Tag

oldest adaptive cruise control Related Articles

Ford Ranger 2.2L Wildtrak Has a Big Improvement Than the 2.2 XLT

Including Adaptive Cruise Control treatment, Lane Keeping Aid, Lane Departure Warning, Forward Collision

From RM 79k, this is the new 2020 Proton X50 for Malaysia

impressive suite of ADAS for its segment including AEB with pedestrian detection, BLIS, and intelligent cruise

Personalize your drive with Volkswagen’s Dynamic Chassis Control

Tiguan Allspace share one thing in common – they all come with Volkswagen’s Dynamic Chassis Control

2021 VW Tiguan facelift, Tiguan R joins the line-up.

An all-new touch module is available for the Climatronic® climate control as well.

New locally-assembled 2020 G20 BMW 330e M Sport launched in Malaysia – From RM 264k

seconds.The XtraBoost feature can be activated by switching to Sport mode through the Driving Experience Control

Nissan recalls 4,001 Nissan Serena S-Hybrid (CBU) – Faulty CVT Control Unit

S-Hybrid (C26) Completely Built-Up (CBU) variant to reprogram its Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) Control

Honda CR-V vs Proton X70 vs Mazda CX-5: Which SUV has the best ADAS?

ADAS.In the X70 (Premium and Premium X variants), the ADAS includes: Forward Collision Warning (FCW) Adaptive

All-new Toyota GR Supra 2019 3.0L launched in Malaysia, RM568,000

There is also a Launch Control function which requires the car to be in the sportiest setting (Sport

2021 Toyota Corolla Cross’ TSS 2.0 detailed; better choice than the HR-V?

Control Lane Departure Alert Lane Tracing Assist Automatic High BeamPre-collision System is Toyota&rsquo

BMW X3 vs Volvo XC60 vs Mercedes-Benz GLC - Which is best?

audio is fed through 12-speaker BMW Hi-Fi system.The interior design of the Mercedes-Benz GLC is the oldest

View More

Proton X70 – How does it compare against the Honda CR-V and Mazda CX-5?

Stability Control Auto Brake Hold Hill Hold Assist Hill Descent Control Emergency Stop SignalThe X70

Stability control is not the same as traction control

Last week, we shared our insights on traction control and how does the system work, and due to the nature

When you should turn off traction control?

First of all, what is traction control?

The 2020 Proton X50 is smarter and safer than a BMW X1 with all that tech

situations involving pedestrians.The X50 Flagship’s ADAS also includes intelligent high beam control

Covid-19: Car workshops allowed to operate during Movement Control Order, says NSC

The nationwide Movement Control Order announced by Malaysian Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin

All-new 2021 Isuzu D-Max – Malaysian-spec to get ACC with stop and go

Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) Forward Collision Warning (FCW) Pedal Misapplication Mitigation (AT only) Adaptive

2020 Mazda CX-30 SUV is now in Malaysia, from RM 143k, 2020 launch

Mazda i-ActivSense Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) that bundles autonomous emergency braking, adaptive

Daihatsu Rocky to be the first Daihatsu model in Indonesia to get ASA safety suite

encompassing features like Pre-Collision Braking (PCB), Pre-Collision Warning (PCW), Pedal Misoperation Control

Subaru XV facelift launched in Japan; New grille, e-Active Shift Control

featuring a new Plasma Yellow Pearl colour, a new front end, and new feature called e-Active Shift Control

Video: 2019 Toyota Camry 2.5V Review, Why Settle for a BMW 318i?

not just responsive, its also highly communicative giving you a rewarding cornering experience.Body control

Deal breakers: 2020 Peugeot 3008 – Love the car, wished it came with AEB

We can overlook the lack of adaptive cruise control and semi-autonomous driving feature but AEB should

These are the 5 cheapest cars in Malaysia with adaptive headlights

Perodua calls it Adaptive Driving Beam and this feature is carried over from its Japanese donor cars,

Geely Emgrand S debuts: Not a facelifted GS, but gets same 1.4T with 141 PS and 235 Nm

ambient lighting.It also gets a host of passive and active safety equipment, including Intelligent Cruise

Pros and Cons: Mazda CX-8 2.2D High - Dated infotainment, but best 3rd-row seats in an SUV ever?

Comfortable third-row seatsCons Not as efficient as expected Dated-looking infotainment system Lacks adaptive

Finally, Proton will be launching the 2020 Proton X50 tomorrow!

drive to the front wheels.It also features a number of segment-first features, such as Intelligent Cruise

Adaptive LED headlights on the Perodua Ativa (D55L); cheapest new car to offer this feature!

More interestingly is the mention that H and AV variants of the Perodua D55L will be receiving Adaptive

The 2021 Perodua Ativa's standard safety kit is better than the Proton X50

Imagine, Pre-Collision Warning & Braking (PCW & PCB), Pedal Misoperation Control (PMC), Front

280 PS/392 Nm, 8-speed DCT - 2021 Hyundai Kona N debuts, Malaysia's forbidden fruit

The Kona N also adds on adaptive suspension, launch control, and selectable drive modes.

Spied: Perodua Ativa (D55L) during night delivery, have you booked yours?

Upper variants are expected to add Lane Keep Control (LKC), Blind Spot Monitor (BSM) , Rear Cross Traffic

Leaked: Here’s the full details of the Malaysian-spec Hyundai Kona!

Keeping Assist (LKA), Rear-Cross Traffic Collision Warning (RCCW), Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Smart Cruise

oldest adaptive cruise control Related Images

oldest adaptive cruise control Related Car Videos

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control -oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Index Titanicus: History Of The Legio Suturvora (Warhammer & Horus Heresy Lore)

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Baltimore | Wikipedia Audio Article

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-GOE 2018 - General Lori J Robinson

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Let's Encrypt With Best Practices - Till Maas

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Fake Head Test

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control -oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-E Mau Sailing The Master Home Part 8

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Baltimore, Maryland | Wikipedia Audio Article

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control -oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Significance, Problems And Potentials Of Favelas—Theresa Williamson Delivers Talk To Harvard GSD

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Charles J. Stewart Interview

  • Oldest Adaptive Cruise Control-Natural Capital Conversations: The Anthropocene Ocean (1/27/2021)

oldest adaptive cruise control Post Review

RadarThe radar is one of the oldest sensors used for automation - it is used since 1999 for adaptive cruise control.It uses the Doppler effect to measure distance and relative velocity to other objects and is very accurate.Again, modern cars usually have several radars.

Ive got a love-hate relationship with adaptive cruise right now. When it works its great but it does lull you into a trance. I dont think I’d order it for rookies if I owned a company.

I would have the rookies driving the oldest trucks in the yard. Force them to learn how to actually drive.. the only two things I would give them would be jake brakes and cruise control. Old school cruise control not this do adaptive s***.

This is an example from Tesla of what a typical camera sees and detects in the scene. Videos from other companies look very similar.

oldest adaptive cruise control Q&A Review

How is a commercial airline pilot able to say “we are 125 miles from the airport”? There are no mile markers in the sky. What instrument tells them where they are relative to the ground they are flying over?

