum sensor fusion effectiveness. PIRATE locates & provides ‘cueing information’ on ground targets. It provides data and imagery to Head’s-up & Multi-function Head’s -down displays, facilitating navigation and terrain avoidance in adverse weather conditions. D.A.S.S SYSTEM Defensive Aid Sub System with Electronic Counter measures against incoming Missiles. Offering a comprehensive suite of electronic support measures and counter-measures, the Praetorian Defensive Aids Sub System developed by the Leonardo-led EuroDASS consortium, is carried in 2 x wing pods that are an integral part of the wing. DASS greatly enhances Eurofighter Typhoon’s ability to avoid, evade, counter and survive evolving threats. It consists of : Electronic Support Measures (ESM) A laser threat and missile approach warning system An Electronic Countermeasures System (ECM), decoys, towed decoys Jammers and other sensors Avionics. Eurofighter Typhoon D.A.S.S is also equipped with a ,‘Towed Radar Decoy’, . carried in the starboard side as ‘built in’ to the wing tip. Towed decoy systems are for defensive purposes & used to protect fighter jets from radar-guided missiles. These countermeasures are towed behind the host aircraft protecting it against both surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles. They provide a radio-wave reflecting baid that attracts the RF-guided missiles away from the intended target. Miniature Air Launched Decoy MALD ENHANCED SITUATIONAL AWARENESS Even while still on the ground, the pilot can keep a check on the position of the aircraft to be intercepted via its Data-Link (a two-way radio-controlled data exchange). The Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD) is used to lure enemy air defense systems into revealing themselves or attacking aircraft or ISTAR systems that can provide targeting information for stand off weapons. With a range of 500 nm, endurance of 45 minutes, operating altitude of 40,000 feet plus, speed of Mach 0.91, modular electronics fit and emissions signature that is designed to mimic allied aircraft it can also be used to simply overwhelm air defenses with targets, if they attack MALD they are depleting their finite missile stocks. The data-link is provided by the ,Multiple Image Data System (MIDS),. It aids situational awareness information to the pilot. As a case in point - The french Super Omni Jet Rafale utilities ‘a one-way datalink’ with the missile when it has been fired, not the 2 - way ‘Datalink’. which Typhoon and Gripen E are equipped with – which allows for much more accurate and reliable guidance during very long range engagements whilst the missile is in semi-active mode. Kuwait’s Typhoons will be the first to use the Lockheed Martin Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (ATP), which has recently been upgraded to include two-color laser spot tracking, short-wave infrared, and advanced non-traditional intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (NTISR) modes. New-customer Typhoons Will Be the Most Advanced Yet *********************************************************************************** In 2011, the RAF deployed 10 x Typhoon aircraft to its base in Italy for operations in Libya, and achieved 4,500 flying hours without an engine change. The aircraft operated in its air-to-air role and for the first time attacked ground targets using laser-guided Paveway bombs. “The sensors on the aircraft are so good it’s a question of how we use that information and how we get it to other fast jets and ground allies. It is about ensuring the right information is in the right place at the right time.” — ,Air Cdre Linc Taylor, Royal Air Force. A U.K. Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon used a brimstone missile to destroy a boat used by Islamic State in Syria, the RAF said Friday, 2019 February 22 release, marking the first time the aircraft has deployed the weapon system. Brimstone is an air-launched ground-attack missile developed by MBDA for the RAF, specifically to target enemy armor. The Brimstone launcher carries three missiles in a single weapon station. Its equipped with enhanced autopilot, the Dual Mode SAL / milli metric wave (mmW) seeker, and the insensitive munition-compliant rocket motor and warhead. For Air to Ground missions you have the ability to simply look outside at where a target is then cue the weapon system to look there with the Litening Designator Pod. Due to this capability it means that after identifying a target, you can drop a Paveway IV, 500-lb precision weapon on it in