The Harrier sits on the Toyota New Global Architecture platform, specifically TNGA-K thats shared with
variant with a 6-speed manual transmission as well as a dressed-up GR Sport (GR-S) variant.PT Toyota Astra
Imagine, Pre-Collision Warning & Braking (PCW & PCB), Pedal Misoperation Control (PMC), Front
Control Lane Departure Alert Lane Tracing Assist Automatic High BeamPre-collision System is Toyota&rsquo
rsquo;s price will be in Malaysian.Indonesia’s Daihatsu Rocky/Toyota Raize will be produced by Astra
It is a 1.5-litre Suzuki K-Series 4-pot that is available with either a 5-speed manual or a 4-speed torque-converter
Perodua calls it Adaptive Driving Beam and this feature is carried over from its Japanese donor cars,
What needs to be confirmed is whether will its Adaptive Cruise Control come with Stop-Go traffic function
An all-new touch module is available for the Climatronic® climate control as well.
Warning (LCW) and Pre-Collision Braking (PCB).Anjar Rosjadi, Marketing Product Planning Division Head of Astra
Comfortable third-row seatsCons Not as efficient as expected Dated-looking infotainment system Lacks adaptive
’s TNGA platform is a gemHere’s where the all-new Toyota RAV4 shines.Thanks to its TNGA-K
Keeping Assist (LKA), Rear-Cross Traffic Collision Warning (RCCW), Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Smart Cruise
Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) Forward Collision Warning (FCW) Pedal Misapplication Mitigation (AT only) Adaptive
not just responsive, its also highly communicative giving you a rewarding cornering experience.Body control
seconds.The XtraBoost feature can be activated by switching to Sport mode through the Driving Experience Control
First of all, what is traction control?
the previous generation Toyota Harrier, which has since been replaced by an all-new generation TNGA-K
drive to the front wheels.It also features a number of segment-first features, such as Intelligent Cruise
impressive suite of ADAS for its segment including AEB with pedestrian detection, BLIS, and intelligent cruise
reliability came in no better form for me than in the form of the 2007- 2011 W204 Mercedes-Benz C200K (K
featuring a new Plasma Yellow Pearl colour, a new front end, and new feature called e-Active Shift Control
Underneath the sleek new body is Toyota’s tried-and-tested TNGA platform, specifically the GA-K
PT Toyota-Astra Motor (TAM), the official importer and distributor of Toyota vehicles in Indonesia has
More interestingly is the mention that H and AV variants of the Perodua D55L will be receiving Adaptive
The Harrier, like its stablemates, sits on the TNGA platform (dubbed the GA-K, with rear double wishbones
Last week, we shared our insights on traction control and how does the system work, and due to the nature
ADAS.In the X70 (Premium and Premium X variants), the ADAS includes: Forward Collision Warning (FCW) Adaptive
Stability Control Auto Brake Hold Hill Hold Assist Hill Descent Control Emergency Stop SignalThe X70
We can overlook the lack of adaptive cruise control and semi-autonomous driving feature but AEB should
Main Astra K chat • Re: Does the Astra K has adaptive cruise control (ACC)? #Vauxhall #Astra
How To • Re: Adaptive Cruise Control to Astra K #Vauxhall #Astra
@OpelGroup Does Astra K have ACC (adaptive cruise control)?