A treatise on navigation is your answer, but obviously someone who is trying to fit all that into a few lines is doing a great disservice. It started with mariners and much was carried over into aviation. If you want to know where you are, you need a good clock. Today we use smartphones and GPS, but navigating has not always been so easy. The oldest "clock" is Earth itself, and the oldest means of keeping time came from observing changes in the sky. Early mariners like the Vikings accomplished amazing feats of navigation without using clocks at all. Pioneering seafarers in the Age of Exploration used dead reckoning and celestial navigation; later innovations such as sextants and marine chronometers honed these techniques by measuring latitude and longitude. When explorers turned their sights to the skies, they built on what had been learned at sea. For example, Charles Lindbergh used a bubble sextant on his record-breaking flights. World War II led to the development of new flight technologies, notably radio navigation, since celestial navigation was not suited for all-weather military operations. These forms of navigation were extended and enhanced when explorers began guiding spacecraft into space and across the solar system. THE difference between navigating a surface ship that skims along the sea at 17 m.p.h. and navigating a patrol search plane that cruises the skies at 210 m.p.h. injected new problems in the practice of navigation. The World War II's urgent demand for thousands of Naval aviators, who not only could fly an airplane but who could take it there and bring it back, created new problems in training. Naval aviation solved both problems satisfactorily. Navigation was streamlined so it could be practiced in the cramped quarters of a speeding airplane.. Teaching of navigation was stripped to the bare essentials and the most modern methods and devices were employed in the classrooms. Early in the war there began to grow in the flight division of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations a file of statistics on mission failures and Navy planes and crews lost through faulty navigation. In one of the Navy's navigation schools there was displayed a large poster which read: "The most common cause of error in navigation is the lack of experience." Many pilots in the early part of the war had to gain this experience by flying over the ocean with their lives depending upon their ability to find their way back. Aviation training soon supplemented this rugged requirement with synthetic experience for the navigators. In co-operation with the manufacturers of the Link Trainers and the Army's training command, the Special Devices Division of the Bureau of Aeronautics adapted the Link Trainer for practice in navigation. It was said to be the most effective single training device in use. Not only did student pilots practice their navigation in these trainers but veteran pilots took extensive refresher work in them. The adaptation included the erection of a planetarium, machines for simulating weather conditions, and other attachments which made a flight in the trainer as nearly similar as possible to actual flying. One of the major factors in the new method of teaching navigation was the series of texts, "Air Navigation," published under the supervision of the Training Division of the Bureau of Aeronautics. These seven manuals were prepared "for the purpose of orienting Naval aviation cadets to navigation that may encircle the seven seas." Written in a breezy style and illustrated by cartoons instead of the conventional geometric drawings, they are designed,' according to the cadets, "to take the itch out of Bowditch." ▲ ,Nathanial Bowditch first published this encyclopedic work in 1802. During the last two centuries over 75 editions, almost 1,000,000 copies, of Bowditch have been published by the US Government. It has lived because it has combined the best technologies of each generation of navigator. The 2002 edition includes the latest advances in electronic navigation and digital charting technology. It also covers non-electronic navigation such as celestial, plotting and dead reckoning. Bowditch contains numerous tables which have been valued for years by practicing navigators. Bowditch is carried on the bridge of every U.S. Navy ship. Those who have waded through the exact but humorless work of the great Yankee navigator of more than a century ago insist that they know more about navigation than can possibly be gleaned from the more flippant modern texts. On the other hand, the wartime-trained Naval aviator knew enough to "get there and back," a highly essential bit of navigational knowledge. All Naval aviators are trained navigators. On the multi-engined land-based transport and search planes, usually in addition to the pilot and co-pilot, a third Naval aviator is the navigation officer. Although navigational methods devised till then were the most accurate that had been devised in the practical sense, the instruments used for obtaining the necessary data could be improved. The octants and sextants require a bubble to establish a horizon and this bubble is affected by the movement of the plane, giving accurate indications only when all movement is zero. This fact necessitates the use of a device to approximate the average of all of the altitudes measured through an interval of time. In rough air it is virtually impossible to obtain an accurate average. For determining air speed there is the pitot-static tube which has to be corrected both for altitude and for temperature. Navigators needed an instrument that would give them their speed over the ground without any visual reference to it. Such an instrument would make the problem of wind determination above an overcast one of the minor matters of aircraft navigation. A fighter pilot of those times, questioned concerning the navigational methods used in the speedy fighter planes, put it this way: "We use dead reckoning. You know, I reckon I'll get back or I reckon I'll be dead." Navigation involves the solution of mathematical equations of spherical geometry, plotting your course over a chart, and until recently, needed special tools. In 1950, most general aviation pilots flew VFR direct. At least they tried to. The maps were spread on the floor with care, and a straight line was drawn from here to there. The true course was measured carefully with a plotter, and the variation and deviation applied to determine the compass course. A wind triangle was drawn, or one of those fancy computers was used to "allow" for wind and determine the compass heading. Once aloft, navigation was a simple matter of holding the heading, following the ground track on the map, and adjusting the heading as necessary. ▲Navigation Computers, 1966 ▲Navigation Plotters, 1966 ▲Navigation Computers, 1969 ▲The very popular E6B used by general aviation pilots evolved into this by 2002. Says Sporty’s, the manufacturer: “As pilots, we designed our E6B to perform 19 aviation functions and 14 standard aviatior conversions faster and with a higher degree of accuracy than other computers. The large, easy-to-read screen displays up to six lines of data—prompting you for information as you work through problems line by line. The advanced timer function counts up or down and operates independently so you can perform other calculations while the timer is running. The display turns off automatically after four minutes of-non-use yet the clock and timer continue to operate normally. Our E6B also performs conventional calculations and fits easily in a shirt pocket.” Some pilots followed highways, railroads and rivers, and the really sophisticated lads tried radio. There were four-course LF ranges that helped in navigating between cities served by airlines, but they never seemed to help you go where you wanted to go. Until the 1950s it was mostly deduced reckoning. Some pilots followed highways, railroads and rivers, and the really sophisticated lads tried radio. There were four-course LF ranges that helped in navigating between cities served by airlines, but they never seemed to help you go where you wanted to go. Some GA planes airplanes had ADF, but the early sets were big and heavy, and usually confined to the likes of Twin Beeches, Staggerwings and gull-wing Stinsons. Then, in the early 1950s, omni struck general aviation. The ground stations already existed and were multiplying, and Lear introduced an omni with a futuristic scope presentation of the magnetic bearing to the station. Initial price: $595. The ground stations already existed and were multiplying, and Lear introduced an omni with a futuristic scope presentation of the magnetic bearing to the station. Initial price: $595. Narco was right in there pitching with the Omnigator at $745. Airborne equipment had been available before, but these were the first units that really offered the light weight, reliability and price that made omni (VOR) practical for the single-engine airplane. (Believe it or not, this was before the day of the light twin.) IFR suddenly became easier and more practical, and VFR became simply easier. Pilots latched on to the new miracle-radio and started flying from one omni to the next. Crystal control came late in the 1950s, followed shortly by DME. A direct distance display, called the Distance measuring Equipment (DME), arrived in the 1950s and gave the slant range to a VOR station in miles. This was the only distance display in aircraft until the arrival of Flight Management Systems, and then GPS. ▲DME Display The DME unit was quite a sophisticated bit of electronic equipment. Long-range navigation was so complex, airliners — including the first jets — carried a navigator on board. Navigators were around for another 15 years. Do you know how fast the earth rotates? By the time even a sharp navigator works out a fix, it's gone. That’s what the navigation freaks call it, “shooting a fix”. In the old days of a DC-6, the fix was somewhere nearby. But now, going west to east in a jet with a strong tailwind, if you are a slow plotter or a slow fixer—a plodder about fix-es—you can wind up with a virtual impossibility: The next fix is right on top of the last one and you're belting along with a groundspeed of 800 knots….. ▲Shooting a fix on a sextant via a bubble canopy ▲Boeing 707, American Airlines, 1959 And then one company came and almost killed everything that went before it in one stroke: ▲,Garmin’s flat-panel display for the masses - 2008

What's a better choice between Audi, BMW and Mercedes? I currently drive a 2002 BMW 3 Series and am looking to upgrade. My budget is around $30k.