seconds. ************************************************************************************** WEAPONS Mauser Cannon 27 mm It has 13 hard points which allows for up to 3 fuel drop tanks and 10 missiles/laser guided bombs or 13 missiles/laser guided bombs Long Range 6 x BVR Matra- Meteor AMRAAM Close range SRAAM is 2 x AIM-132 ASRAAM. A range of air-to-ground weapons can be carried, including the new Storm Shadow CASOM, Brimstone anti-armour weapon, and the future Precision Guided Bomb (PGB). Manufacturers ban Euro Fighter in exports for carrying nuclear weapons. RAF standoff weapon is the Matra-BAe Storm Shadow cruise missile. SCALP - STORM SHADOW, ,Air-Launched, Long RANGE , Stand-Off Deep Attack Missile The Storm Shadow missile is designed to penetrate deep into hard rock targets. It is equipped with fire-and-forget technology and fully autonomous guidance. The missile has a length of 5.1 m, wingspan of 3m, and a body diameter of 0.48 m. It weighs 1,300 kg and has a range of more than 250 km. The Storm Shadow missile is equipped with a Turbomeca Microturbo TRI 60-30 turbojet propulsion system, which can produce a 5.4 kN of thrust. The missile is fitted with a two-stage bomb royal ordnance augmented charge (BROACH) blast/ penetrator warhead. The first stage of the warhead makes the way for the second stage by cutting the surface of the target. The larger second stage (main) of the warhead then penetrates into the target and detonates. The navigation system of the missile includes inertial navigation (INS), global positioning system (GPS) and terrain reference navigation for better control over the path and accurate target strike. The missile is fitted with a passive imaging infrared seeker. Once released from the aircraft, the missile follows a pre-programmed path at low level with the help of continuous updates from the on board navigation system. It employs imaging infrared seeker to compare the actual target area with stored imagery repeatedly until reaching the target. The Storm Shadow is also in service with the air forces of Italy, Greece, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is referred to as Black Shaheen in the UAE Air Force service. The Storm Shadow can be integrated into Tornado GR4, Tornado IDS, Saab Gripen, Mirage 2000, Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon and JSF F - 35 aircraft. CROWN JEWEL BVR - M E T E O R MBDA ** ,Meteor, : ,Beyond Visual Range BVRAAM Air to Air with Active Radar Guidance,. Meteor offers a multi-shot capability against long range maneuvering targets, jets, UAVs and cruise missiles in a Loaded Electronic Counter Measure environment , called ECM. It has range well in excess of 100 kilometers . Meteor can be launched as a stealth missile. It is equipped with enhanced kinematics features. It is capable of striking different types of targets simultaneously in almost any weather. Meteor’s stunning performance is achieved through its unique ramjet propulsion system – solid fuel, variable flow, ducted rocket. This ‘ramjet’ motor provides the missile with thrust all the way to target intercept, providing the largest No-Escape Zone of any air-to-air missile. No -escape zone of over 60 km is largest among air-to-air missiles according to manufacturer. Solid-fueled ramjet motor allows missile to cruise at a speed of over mach 4 and provides the missile with thrust and mid-way acceleration to target interception. The Typhoon is a super fighter within visual range , though we must always remember that at WVR , Its not fighting the aircraft but the pilot. ******************************************************************************* COSTS AND REVIEW SUMMARY Maintenance cost of Typhoon is on higher side than that of Rafale. Unit Cost in excess of 125 MUS$ per aircraft. Euro Fighter Edges out all competitors such as Rafale in its ,M,aneuverability, Higher THRUST Power , Increased Combat Radius, Excellent IRST , Advanced CM / Decoy system & higher Service Ceiling, . Yes Quality is Expensive. Its a potent partner for European nations with JSF Lightning II F - 35. “Where Typhoon acting as Air Superiority Leader and clearing Air enemy jets ; F - 35 Stealth acting as Battle manager - A, Command & Control capable - Data fusion Electronic based - Striker bomber ,role for taking out SAM , S - 400s , AWACS etc and other remaining flying assets , which may have avoided Euro Fighter Jet by flying away…! https://www.eurofighter.com/the-aircraft *********************************************************************************** Knowledge is a process of piling up facts; wisdom lies in their simplification. Thanks for reading..