Yes, Indian Mig-29K & Su-30MKI are better fighter jets. The ,Sukhoi Su-30MKI, is a ,twinjet, ,multirole, ,air superiority fighter, developed by Russia's ,Sukhoi, and built under licence by India's ,Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, (HAL) for the ,Indian Air Force, (IAF). A variant of the ,Sukhoi Su-30,, it is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter. The aircraft is tailor-made for Indian specifications and integrates Indian systems and avionics as well as French and Israeli sub-systems. It has abilities similar to the ,Sukhoi Su-35, with which it shares many features and components. The IAF had 240 Su-30MKIs in service as of October 2017. The Su-30MKI is expected to form the backbone of the Indian Air Force's fighter fleet to 2020 and beyond. The Su-30MKI is derived from the ,Sukhoi Su-27, and has a fusion of technology from the Su-37 demonstrator and Su-30 program, being more advanced than the ,Su-30MK, and the Chinese ,Su-30MKK/MK2,. India is planning to upgrade its Su-30MKI fighters with Russian ,Phazotron, Zhuk-AE ,Active electronically scanned array, (AESA) radars. The ,X band, radar can track 30 aerial targets in the track-while-scan mode and engage six targets simultaneously in attack mode. AESA technology offers improved performance and reliability compared with traditional mechanically scanned array radars. There are plans to integrate the nuclear-capable ,Nirbhay, missile. Upgrade 40 Su-30MKIs with new ,radars,, onboard computers, ,electronic warfare systems, and the ability to carry the ,BrahMos, ,cruise missile,. An upgrade package with an improved radar, and reduced radar signature to the Indian fleet to make them "Super Sukhois". Su-30MKI's ,canards, and thrust ,vectoring nozzles, are two prominent features over the basic MK variant. The Su-30MKI is a highly integrated ,twin-finned, aircraft. The airframe is constructed of ,titanium, and high-strength ,aluminium alloys,. The engine ,intake ramps, and ,nacelles, are fitted with ,trouser fairings, to provide a continuous streamlined profile between the nacelles and the tail beams. Su-30MKI aerodynamic configuration is a longitudinal triplane with ,relaxed stability,. The ,canard, increases the aircraft ,lift, ability and deflects automatically to allow high ,angle of attack, (AoA) flights allowing it to perform ,Pugachev's Cobra,. The Su-30MKI has a range of 3,000 km with internal fuel which ensures a 3.75 hour combat mission. Also, it has an in-flight refueling (IFR) probe that retracts beside the cockpit during normal operation. The air refueling system increases the flight duration up to 10 hours with a range of 8,000 km at a cruise height of 11 to 13 km. Su-30MKIs can also use the Cobham 754 buddy refueling pods. The Su-30MKI's ,radar cross-section, (RCS) is reportedly from 4 to 20 square metres. The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is the most potent fighter jet in service with the Indian Air Force in the late 2000s.The MKIs are often fielded by the IAF in bilateral and multilateral ,air exercises,. Indian Air Force Su-30MKI India Indian Air Force, - 240 in service in October 2017 with 272 planned by 2019. General characteristics Crew:, 2 Length:, 21.935 m (73 ft) Wingspan,:, 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in) Height:, 6.36 m (20 ft 10 in) Wing area:, 62 m² (667 ft²) Empty weight,:, 18,400 kg (40,565 lb) Loaded weight:, 26,090 kg (57,520 lb) (typical mission weight) Max. takeoff weight,:, 38,800 kg (85,600 lb) Powerplant,:, 2 × ,Lyulka AL-31,FP ,turbofans Performance Maximum speed,:, ,At high altitude:, ,Mach, 2 (2,120 km/h; 1,320 mi),At low altitude:, Mach 1.09 (1,350 km/h, 839 mph) Range,:, ,At high altitude:, 3,000 km (1,860 mi; 1,620 nmi),At low altitude:, 1,270 km (790 mi; 690 mi) Combat radius,:, 1,300 km (808 mi) Ferry range,:, 8,000 km (4,970 mi; 4,320 nmi) with two in-flight refuellings Service ceiling,:, 17,300 m (56,800 ft) Rate of climb,:, >300 m/s (>45,275 ft/min) Wing loading,:, 401 kg/m² (82.3 lb/ft²) Thrust/weight,:, 0.96 Maximum ,g,-load:, +9 g Armament Guns:, 1 × ,30 mm, ,Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1, ,autocannon Hardpoints,:, 12 ,hardpoints, (2 × wing-tip AAM launch rails, 6 × pylons under-wing, 2 × pylon under-engine ,nacelles,, and 2 × pylons in tandem in the "arch" between the engines. It can be increased to 14 using multiple ejector racks.) with a capacity of up to 8,130 kg (17,920 lb) and provisions to carry combinations of: Rockets:, 4 × ,S-8 4 × ,S-13 Missiles:, ,Air-to-air