Personally, I'd cancel audi from the list. In the last couple of years, we had a few audis and we had trouble with all of them. They're not reliable and have a massive fuel consumption. I also don't like the design of the interior, but that's something you need to decide about. That leaves us with Mercedes or BMW. Here are two questions which should help you decide: What kind of driving style do you prefer?, sporting -> BMW comfortable -> Mercedes As already mentioned by Erwin Karim, you can choose between various driving modes, which allows you to switch between sport and comfort mode in well equipped cars of both manufactures. There are only small differences between Mercedes and BMW. For example, in a BMW you can hear the engine just a little louder than in a Mercedes and the view over the distinctive designed hood gives you the little extra sportive feeling in a BMW. How many people do you plan to transport regularly in the car at the same time?, Maximum of two adults and maybe one or two children -> Mercedes C-Class or BMW 3 series More than two adults -> Mercedes E-Class or BMW 5 series Space is really rare in the smaller cars. My dad owns a C-Class and it is really no fun to drive with three or four adults in it, especially for a long distance. Some thoughts about the different cars, I picked them based on your needs mentioned in the question and your budget. Mercedes C-Class W204 (2011-2015), It's the facelift version, so all the bugs are removed and you get a relatively new car for a good price. Mercedes first introduced the Intelligent Light System (ILS) with active bending lights in the middle class in this car. They also started to offer various different driving assistance systems: PRE-SAFE DISTRONIC PLUS (keeps a certain distance to the car driving in front of you) PRE-SAFE Brake (if the system senses that a collision is imminent, the breaks apply automatically) ATTENTION ASSIST (warns you, when you start to fatigue) Active Blind Spot Assist Active Lane Keeping Assist Parktronic with Active Parking Assist A camera mounted behind the rear view mirror recognises road signs and displays them in the navigationsystem and the instrument cluster. For your money, you also get the COMMAND Online navigationsystem with internet connection and the possibility to pair your phone via Bluetooth or cable. Mercedes E-Class W212 (2009-2013), The design of this car is pretty edgy and beamy, not everybody likes that. Since it was produced a few years earlier than the W204, it doesn't offer all the driving assistance systems that the C-Class has. PRE-SAFE Brake is not available no Active Parking Assist, the car just gives you advice for the angle of steering The Blind Spot Assist and Lane Keeping Assist is available, but they're not active. The car only gives a visual and acoustic warning. Nethertheless there are a few other systems available for this car such as the night vision assist and the absolutely fabulous Airmatic. This air suspension guarantees a smooth ride on the worst roads, a must-have if you decide to buy the E-Class. If the internet connection is very important to you, I recommend that you get a car manufactured after July 2011. In that month, Mercedes replaced the old navigationsystem and started to build in the new COMMAND online. BMW 3 series E90 LCI (2008-2011), Although this car is a facelift version as well, it's the oldest one of the four cars. You really notice that when it comes to the list of assistance systems. There's only one system, the Adaptive Cruise Control (same as DISTRONIC PLUS from MB). From September 2008 onward BMW put the new iDrive Professional Navigation (CIC) in the E90. It supports internet access, has a 80GB hard drive disk, a higher resolution and is generally more responsive than the predecessor. Of course you can connect your phone and they also offer something called Concierge Service. You can call them and ask for the nearest gas station, restaurant, etc. and they'll send you the adress right into the system. You sadly have to pay for that service now, since the car is a bit older. In Germany it costs $276 per year. BMW 5 series F10 (2010-2013), The F10 offers a lot of assistance systems similar to the ones of the W204, just with a different name: Active Blind Spot Detection Lane Departure Warning High-beam Assistant Active Parking Assistant Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go function Collision Warning with Brake Application In addition the BMW offers: Surround view (side and top) Night Vision with pedestrian detection Keyless Go And most important: a Head-Up Display, where all essential information (e.g. Speed, distance to the destination, etc.) are presented. On top of all that you have the option to get the iDrive Professional Navigationsystem. A fully detailed list about the assistance systems: ,Page on kneb.net If I'd be in your position, I'd get the BMW F10. It's the car that offers the best features, it's relatively new and has the best interior/exterior design. That's a surprising conclusion, I've been a big Mercedes fan for years, but it's simply the better car. If you had more money tough, I'd recommend you to buy the newest E-Class model. ;) I hope that gives you a good overview. The best way to find out which car is best for you, is to go to a local dealership and take these cars for a test run. Let me know which car you decided for. Oh - and don't worry about being confused, a car usually explains itself and there's a certain thrill that you get by discovering new features. :) pictures are all from wikipedia

What are the oldest/cheapest cars or SUVs that have adaptive cruise control?

There's a very detailed list on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_cruise_control_system#Vehicles_models_supporting_adaptive_cruise_control

What is it like to live in an African country after growing up in a modern and Western country?

It is heaven. No more racism. It is home. Africa is where I belong. It is beautiful. I understand why my country has one of the oldest national parks in Africa, the Virunga National Park. It is culturally rich, particularly in the art (including rock art) , music, dance, cuisine, and clothing sectors. It is rich historically. The rich past is evidenced in the history of numerous pre-colonial kindgoms (Kongo, Luba, Lunda, Yeke, Zande, Kuba, Mangbetu etc.) as well as famous epics (Lianja, Mwindo, Nkongolo, Lofokefoke, Kudukese, Mubila etc.) and folk tales. It is warm. I prefer warm weather all year round. It is authentic. It is only in Africa that an African is not disconnected from his/her rich and authentic cultural heritage and treasures (proverbs, riddles, fables). It is priceless. Nothing beats a one-day cruise on the majestic Congo River. —————- As for modernity, Europe does NOT have a patent on modernity. A Eurocentric Problem by ,M. Shahid Alam Modernity: How Western? In the eighteenth century, when a small number of European thinkers were vigorously making the case for the supremacy of reason in human affairs, they knew – and were often happy to acknowledge – that they were following in the footsteps of Confucius who had preceded them by two millennia. By the end of the century, however, a stronger and more confident Europe had ,forgotten its debt to the Chinese or any source outside of Europe. ,Insistently, they began to claim t,hat reason, science and democracy were exclusive to European., It was a strange claim from thinkers who claimed that knowledge should be based on observation and reason – it should be objective. In truth, it is hard to imagine how any society, including the most primitive, could have adapted to their ecology without following – at least intuitively – the scientific method. In practical matters, knowledge unsupported by experience would have proved fatal for societies that were exposed more frequently than ours to life-threatening conditions. Moreover, the Arab scientists were not only practicing the scientific method in their studies on optics, chemistry and astronomy, but in the early eleventh century, Ibn al-Haytham, known to the West as Alhazen, had offered a clear theoretical formulation of the scientific method. Roger Bacon, the putative founder of the scientific method had read parts of al-Haytham’s major work, Kitab al-Manazir, in a Latin translation, and summarized it in his own book, Perspectiva. If democracy is equated with the counting of heads, even the United States – the self-declared bastion of democracy – was counting considerably fewer than half the heads until 1920, when women gained the right to vote. Blacks would not be counted until 1965. On the whole, the counting of heads has come to Europe after centuries of economic progress; it was not the foundation of their progress. Monarchic absolutism was stronger in nearly all of early modern Europe than it was in the Islamicate, whose rulers had only limited control over legislation and, in addition, faced institutionalized opposition from the class of legal scholars.[9] The nomadic tribes in Africa and Asia had their council of elders, were led by a meritocracy, and, while their egalitarianism often excluded women, it generally went farther than in the stratified societies of Europe. The Indians had local self-government in their panchayats. The Pashtoons had their parliament in the loya jirga. The early Arabs could withhold baya – an oath of loyalty – from an unacceptable new ruler. If democracy is defined by its substance, by tolerance – respect for differences of religion, color, ethnicity and phsyiognomy – most Enlightenment thinkers limited its application only to members of the white race. Tolerance has not been a particularly visible European virtue. In modern times, but especially since the Age of Enligtenment, Christian intolerance was replaced by a racial intolerance that translated quickly into schemes of genocide or support for slavery in the Americas, Africa and Oceania. The Ottomans, with their system of millets – which granted a great deal of autonomy to their non-Muslim religious communities – afforded far greater protections to all segments of their subjects. In imposing one set of laws pertaining to the affairs of the family – often of Christian inspiration – modern Western states cannot equal the tolerance of the Islamicate which allowed its non-Muslim communities to order their family affairs according to their own religious laws. Universally condemned by Western writers, the tax imposed by Muslim states on its non-Muslim population was often considered a privilege by the latter since it exempted them from military service. When Western powers forced the Ottomans to grant ‘equality’ to its Christian population, they rioted against this measure in several Ottoman cities. The rejection of priestly intermediation, starting in the fifteenth century, is commonly regarded as the first blow for modernity: allegedly, it freed the European to read the Bible in the vernacular and deal directly with his God. Islam had accomplished this, in a more radical fashion, in the early seventh century; and who is to say that Europeans were unaware of this Islamic precedent, or that there was no Islamic inspiration behind the Protestant movement.[10] Oddly, however, the rupture with Rome also freed Christianity to be nationalized, to be appropriated by the newly emerging states in Western Europe, who proceeded to establish a national church and doctrine, which then sanctioned religious wars, persecution and, no less, colonization and slavery of non-Europeans. In other words, the freedom of conscience in the early modern West was generally more circumscribed than in the Islamicate, where no Church existed to enforced religious dogma, and Muslims were free to live their lives according to the legal traditions of their choice. The inspiration for the central idea of orthodox economics – its vigorous opposition to state interventions – came primarily from the Chinese. In his time, Francois Quesnay, the leading light of the French pioneers of this policy – the Physiocrates – was known as the ‘European Confucius.’ The watch-word that summed up Physiocratic political economy, laissez faire, was a direct translation from the Chinese phrase wu wei. [11] Adam Smith, the putative Anglo-Saxon founder of classical economics, was a disciple of Quesnay. Few orthodox economists know that the language they speak – though not its intent – was invented by the ancient Chinese. Since machines defined modernity ,– for a growing numbers of Europeans starting in the eighteenth century – ,it may be worth recalling that many of the machines that led the Europeans into modernity ,– water mills, windmills, the compass, lateen sail, astrolabe, the armillary sphere, the inner mechanisms of the clock, seed drills, mechanized mowers and threshers, iron moldboard plow, printing press, pumps, the rudder, cannons and guns, and many others – ,had their origins outside Western Europe, ,in China or the Islamicate. [12] If they originated in Greece, they were refined and improved for many centuries in the Islamicate before they were passed on to western Europe.

When will self-driving cars be available to consumers?

The simple ignition switch was patented over 100 years ago and has been manufactured for decades; but in 2014 GM (one of the worlds oldest, biggest, auto manufacturers) ,recalled 30 million vehicles, for faulty ignition switches that could cause the engine to turn off while driving, potentially resulting in a crash and turning off the airbags at the same time. The Japanese company Takata started making airbags in the 1980s and controls 20% of the global market share; but in recent years, it was the cause of over, 40 million recalls, — in the US alone — to correct a problem that, literally killed people,. The tailgate opener on my 2014 Jeep has only worked intermittently since it was brand new, and the transmission required half a dozen updates from the dealer to shift properly (automatic transmissions and motorized tailgates are also not exactly new, cutting edge, technologies). There are countless other well known recalls and widely known issues I could point to, as well. Fully self-driving cars will, unfortunately, not be mainstream for decades,, in my opinion (as a mechanic, lawyer, and techie). 2030 at earliest. That is, if we mean cars that would allow the driver to nap or do other things instead of waiting at attention in case the car needs to hand back control to the driver. See ridiculous hypothetical below. The technology will get better fast, like all technology does. However, our infrastructure and our legal system and our insurance frameworks will take decades to catch up,. Most importantly (and strangely not talked about), though, is the fact that, most auto manufacturers are terrible at reliability of even relatively simple parts,. What makes us think that they will all be perfect as soon as the self driving technology is ready? There will also be a critical mass issue, where truly self-driving cars will only work once most cars on the road are self-driving. Getting to that tipping point will take a while. We already have some autonomous technologies that are great and will only get better. Adaptive cruise control, lane keep assist, and self-parking are already available (and work very well) on mainstream (non-luxury) cars. Those technologies — spearheaded by Tesla’s autopilot and similar systems from BMW and Mercedes — will keep getting better. They will work in more and more situations (speeds, weather conditions, traffic patterns). However, it will be a VERY long time before the driver can literally doze off and let the car drive them home. Drivers will still need to be ready to take over and interject if anything unexpected happens. I love new technology and would love to be as optimistic as all the other answers to this question, but our society and legal framework don’t work that way. The software will get better FAST, but the world won’t be ready and most manufacturers have not shown any reason to be confident in their ability to let us literally fall asleep at the wheel and trust their product to drive us safely at highway speeds. The coverage of this topic focuses on the technology aspect of it, which is truly exciting. I have no doubt that the likes of Tesla, Google, and Uber can take this technology to the next level in a few years time. The problem is, a car is not an app. It is an intensive product to manufacture with countless opportunities for errors along the way. And our legal framework is nowhere near setup to handle all the issues that will come with all of that. As a society we are nowhere near prepared to handle the following simple hypotheticals, and that means we are nowhere near prepared to underwrite insurance policies to cover them, which means they won’t be legal on the road: If Lyft develops self driving software that its joint venture partner, GM, wants to use in its cars, which are manufactured in a Mexican factory the factory is owned by a GM subsidiary, that relies on cameras from Mobileye, which are designed in Israel and manufactured by a Chinese contractor, and those cameras are not packaged correctly in Taiwan the Greek cargo ship they cross the Pacific on is reckless in how it deals with bad weather, jostling the poorly packaged cameras before they are installed by a factory worker in the Mexico plant who forgot to wear the special gloves required to handle the cameras — even though they visibly look fine and the Lyft software self diagnosis says they work and a driver who has maybe had just a little too much to drink — but not enough to be over the legal limit — wants to rely on the self driving system in his brand new GM car to get him home safely and the car hits a ridiculously deep pothole that was not addressed by the backlogged city transportation department and even though the car’s cameras worked before, the vibration from the pothole exacerbated the loose connection caused by the jostling it received on the container ship in unexpected bad weather, which woudln’t have been an issue if it was packaged properly GM found out about the poor packaging and thought about a recall but Lyft’s self diagnostic software said the cameras were fine and as a result the car’s software lost input from the camera mid-maneuver and failed to properly rely on the other cameras to correct the issue fast enough to avoid hitting a small child whose parent was inattentive while texting about a death in the family, allowing the child to cross an intersection illegally. who would be liable? what would that insurance claim look like? which insurance company would even be involved? This ridiculous hypothetical looks like a law school final exam, but the question will have to be answered after the first freak accident that involves a recalled part and negligence by multiple parties involved. Is the driver simply liable for anything that happens because he thought he was too drunk to “drive” even though his blood test proved he was below the legal limit? Was the driver’s insurance policy supposed to contemplate the newest self driving technology? Was Lyft’s software negligent in its assumptions/self diagnosis? Was GM negligent in its oversight of its foreign manufacturing plant? Was Mobileye negligent in its product packaging standards required for the cameras, or was it the foreign contractor’s fault for not following directions even though it would have been fine if there was no bad weather during transport? There are a million other hypothetical situations that need to be solved for before self driving cars will take over your morning commute. The technology itself is the easy part.

Which car is the most luxurious car in the world?