missiles,: 10 × ,R-77,, 10 × ,Astra,, 6 × ,R-27,ER/ET, 2 × ,R-27,R/T, 6 × ,R-73,, 3 × ,K-100 Air-to-surface missiles,: 3 × ,Kh-59,ME, 6 × ,Kh-29,T/L Anti-ship missiles,: 3 × ,Kh-59,MK, 4 × ,Kh-35,, 6 × ,Kh-31,A Anti-radiation missiles,: ,DRDO Anti-Radiation Missile,, 6 × ,Kh-31,P Bombs:, 8 × ,KAB-500L, ,laser-guided bombs,, 3 × ,KAB-1500L, laser-guided bombs, 8 × FAB-500T bombs, 28 × OFAB-250-270 bombs, 32 × ,OFAB-100-120, bombs, 8 × RBK-500 ,cluster bombs Other Litening, ,targeting pod El/M-2060P airborne search and rescue reconnaissance pod Chaffs / flares Buddy-buddy refuelling pod Avionics Bars, ,passive electronically scanned array, ,radar EL/M-8222 jammer DRDO Tarang MK.II ,radar warning receiver OLS-30 laser-optical ,infra-red search and track, ,radar The ,Mikoyan MiG-29K, is a ,Russian, ,all-weather, ,carrier-based, ,multirole fighter, aircraft developed by the ,Mikoyan, ,Design Bureau,. The MiG-29K was developed in the late 1980s from the ,MiG-29M,. Mikoyan describes it as a ,4++ generation, ,aircraft., It was the best fighter jet in the world in early 1990’s. Modifications were made to the MiG-29K for Indian requirements, including the Zhuk-ME radar, RD-33MK engine, a combat payload up to 5,500 kilograms (12,100 lb), 13 weapon stations, and updated 4-channel digital fly-by-wire flight control system. It is compatible with the full range of weapons carried by the ,MiG-29M and ,MiG-29SMT. The future indigenous aircraft carrier ,INS ,Vikrant,, being built by India, is also likely to carry these aircraft. The MiG-29K is drastically modified from the ,Mikoyan MiG-29M, for naval operations. The airframe and undercarriage are reinforced to withstand the stress experienced upon landing. Folding wings, an arrestor hook, and catapult attachments were added for carrier operations; the aircraft's undercarriage track was also widened. The MiG-29K, unlike the early MiG-29, can both conduct ,aerial refueling, and "buddy" refuel other aircraft. Internal fuel was increased from 3,340 to 4,560 kg (7,360 to 10,100 lb), to give a combat radius of 850 km (531 mi). The combat radius can be increased to 1,300 km (810 mi) with three underwing fuel drop tanks. The maximum weight of the aircraft grew from 19.5 to 22.4 t (43,000 to 49,400 lb), to allow for increased payloads. The MiG-29KUB two-seat fighter, intended for pilot training, can also conduct combat missions identical to the single-seat fighter. The aircraft is equipped with three multifunctional color ,liquid-crystal displays,(seven LCDs on the MiG-29KUB), a four-channel digital ,fly-by-wire, flight control system, passive homing system for anti-radar missiles, Sigma-95 GPS receiver, TopGun helmet-mounted targeting system and ,electronic countermeasures, (ECM). Additionally, an onboard oxygen generating system eliminates the need for heavy oxygen canisters. The types of combat missions undertaken by the MiG-29K can be increased by adding optronic/infrared imaging reconnaissance pods. MiG-29K has a ,GSh-30-1, 30 mm cannon in the port wing root. It has provisions for ,laser-guided, and electro-optical bombs, as well as ,air-to-surface missiles, like Kh-25ML/25MP, Kh-29T, Kh-31G/31A, Kh-35U, and rockets. Kh-31P passive radar seeker missiles are used as ,anti-radiation missiles,. Kh-35, Kh-31A antiship missiles are for anti-ship roles; for aerial combat ,air-to-air missile, like RVV-AE, R-27ER/ET and R-73E are fitted. The aircraft is also adaptable to various foreign weapons. The MiG-29K is to provide both airborne fleet air defence and surface attack capabilities. INS ,Vikramaditya, was expected to carry up to 24 MiG-29K/KUB fighters. The future indigenous aircraft carrier ,INS ,Vikrant,, being built by India, is also likely to carry these aircraft. MiG-29K Indian single seat variant. MiG-29KUB Indian tandem two-seat operational trainer variant. Indian Navy, – ,Naval Air Arm, has 45 MiG-29K/KUB aircraft in its inventory. India ordered the fighters within the framework of two contract signing in 2004 and 2010. The last ordered aircraft was delivered in February 2017. 