Top Gear's top 10: luxury cars We put our sensible hats on to bring you the 10 best luxury cars out there 1.Jaguar XJ Jaguar’s futuristic range-topping saloon remains a striking car, even three years after launch. For 2014 it was tweaked, with subtly honed suspension settings, better sat nav, a standard eight-speed auto with stop-start plus big improvements in diesel efficiency. Now it’s been facelifted again, with revised engines and interior tech, full-LED headlights and more distinctive ‘J-blade’ daytime running lights. The XJR is still around, with its 550bhp supercharged 5.0-litre V8 and Merc-AMG-like attitude. But now there’s a R-Sport model for those who want the looks but not the fuel bills. There’s a new top-of-the-line Autobiography trim too, for those who like to spend no less than six figures. 9.Porsche Panamera The all-new, second-generation Porsche Panamera. Yep, really. All of its parts are new, even if it does just look like a facelift. Albeit a very successful one: the Panamera has finally grown into its skin, and wears its 911 styling cues better than ever. You may disagree, but we think it looks pretty darn good. 8.Bentley Bentayga £133,100 – £196,590 It’s what happens with the might of the VW Group megazords together to combine all its tech and toys in one ultimate SUV. The Bentley Bentayga is the Crewe marque’s first SUV, and if you we’re being cynical, you’d immediately point out that underneath, this car shares some of its roots with the likes of the Porsche Cayenne, the Audi Q7, the Lamborghini Urus, and indeed the VW Touareg. But being a Bentley, it has to be faster than the Porsche, more luxurious than the Audi, more refined than the VW and better off-road than the Lambo. Excess all areas. And you know what? Bentley has succeeded. We can debate the morality of two-tonne-plus SUVs versus their popularity forever, but there’s no doubt that the Bentayga is a tour de force. It’s been around since, so there have been several models of Bentayga so far. The original was the standard W12, powered by a 6.0-litre bi-turbo engine good for 605bhp. That’s now been superseded by the Bentayga Speed, which uses a redeveloped version of the same engine to achieve 626bhp. Too profligate? If you were quick ,you could have got hold of the first and only diesel Bentley ever made: the Bentayga diesel, which used Audi’s 430bhp electro-turbo V8 derv. A magnificently rangey and torque-rich experience, the tide-turn against diesel saw the model killed off in Europe, effectively replaced by a V6 petrol a plug-in hybrid model instead, bolstering the Bentayga’s eco ranks. Sort of. There’s also a V8 petrol model, which is probably the sweet spot of the range, as it is with most Bentleys, truth be told. All Bentaygas are of course four-wheel drive, all weigh north of two tonnes, and all of them seat five people. Apart from the ones optioned like a private jet to seat four instead. Prices? From £130,000, if you avoid the options. As if you would… 7.Rolls-Royce Wraith £251,240 – £288,410 The Wraith is billed as “the most powerful and dynamic Rolls-Royce in history”. The first bit is easily dealt with: a turbocharged 6.6-litre V12 sends 624bhp to the rear wheels, ten per cent more power than you’ll find even in the new Phantom and Cullinan. As for the most dynamic? Well, you’d argue that’s not difficult, given Rolls has long mastered the art of hefty, comfy cars that are designed to soothe not scintillate. But the Wraith is based upon the Ghost limo, so it’s hardly got a sporting chassis at its core, though its rear axle has been widened and its wheelbase shortened. “The car’s suspension has also been tuned to minimise body roll and discreetly amplify feedback when cornering,” says Rolls, “while steering weight is heavier at high speeds and lighter at low speeds adding to the spirited drive.” Achieving those high speeds ought to be a doddle; with two turbos, the Wraith has a ginormous 590lb ft of torque available from 1,500rpm, enough to shift its 2.4 tonnes to 60mph in 4.4secs. Quicker than hot hatches with not dissimilar power-to-weight ratios, and quite startling to experience in something with lambs’ wool floor mats. Indeed, it may be the most sporting Rolls ever, but it’s still dripping in luxury. There are four finely proportioned seats, sumptuous materials across most surfaces and head- and leg-room aplenty, even in the rear. Don’t worry, the front seats electrically whirr forward to allow anyone climbing into the back some extra grace. Its £250,000 starting price really is just the start, too. Few Rolls-Royces leave the Goodwood factory without first having been made fully bespoke to their buyer’s needs; colour-matched inside and out, fibre-optic star headlining fitted, the full works. Half the fun of having a Rolls-Royce isn’t driving it (or being driven in it), but the buying process itself. The Wraith is now one of the oldest Rolls-Royces on sale, having arrived in 2013. The Ghost it’s spun from landed in 2010, and its drop-top sibling – the Dawn – started production in 2015. While the new-generation Phantom is sold only as a saloon, the Wraith is the car of choice if you want your Rolls-Royce to take the form of a two-door coupe. 6.BMW 7 Series Well, it used to be the ultimate BMW. A 7 Series was the undisputed flagship. But is that the case any more? Especially now that the X7 exists – a luxury limo in the (ghastly) shape of a seven-seat SUV. There’s the new 8 Series too, which will spawn a four-door saloon version – with an M badge. Certainly, there are other BMWs vying for the title of boss of the family. Meanwhile, BMW’s been listening to what its customers wanted from the 7 to beat the likes of the Mercedes S-Class (traditionally the class-defining leader in the limo set) and the Audi A8. And, what they came up with was a triple-threat approach. “Make it more imposing, make it look more different to a 3 and 5 Series, and give us more novelty features,” said the customers. Well, we can probably tick off tasks 1 & 2. The new 7 Series is a mildly terrifying looking object, thanks mostly to slimmer laser headlights framing a grille that’s 40 per cent bigger than the last version. No kidding. The whole bonnet is 50mm higher to squeeze in the mega grille, all in the name of giving the car more road presence. Lower down, the bumper now has cleaner, slipperier aero, diverting draughts into the front wheelarches and back out again by newly vertical ‘air breather’ vents, which reduce drag. Boy is it bluff to look at. A BMW caricature. In a hall of mirrors. Round the back, the LED lights are now more angular and their lighting elements animate and ‘scroll’ across the car. Apparently the boss of BMW Korea hugged the designers when they demonstrated this, so grateful was he that this gimmick – sorry, novelty – had been built in. Oh, and there’s a full-width light bar at the back, like every other German car these days. Are you not convinced? Are you wretching over your screen? Well frankly, unless you’re in China, BMW doesn’t give a monkey’s. In China, the 7 Series has a 40 per cent market share, and the big grilles and XXL chrome is bang-on for Asian tastes. BMW says it’s also had bags of positive feedback about how the car looks from American and European customers. They seem to be quite difficult to track down, though… Inside, the 7 has been gifted a new centre console layout with flush glossy buttons from the 8 Series, and the new digital dials from right across the BMW range. The highlight is the bodyshell. BMW made use of techniques and production methods devised for the i3 and i8 to trim 40kg from the 7’s chassis, which incorporates bits of carbon fibre (some as long as a normal-sized bloke is tall) for added stiffness, strength and lightness. All told, the new 7 is some 130kg lighter than the old car. A net 200 if you factor in all the added kit, which weighs 70kg by itself. Powertrain wise, the biggest improvements come in the 740Le plug-in hybrid, which can now go up to 36 miles on a charge, thanks to a 40 per cent increase in battery capacity. There’s also an entirely new, and utterly glorious V8, in the 750i, which is great news for American customers but of little note in Britain, where it’ll incur more tax than a cross-channel ferry. The M760Li V12 lives on, albeit dropping below 600bhp because of pesky new particulate filters strangling the power a touch. We doubt you’ll notice. 5.Audi A8 £70,785 – £104,590 A big, important barge of a thing relatively few will buy, and a technical achievement few have the resources or engineering might to match or surpass. It’s the new Audi A8 – the cleverest Audi of all. And so it should be, because if you really want to see what a manufacturer is truly capable of engineering, you look at its flagship. And the A8 is and always had been Audi’s, which is why the new one gets a load of tech’ we haven’t seen before, but almost certainly will on future A6s and A4s. Tech’ like ‘Traffic Jam Pilot’, which delivers “conditional level three autonomy” by taking complete control of the steering, brakes and accelerator on motorways and dual-carriageways. Or the new infotainment system, which pairs Audi’s ‘Virtual Cockpit’ instrument cluster with two touchscreens for a largely button-free centre-console. Much of said tech’ can only exist for the 48-volt, water-cooled electrical system that technically makes the A8 an ‘MHEV’, or ‘mild-hybrid electric vehicle’. This all takes some explaining, so more later. More too on the interior, which because the new A8 is bigger than the car it replaces – longer by 32mm and taller by 13 in either short- or long-wheelbase (which adds another 13cm of rear legroom) – is suitably spacious. The car’s heavier too; for all the aluminium, CFRP and magnesium Audi promises it’s used in the more rigid ‘Space Frame’ chassis, it’s almost 100kg up on the old car and lardier than either of its main competitors, the (relatively) featherweight carbon-cored BMW 7 Series and Mercedes S-Class. So in the short-term anyway, it’s not massively quick. For starters Brits get a 3.0-litre V6 in either petrol or diesel. An ‘e-tron’ plug-in hybrid (with wireless charging) will follow along with a W12 and 4.0-litre diesel V8. And the one you want is… 4.Bentley Continental GT There’s a key point in Bentley’s timeline that we can call BC: Before Continental. So vital was the first Conti GT – not only for sales, but setting a template and tone for the whole brand – that you could easily argue that were it not for the two-door coupe Bentley might very well not be with us today. The most successful luxury car of modern times? Quite probably. And now it’s into its second generation. It must sell well, and it must still be the focal point for the whole brand, to embody what a Bentley is while the Bentayga SUV makes the big bucks elsewhere in the range. It’s a handsome thing, the new Conti GT, at least in profile, where the front wheels have been shifted forward to improve the weight distribution and drop the engine lower and further back in the chassis. In fact 55 per cent of the weight still sits on those front wheels, but there’s less of it than before – the body alone is 80kg lighter, helping the new Conti GT weigh ‘only’ 2,244kg. But Bentley has made no secret of the fact that a heavy kerb weight actually helps deliver the road-crushing stability and momentum that characterises the way its cars drive. They’re knowingly hefty things. Powerful 48v electrics from the Bentayga are used – among other things – to manage the suspension, with actuators on front and rear anti-roll bars combating body roll. The set 40:60 power split is now fully variable and actually sends 100 per cent of torque to the rear wheels as often as possible to the benefit of fuel efficiency and emissions. There are two engines to choose from. Cheapest is the V8, a 4.0-litre twin turbo offering up 550bhp, a 4.0sec 0-62mph time and 198mph top speed. Another eleven grand upgrades you to the big-boy 6.0-litre W12 engine. Basically two V6s on a common crank, it’s carried over from the old Conti albeit modified enough for Bentley to declare it the ‘most advanced 12-cylinder engine in the world’. It features cylinder shut off under light loads, while also producing 626bhp and a thumping 664lb ft of torque from a mere 1,350rpm, maintaining that through to 4,500rpm. Performance is better: 0-62mph takes 3.7sec and its top speed is 207mph. Both versions powering all four wheels through an eight-speed gearbox and, should be feel like behaving uncouthly, via a launch control system. Standard specification includes full Matrix LED lights, a 12.3in central touchscreen, wifi, head-up display, night vision, a 650w stereo and 21in wheels. Pricing starts at around £150,000, putting this in direct competition with the likes of the Aston Martin DB11, Mercedes S63 Coupe and Ferrari Portofino. But you won’t be spending that. You’ll be spending much more, getting the stitching to match your shoes, the wood to match the office in your third home, and so on. This is a car made for the bespoke treatment. 3.Rolls-Royce Phantom Since the first Phantom appeared in 1925, Rolls-Royce Motor Cars has had its ups and downs. When the outgoing Phantom appeared at the stroke of midnight on January 1st 2003, the company even called it ‘the last great automotive adventure’. Maybe that should have been penultimate, because we’ve just driven the new car, and as internal combustion most likely won’t be around in another 14 years’ time, this really could be The One. Rolls-Royce reckons the Phantom is the barometer by which everyone else in the world of expensive luxury goods measures themselves, so the bar isn’t just raised here, it’s bejewelled and platinum-plated. You know when someone claims to be ‘the Rolls-Royce of watches/furniture/granite-kitchen-worktops’? Well, this is the Rolls-Royce of Rolls-Royces. Rolls says the Phantom’s new spaceframe structure is 30 per cent more rigid than the previous model, a figure that rises significantly in key areas such as suspension and gearbox. This new structure, coincidentally, offers sufficient flexibility to underpin the next wave of Rolls product, its SUV included. The chassis gets an all-new suspension setup, with a double wishbone configuration on the front, a five-link axle at the rear, adaptive dampers, and active anti-roll bars. It’s also the latest car to benefit from four-wheel steering, whose three degrees of counter-steer help shrink the car’s heft at higher speeds, as well as improving low-speed agility. The Phant’s air springs feature bigger chambers than on any previous Rolls, and the tyres are specially developed Continentals whose structure incorporates 2kg of sound absorbent material. There’s 6mm-thick, dual-layer double glazing windows all-round. The body-in-white features the largest-ever cast aluminium joints to enhance sound insulation, and overall the Phantom carries more than 130kg of sound-deadening material. There’s double skin alloy within the floor and on the front bulkhead, into which a foam and felt layer is squeezed. There’s more insulating material in the headliner, doors, and boot cavity. All of this contributes to the car’s 2,560kg kerbweight (2,610kg if you go for the long ’un, which adds 220mm to the wheelbase), but that’s surely an irelevance. As well as monitoring body and wheel acceleration and steering inputs, a stereo camera mounted in the windscreen reads the road ahead to effectively erase surface unpleasantness before it’s allowed to upset the occupants’ Dom Perignon. The new Phantom also features so many assistance systems that the heart of its electronic architecture is the single largest component produced by the BMW Group. 2.Range Rover £81,785 – £177,485 Arguably the definitive big, luxury SUV. Frequently imitated, but rarely bettered or even equalled, the Range Rover has been around since the early Seventies. And even though that means it’s only a couple years shy of its fiftieth birthday, the Rangie is still only in its fourth generation. Admittedly the fact the first-gen (later known as the ‘Classic’) lasted for more than two decades skews that figure a bit. But still… The current car was launched in 2012. It debuted a new aluminium monocoque that cost the company a billion quid or so to develop. So even though it’s bigger than the car it replaced, it’s lighter by in some cases almost half a tonne. That means it’s faster, tangibly better to drive and more efficient. And with the 2018 facelift comes even more efficiency, thanks to the introduction of the P400e plug-in hybrid, which pairs a 296bhp, four-cylinder petrol engine with a 114bhp electric motor for 64g/km of CO2, a claimed 101mpg and 31 miles of all-electric range. The P400e replaces the SDV6 Hybrid (a conventional, non-plug-in hybrid with the 3.0-litre V6 diesel and a small electric motor) in the line-up, but V6s and V8s in petrol and diesel (with up to 557bhp for the flagship, 5.0-litre supercharged V8 petrol) remain available. All are linked to an eight-speed automatic gearbox and all-wheel drive with the deeply clever ‘Terrain Response’ technology that gives the Rangie its peerless off-road ability. Nowadays the Rangie doesn’t just compete with other big SUVs, but conventional luxury saloons like the Mercedes S-Class, BMW 7 Series and Audi A8. It has to rival those cars – traditionally their makers’ technological flagships – on every level. Which is why the new car offers higher levels of luxury and cleverer tech than we’ve yet seen from JLR. For the facelift it’s added the dual-touchscreen infotainment setup as debuted in the Range Rover Velar, ‘Pixel’ headlamps with 144 LEDs and four laser diodes each for more than 500m of visibility and much besides. We’re promised a new seat design - adjustable up to 24 (!) ways - makes the Rangie “more comfortable than ever” in the front, and that the ‘Executive Class Seating’ option for rear-seat passengers gives “the impression of a luxurious wraparound lounge-like interior”. Exterior changes include a new grille and bumper, with larger vent blades. At the side the lower accents and vents have been reworked, while at the rear the updated bumper features integrated tailpipes across all derivatives. Long- and short-wheelbase options are available, with prices starting at £79,595 for the former and £112,900 for the latter, and rising to £177,030 for V8-engined examples of Rangies fettled by JLR’s Special Vehicle Operations division. 1.Mercedes-Benz S-Class Without a doubt the benchmark big luxury saloon, the one Audi, BMW, Lexus, Cadillac and even Jaguar and Maserati must define themselves by and be measured against. This car defines the sector and is the one all others must topple. The latest A8 and 7 Series are both much newer than the S and thus have some exceptionally clever tech on-board, but while both are excellent cars in their own right, neither is quite as special as the big Merc. A facelift in 2017 – this generation’s last before it’s replaced by an entirely new S-Class – gave many new things. Chief among them new engines, Merc’s latest-generation in-line six-cylinder diesels and petrols, plus a plug-in hybrid and the S63 AMG’s V8 bi-turbo petrol. The rare-groove S65 is no more, but you can still get a V12-engined S-Class in the form of the super-luxe, super-rare and super-expensive £180,000 Mercedes-Maybach S650. This update also gave the S-Class an array of semi-autonomous driving technology like Active Speed Limit Assist, Active Lane Change Assist and Remote Parking Assist, most of which debuted in the E-Class. But to make sure the S-Class kept its crown as the techiest Merc, it got a few of its own too. The main one is a kind of active cruise control that, as well as sensing and maintaining gaps to other cars, knows to slow you for roundabouts, corners and tolls using GPS. Of course that particular system has been rolled out to other Mercs now, but it’s reasonable to expect much cleverness from the new S-Class, which could be revealed as soon as this year. Because this particular era of S-Class is so near the end of its life, Mercedes has massively cut back on the number of trim levels/equipment combinations if offers. Now there’s just one trim for the non-AMGs – ‘Grand Edition’ – and only the cheapest S350d is available with the short-wheelbase.