300 Indian Naval Air Squadron 303 Indian Naval Air Squadron General characteristics Crew:, 1 or 2 Length:, 17.3 m (57 ft 9 in) Wingspan,:, 11.99 m (39 ft 5 in) Height:, 4.4 m (14 ft 5 in) Wing area:, 43 m² (462 ft²) Empty weight,:, 11,000 kg (24,250 lb) Loaded weight:, 18,550 kg (40,900 lb) Max. takeoff weight,:, 24,500 kg (54,000 lb) Powerplant,:, 2 × ,Klimov RD-33,MK ,afterburning, ,turbofans,, 88.3 kN (19,800 lbf) each Performance Maximum speed,:, ,At high altitude:, ,Mach, 2+ (2,200 km/h, 1,370 mph),At low altitude:, Mach 1.13 (1,400 km/h; 870 mph) Cruise speed,:, Mach 1.21 (1,500 km/h; 930 mph) Range,:, ,At high altitude:, 1,500 km (930 mi; 810 nmi), At low altitude:, 700 km (435 mi; 380 nmi) Combat radius,:, 850 km (528 mi; 459 nmi) Ferry range,:, ,Clean:, 2,000 km (1,240 mi; 1,080 nmi), With 3 drop tanks:, 3,000 km (1,860 mi; 1,620 nmi), With 3 drop tanks and one aerial refueling:, 5,500 km (3,420 mi; 2,970 nmi) Service ceiling,:, 17,500 m (57,400 ft) Rate of climb,:, 330 m/s (65,000 ft/min) (initial); 109 m/s (21,500 ft/min) (average) (0–6,000 m) Wing loading,:, 442 kg/m² (90.5 lb/ft²) Thrust/weight,:, 0.97 Maximum ,g,-load:, 8 g Armament Guns:, 1 × ,30 mm, ,Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1, ,autocannon, with 150 rounds Hardpoints,:, 8 × including the ones on multi-lock bomb carriers with a capacity of up to 5,500 kg (12,125 lb) of stores and provisions to carry combinations of: Rockets:, ,S-5 S-8 S-24 Missiles:, ,Air-to-air missiles,:8 × ,R-73,E,, ,6 x ,RVV-AE Anti-ship missiles,: 4 x ,Kh-31,A/AD, 4 x ,Kh-35,U/UE Anti-radiation missiles,: 4 x ,Kh-31,P/PD ,Bombs:, 4 x ,KAB-500KR, TV-guided bombs4 x ,KAB-500L, ,laser-guided bombs Others: Flare, dispenser pod and ,chaff, pod ,or Electronic countermeasures, (ECM) pod ,or Targeting pods, ,or Drop tanks Avionics Phazotron, ,Zhuk-ME, ,radar OEPS-29 ,electro-optical targeting system The ,General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon,is a single-engine ,supersonic, ,multirole, ,fighter aircraft, originally developed by ,General Dynamics, (now ,Lockheed Martin,) for the ,United States Air Force, (USAF). Designed as an ,air superiority, ,day fighter,, it evolved into a successful ,all-weather, multirole aircraft. The F-16 is a single-engine, highly maneuverable, supersonic, multi-role tactical fighter aircraft; it was designed to be a cost-effective combat "workhorse" that can perform various missions and maintain around-the-clock readiness. It is much smaller and lighter than predecessors, but uses advanced ,aerodynamics, and ,avionics,, including the first use of a ,relaxed static stability,/,fly-by-wire, (RSS/FBW) flight control system, to achieve enhanced maneuver performance. Highly nimble, the F-16 was the first fighter aircraft purpose-built to pull 9-,g,maneuvers and can reach a maximum speed of over ,Mach, 2. Innovations include a frameless ,bubble canopy, for better visibility, ,side-mounted control stick,, and reclined seat to reduce ,g-force, effects on the pilot. It is armed with an internal ,M61 Vulcan, ,cannon, in the left wing root and has multiple locations for mounting various missiles, bombs and pods. It has a ,thrust-to-weight ratio, greater than one, providing power to climb and accelerate vertically. F-16 is operated in 28 countries. F-16 is 4 the generation fighter jet of late 1970’s, so it less advance than Mig-29K & ,Su-30MKI., It is mainly used for ground attack, it has poor air superiority quantity. The ,McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet, is a ,twin-engine,, ,supersonic,, all-weather, ,carrier,-capable, ,multirole combat, jet, designed as both a ,fighter, and ,attack aircraft,. It is primarily used in navy. It is 4.5th generation fighter jet, used for strike & multirole purpose. The F/A-18 has a top speed of ,Mach, 1.8 (1,034 knots, 1,190 mph or 1,915 km/h at 40,000 ft or 12,200 m). It can carry a wide variety of bombs and missiles, including air-to-air and air-to-ground, supplemented by the 20-mm ,M61 Vulcan, cannon. It is powered by two ,General Electric F404, turbofan engines, which give the aircraft a high ,thrust-to-weight ratio,. The F/A-18 has excellent aerodynamic characteristics, primarily attributed to its ,leading-edge extensions,. The fighter's primary missions are ,fighter escort,, fleet ,air defense,, ,suppression of enemy air defenses,, ,air interdiction,, ,close air support,, and ,aerial reconnaissance,. Its versatility and reliability have proven it to be a valuable carrier asset, though it has been criticized for its lack of range and payload compared to its earlier contemporaries, such as the ,Grumman F-14 Tomcat, in the fighter and ,strike fighter, role, and the ,Grumman A-6 Intruder, and ,LTV A-7 Corsair II, in the attack role. An F/A-18C Hornet performing a high-g pull-up during an air show: The high angle of attack causes powerful ,vortices, to form at the leading edge extensions. The F/A-18 is a twin engine, ,midwing,, multimission tactical aircraft. It is highly maneuverable, owing to its good thrust-to-weight ratio, digital ,fly-by-wire, control system, and ,leading-edge extensions,, which allow the Hornet to remain controllable at high angles of attack. The ,trapezoidal wing, has a 20-degree sweepback on the leading edge and a straight trailing edge. The wing has full-span, leading-edge flaps and the trailing edge has single-slotted ,flaps, and ,ailerons, over the entire span.