Why did the United States Military Services use so many antiquated propeller driven aircraft in Vietnam? Was it because they were plentiful in the military storage facilities?

I think first we have to define “antiquated.” Just because an airplanes uses propellers does not make it obsolete for the purpose intended. Piston and turboprop airplanes can do things jet aircraft can’t do. For instance, they can get in and out of shorter airstrips, are more likely to be rough field capable, and they are much less susceptible to foreign object damage. I suppose you are talking about aircraft like the O-1 Bird Dog, O-2 Skymaster, OV-1 Mohawk, OV-10 Bronco, the C-123 Provider, the C-130 Hercules, the AC-47 Spooky, and the A-1 Skyraider. Let’s run them down and see just how antiquated they really were. The O-1 (aka the L-19 before the designation system for military aircraft was changed), was the first airplane purchased by the United States Air Force in 1947. It was used for all manner of things: instrument flight training, artillery spotting, and as an aerial jeep, as the Piper Cub had been before it. The Bird Dog earned its spurs in Korea, adding the missions of aerial ambulance, aerial reconnaissance, and signal relay station to its mission list. After the Army acquired them, it added yet one more: primary flight trainer. It performed all of those missions in Vietnam, and added one more: forward air controller. The Bird Dog was finally retired by the Air Force in 1974, a year after America’s involvement in Vietnam ended. The O-2 Skymaster came about as an idea of Cessna’s: a twin engine airplane that could be flown by pilots with a single-engine license. The big difference between a single-engine and a twin engine is the engines are mounted on the wings. When one engine fails, the plane turns into the dead engine quite sharply, and it takes training to learn how to recover from that without stalling out and dumping the bird. But if the engines are mounted in tandem, one in front and one in the back, when an engine fails the only change is the airplane flies slower. That was the pitch Cessna made to the Federal Aviation Administration to sell the bird. The FAA shot that idea down, but the airplane itself was what the Air Force and the Army were looking for to replace the aging Bird Dogs. The O-2s went to Vietnam and took over the forward air controller mission, and added one more: psychological warfare airplane. The CIA used them to drop pamphlets to the VC to convince them of the hopelessness of their cause. The Skymaster proved to be as good a bird as the Bird Dog. The last one wasn’t retired until 2010, and you still see civilian models flying now and then. The OV-1 Mohawk and the OV-10 Bronco were developed by the Army and the Marines for reconnaissance purposes starting in 1959 for the Mohawk, and 1965 for the Bronco. Both were adapted to the forward air control mission shortly after deploying to Vietnam. Sturdy workhorses, they were adapted for light strike work, mounting machine gun pods and unguided rockets. They were finally retired from military service in 1996 and 1995 respectively. The C-123 Provider has the curious distinction of having started life as an assault glider. After the Berlin Airlift taught the Air Force the need for a cargo bird that could operate off short, rough fields, Fairchild put a pair of Pratt & Whitney engines on the glider and turned it into a stubby, tough supply plane. The Provider entered service in 1949, went to Vietnam mainly because the Air Force got its nose out of joint because the Army was operating CV-2 Caribous there, and it turned in good service. After Vietnam the Providers were transferred to the Air National Guard and was finally retired in the early 1980s. The C-130 Hercules is so antiquated that it is still in production today. It entered service with the Air Force in 1956, and has earned a reputation as a do-anything-anywhere airplane. They carry cargo, paratroopers, air assault troops, patrol offshore, support scientific missions, act as refueling tankers, aerial firefighters, and one of the most dreaded ground attack airplanes in the world as the AC-130J Ghostrider. The Herk can operate off unimproved runways, roads, skis (they are used to resupply the Antarctic research bases), and is even carrier-capable if you have a pilot with the heart of a lion and big brass balls. (In the TV show ,JAG,, Harmon Rabb made an emergency landing of a damaged Herk on the USS ,Seahawk,. That bit of drama was inspired by a test program of the late 1950s in which LCDR James Flatley III made 21 full stop landings and full power takeoffs from the USS ,Forrestal,. The Hercules really did it, and to this day remains the largest airplane ever to operate off an aircraft carrier.) The Air Force is talking about an airplane that would replace the Hercules, but so far they haven’t found one as versatile as that 1950s world-beating design. The Douglas A-1 Skyraider was developed during World War II to replace the legendary SBD Dauntless dive bomber, the TBF Avenger torpedo bomber, and the SB2C Helldiver dive bomber, but it entered service too late for World War II. Its first combat was in Korea, where its heavy ordnance load (it could carry the same bomb load as a B-17 Flying Fortress of World War II), long loiter time over the target area, and ability to take battle damage and still bring its pilot home earned it a sterling reputation as a ground attack plane. It added to its laurels in Vietnam for its ground attack ability, and with the nickname “Sandy,” as a rescue helicopter escort capable of dealing with VC and NVA ground troops. The Skyraiders were retired from U.S. service and the aircraft in-theater were transferred to South Vietnam around the time we ended our involvement there. But the oldest airplane on the list became one of the most famous of the Vietnam era. As the C-47 Skytrain, aka the Gooney Bird, she traces her design back to 1935 as a civilian airliner: the Douglas DC-3 Douglas Sleeper Transport, the first airplane to offer Pullman-type service. When World War II broke out, production went to a bare-bones cargo version that was used for carrying cargo and paratroops. Ultimately, more than 16,000 DC-3s were built, including aircraft built by the Soviets and the Japanese. Worldwide, 2,000 of them are still flying. One problem that emerged in Vietnam was the difficulty in providing ground support through triple canopy jungle. The Air Force had been lackadaisically working on a gunship program (the USAF has never been enthusiastic about the ground support mission; they much prefer bombers and fighters), but it was not until an Air Force pilot with ground support experience came home from Vietnam in 1965 and took charge of it that things started to move. He went back to Vietnam with his project team, equipped a C-47 with three 7.62mm Vulcan miniguns and racks for dropping flares, and they were in business. If you have see the John Wayne movie ,The Green Berets,, you will recall the defense of a Special Forces forward base where the survivors of that fight had to flee the base before it was overrun. The footage of the AC-47 with the call sign “Puff” with her guns firing is the real thing. The footage of the VC falling in droves on the ground with bullet strikes all around them is Hollywood SFX, but it is based on actual tests. A Vulcan Minigun fires 2000 rounds per minute, and the Spooky mounted three of them. To give you an idea of what that means, if Puff the Magic Dragon flew at 2000 feet at normal cruising speed and switched on her guns as she crossed the end zone of an American football field, ,she would plant a bullet into every square foot of the football field in the time it took to fly from one end to the other. The AC-47s were retired by the USAF in 1969 in favor of the more heavily armed AC-130 Spectre, but they continued in service with South Vietnam’s air force, and the air force of North Vietnam after South Vietnam fell. Other nations since have made similar conversions of commercial Gooney Birds to AC-47s, and they continue in service 80-plus years after the airplane was designed. So perhaps those “antiquated” airplanes are not so antiquated after all. All of them have a supreme virtue for ground support work: long loiter times measured in hours where jets would have loiter times measured in minutes. Slow and steady has a place in warfare too.