Modern warfare has become highly technological and strategic. Contemporary wars are won by Air forces - The modern fighter jets are complex fighting machines which form a ‘critical component’ of any world class air force. Those Critical Assets are : LM JSF F - 35 Lightning II LM F - 22 Raptor Euro Fighter Typhoon Su - 35 Super Flanker E Rafale Omni Role Super french FR3 / M variants Gripen SAAB Smart Fighter JAS - 39 C / D / E Chengdu Stealth J - 20 Mighty Dragon Strike Eagle F - 15 E Advanced Fulcrum MiG - 35s F / A - 18 Super Hornets F - 21 Viper Fighting Falcon F - 16 Block - 52 & 60 CAC J - 10s C Fire Bird Super Multi Role Su - 30 Flanker variants Eagle F - 15 Variant C Su 27 s ‘Base Flanker’ Fulcrum MiG - 29s are considered PRIME assets for their air forces. They carry expensive tools of destruction with them such as : AIM 120 D MBDA Meteor Russian R - 77 Storm Shadow Vympel R - 73 MICA R - 27 Chinese Ultra long range PL - 15 SD - 10 JSM Paveway Brimstone AIM 120 C AIM 132 R - Darter Derby Python K - 100 Astra & Cruise Missile & Stand Off A SMP Variants Hence one can safely say that No Manufacturer of Fighter jet will give away the Real / true Warfare or combat capability, let alone the full limits of it. Hence One has to wait for the real combat - the real showdown to see the real capability. Base Specifications & information related to Systems , Components , Weapons and Electronics are issued for marketing tactics or for disinformation purposes. So maybe all the information available is, NOT 100% accurate. __________________________________________________________________________________ A generation of Airmen seems to have forgotten a simple lesson from history: ‘It was leadership, not fancy equipment, that made the difference.’ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ THE EURO FIGHTER EF-2000 Tranche 4 NICKNAMED “TYPHOON” Its a highly discussed Fighter jet , having mixed reviews by its supporters and by its opponents, has sparked a public argument. With predecessors such as JAGUAR, PANAVIA & HARRIER, Its a European consortium Fighter UK, Germany , Italy & Spain - first proto type released in Mid 1990s. Hence It was a European solution to a European scenario. In the Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) role as interceptor the Typhoon is arguably the best in the world. No other fighter has as brief a response time as the Typhoon. DESIGN & AERODYNAMICS The ability to patrol and intercept hostile aircraft is known as Quick Reaction Alert. Typhoon is a master in it. Designed for Single Seat - STOL Capable - Twin Engine - Initially developed as ,Supersonic BVR interception and close combat, , Multi Role adaptations. Typhoon is designed to perform at least five air missions very efficiently : Air superiority Air interdiction Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) Close Air Support (CAS) Maritime Attack. Its in active operational service with 9 Operators.(Consortium members plus Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Austria ). More than 550 Euro fighter Typhoon aircraft have been successfully delivered to seven countries: Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Austria, Oman and Saudi Arabia; and ordered by two more: Kuwait and Qatar. Participated in combats during operations in Libya, Iraq and Syria. Length 15.96 m x Wingspan 10.95 m. Length 15.67 mtrs x Wingspan 10.67 mtrs for F- 35A Hence slightly Big in Size then lets say F-35 Lightning II Max Altitude Above 59,000 ft Euro Fighter is based on a Typical European Design of ,Unstable air frame , a fore-plane Delta - wing forward canard configuration, with dual intakes under the fuselage & a single vertical stabilizer . The ‘conventional statically stable’ aircraft has a ‘built-in’ inherent stability which requires a large wing area and causes a lot of drag that slows the aircraft under a turn. Fighter jets require ,Agility, which is exact opposite of Stability. You want a fighter to be able to make turns & loops as quickly & easily as possible. Consequently, fighter aircraft rely on configurations that are unstable or neutrally stable. Canards help in this regard. CANARDS AND THEIR IMPACT An aeronautical device wherein a small fore-wing is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. A wide variety of canard designs have been proposed and flown over . Canards are used on aircraft whose main wings are well behind the center of gravity, such as the Euro fighter Typhoon.. Canards can be used as horizontal stabilizers as they being ahead of the C.G of the aircraft, acts directly to reduce longitudinal static stability. The aerodynamic advantages derived from the delta wing canard configuration : AERODYNAMIC FLOW RESULTING IN HIGH ANGLE OF ATTACK : Angle of attack is the angle at which the oncoming air meets the wing. At low angle of attack, the vertical tail provides directional stability. However, as the angle of attack increases, its effectiveness decreases. High angles of attack (AOA) can be translated into a very high instantaneous turn rate and gives maneuverability advantages. Modern fighter jets can exceed 90 degrees AOA - Yet the software limit’s them from 30 - 60 Degrees to prevent Air frame damage owing to Stresses and fatigue factors. Layman terms - Higher the angle of attack, the more lift is generated by the wing… ONLY UP TO A POINT. Thereafter the wing reach its ‘,Critical Angle of Attack’ ,, and at higher angles of attack the amount of lift generated drops dramatically. Beyond the critical angle of attack , the wing no longer effectively generates lift and jet is stalled. Canards stall before the wings. Canards smoothen the turbulence and create Laminar (non-turbulent) flow. Good vortex flow is obtained and a High Angle of Attack may be obtained. UN-STABILITY : Create Un-stability which is preferred. Results in Agility. The result is balanced by applying Controlled by FBW Computer Systems. A statically unstable basic aircraft needs continuous stabilization with the help of an active flight control system with full authority. The high angle of attack recovery (HAoA) function is an extension of the flight control system’s angle of attack limitation. If the aircraft has a low speed and high nose angle, the angle of attack will be low at first but will increase and exceed the angle of attack limit as the speed drops further. The HAoA function and command will return the aircraft to the normal flight envelope in a controlled manner. CREATES LIFT : The canard essentially moves horizontal tail up to the nose and places the wing's center of lift behind the center of gravity. To balance the natural nose down tendency, Canard generates an upward lifting force - which helps oppose weight. Note that Canards results to produce ‘induced drag’ , it is usually countered by high aspect ratio canards i.e long and narrow. Combined delta canard configuration and 538 ft2 wing size confer very low wing loading on 50% internal fuel, and are optimized for transonic maneuver and supersonic dash performance. The loosely coupled canard is intended to provide high control authority at high angles of attack, by placing the surfaces ahead of the main vortices, but also to provide lower trim drag in supersonic flight. A Modern Composite Airframe with constituents : Carbon Fiber Composites 70% Metals 15% Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) 12% Only 15% of the aircraft’s surface is metal. This gives a small Radar Cross section of RCS < 0.5 m2. Hence Typhoon makes slightly greater use of RAM and active canard signature management for frontal RCS reduction ,(As a comparison this is probably offset in the high-end survivability department by Active Stealth of Gripen E or Rafale’s superior SPECTRA electronic warfare system). POWER PLANT & PROPULSION EXCELLENCE The Euro Jet EJ - 200’s components were developed by ,Rolls-Royce plc, MTU, Avio Group SpA, and Industria Turbo Propulsores SA ,– all well-respected names. And, like the Eurofighter, The Euro-jet consortium hails from the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Spain. The EJ-200 is the most modern combat engine in its class – with the best thrust-to-weight ratio, thrust retention and smallest fan diameter – the EJ200 sets new standards for reliability and adaptability. Typhoon is powered by 2 x Eurojet EJ-200 after-burning turbofans , each develops a DRY THRUST of 65 KN / 14,000 LBS & 90 KN / 20, 500 LBS Thrust with REHEAT. It takes about 1 minute 30 seconds after take-off to reach more than 30,000 feet, all the while maintaining intercept airspeed. The engine is compact, approximately 4 meter in length, 800 mm (30 inches) in