Which used SUV is best to buy, Montero, Fortuner, or MUX?

I'm just going to make a list for you. Toyota Fortuner As a Fortuner owner myself, i would recommend you this if you like a simple car without too much hassle. The Fortuner offers 2 engine variants, which is the N/A 2.7l Dual VVT-i petrol engine (2TR-FE), And the turbocharged 2.4l D-4D common rail diesel engine (my fortuner does 8.8km/l). Fortuners are in my opinion very comfortable cars and easy to maintain. Here are the features it has HID Projector Headlamps (Automatic) Auto-folding mirrors Keyless entry and engine start button Cruise Control Automatic climate control (single zone) 3-row climate vents One-touch tumble (2 row seats) Electric seat (driver side only) Head unit with Bluetooth, Miracast, CD/DVD changer, voice command, gesture controls (supposedly) Rear DVD monitor Automatic tailgate Foot sensor Rear camera But getting this car means you're missing a lot of features that is offered by it's competitors. The Fortuner also has the least power output compared to the Pajero Sport and the MU-X. Mitsubishi Pajero Sport The Pajero Sport is the best option here if you want features-galore! It's recent facelift refined the Dynamic Shield design, looking similar to the Mitsubishi Xpander offered here in S.E.A Unlike the Fortuner, the Pajero isn't offered a petrol powered engine in the Philippines. The Pajero is powered by a turbocharged common rail diesel (4N15 MIVEC). The Pajero Sport is comfortable to drive, but not as comfortable as the Fortuner (according to my friend's opinion). Here are the features! Dual Headlight Configuration (Automatic) Keyless Entry & Engine Start Button Dual Zone climate control 3-row climate vents Adaptive Cruise Control One-touch tumble (2 row seats) Electric seat (driver side only) Sunroof Electric parking brake with auto hold Full TFT Display Head unit with Bluetooth, HDMI, CD/DVD player, Navigation Automatic Tailgate Rear Camera 360 degree camera The Pajero Sport is the best in class in terms of features and performance, but that also means it's the most expensive from the trio. Isuzu MU-X The MU-X is in the middle of the pack, it was recently facelifted again. And it's the oldest of the trio. The MU-X is offered 2 options for a diesel engine, but no petrol version is available. You can get either 2.5l or a 3.0l turbocharged common rail diesel engine. The MU-X has a similar feeling to the Fortuner, but everything feels older. Here are the features : HID Projector Headlamps (Automatic) Auto-folding mirrors Keyless Entry & Engine Start Button Cruise Control Automatic climate control (single-zone) 3-row climate vents Head unit with Bluetooth, CD/DVD player, Navigation One-touch tumble (2-row) Electric seat (driver side only) Rear camera 360 degree camera The MU-X is almost a 7 year old car without much changes throughout the years, although you can expect S.E.A will soon get the full redesigned interior from the chinese version! And if you don't like the MU-X design, you can take it's sister car the Chevrolet Trailblazer. Out of the 3 cars, i would recommend you the Pajero Sport, as it is the better car compared to the Fortuner and MU-X. It's recent facelift should be enough to make you want it haha. Pick the Fortuner if you want a simple, hassle free car. Pick the Pajero if you want to be up to date to most newer cars. Pick the MU-X if you want something different on the road.

If you own an electric vehicle, do you prefer it to conventional gas vehicles?

I own three automobiles at present. The oldest, a 1997 Volvo 850 just failed its emissions test for the first time in 156,000 miles on a car that is known to be quite reliable. The failure was not noticed because a dashboard light, the check engine light had burned out. That will never happen with my Tesla Model 3. The second oldest, a 2007 Prius(I find by habit I have bought a new car every ten years or so, whether I needed to or not:) had its catalytic converter stolen out from under it in broad daylight, necessitating an expensive replacement. The maximum nsurance deductable was only the beginning of its full cost to me as I am sure the Insurance company will raise my rates after that incident. The Prius too is a long lived internal combustion engined car giving good service at modest cost in maintenance. Beside the catalytic converter that car has only cost me the price of a new water pump, and can be expected to run for double the present mileage before major costs to repair begin. My Tesla will probably never need a water pump, and has no exhaust system to be stolen. So, with two fairly reliable cars on hand, why, you might ask, buy the Tesla. Of course I am not the only driver in my household, so I did need at least two. The Volvo now does duty for hauling my small boat to the water. The Tesla is by far my favorite though. Even though other fine cars in that price range have features missing from the other two cars,such as adaptive cruise control, and back-up cameras with sensors, none of the competitors can do what the Tesla does, and the Tesla gets better with time, not worse. No car I have ever had is so cheap to operate, yet so very fast and sure footed. It should last as long as the other two have with much less to repair or replace save the tires, windshield wipers and cabin air filters all of them need. No oil filters, engine air filters or ignition parts will go bad. No pistons trying hard to wear themselves out. While the Prius delighted me to find out it did not really have the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) that some other economy cars used,… it emulated that function with two electric motors constantly engaged with the engine and needed no clutch at all, the Volvo has a conventional automatic, and a lock-up clutch in addition that could pose maintenance issues later in its life. I am glad it does have that lock-up clutch, or it would get even worse fuel mileage. Some of the competing cars to the Tesla have double clutch 8 to 10 speed transmissions. Those racing types are quite a bit better, and more efficient yet allowing for a small powerful, four cylinder engine to be used instead of a fuel guzzling V8 of equal power, but the added complication, sometimes with twin turbos, is just begging for more things to go wrong. We are looking at the last few real improvements to an outmoded drive system for vehicles. And I haven’t listed the full self driving that the Tesla will be able to do as I get old enough to need it to.

HOME