diameter and weighs around 1,000 kg. The two-spool design with single-stage turbines drives the three-stage fan and five-stage HP compressor with annular combustion with vaporizing burners. Engines powering the Typhoons of UK Royal Air Force (RAF) routinely achieve a mean time between repairs of over 1,000 flying hours, while the fleet leader in RAF has achieved over 1,700 flying hours on-wing without need for repair. This is unprecedented in combat engines where on-wing hours can often be measured in the low hundreds for previous generation engines. Reliability centric Predictive Maintenance is achieved through use of advanced integrated Health Monitoring for class-leading reliability, maintainability and through Life Cost. Capability to cruise at supersonic speeds without the use of reheat (After Burners) for extended periods. it can fly at sustained speeds of MACH 1.5 AT FULL COMBAT EXTERNAL LOAD without the use of afterburner. CRITICAL SUB SYSTEMS OF PROPULSION SYSTEM LP Compressor HP Compressor A.C.C Turbine Stage Re Heat or After burner Systems DECMU 1- LP - LOW PRESSURE COMPRESSOR EJ-200 consists of a 3-stage Low-pressure compressor (LPC) module & 5-stage High-pressure compressor. This provides a ‘High Surge margin’ (Typhoon pilots feedback often states it is virtually impossible to surge the engine), needs no heating devices to combat ice and has a high bird strike resistance. Each stage of the LPC is equipped with wide-chord integrated blade/disk (blisk) assemblies that are low in weight (each stage in the LPC consists of a single blisk with no removable parts) and are a major factor in the reduction of complexity easing the burden on maintenance cost and personnel. At the end of the Low Pressure Compression module, core air is compressed by a factor of 4.2. 2 -HP - HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR Air is then directed to the High Pressure Compressor (HPC), which is again designed achieve high reliability and minimum maintenance effort. Like the LPC, HPC is also equipped with single blisks in the first three stages. HPC further compresses core air by a factor of 6.2, leading to air that has been compressed by a factor of 26. The fact that EJ200 achieves this in eight stages, far lesser than the nine or ten stages employed by engines of comparable performance, is testament to the efficient aerodynamic design of the blades. 3 - ACC - ANNULAR COMBUSTION CHAMBER EJ-200s annular combustor receives the highly compressed air. Micro-spraying fuel increases combustion-efficiency and also reduces the visible emissions of oxides of nitrogen. The key factors in determining jet engine efficiency and achievable work are the temperature and pressure differences attained between the engine inlet and combustor outlet. Although the maximum temperature of air leaving the combustion chamber is classified, the outlet stator temperature is generally reported to be 200ºC higher than previous generation engines. 4 - TURBINE STAGE Downstream of the annular combustion chamber is the High Pressure Turbine (HPT). In order to handle the large temperatures generated in the combustion chamber, the HPT uses air-cooled single-crystal blades. The HPT guide vanes utilise a special Thermal Barrier Coating which increases the life of the blade and increases the achievable operating temperature .Following the HPT is a single Low Pressure Turbine stage, again employing single crystal blades. 5- AFTER BURNING SYSTEMS EUROJET has installed an innovative three-stage thrust augmentation system to supply reheat as and when required by the pilot. Downstream from the low-pressure turbine, in the exhaust duct, are the first two stages of the thrust augmenter. The first stage consists of a radial series of burners and their associated flame cups. Subsequent to this is a stage of ‘primary vaporisers’ that spray fine mists of fuel that combust on contact with the hot exhaust air. Finally, the third stage comprises of fuel injectors located at the back of the bypass duct. These spray fuel into the cold, oxygen rich air that has passed through the duct unburned. It should be noted the dry performance of the engine is so good, pilots do not use reheat as much as other engines in this class. Operationally, this means more performance for less fuel. 6 - DECMU (Digital Engine Control and Monitoring Unit) EJ-200’s Digital Engine Control and Monitoring Unit (DECMU) provides carefree handling for the whole turbo-machinery, automatically activates and controls the various stages of reheat, reduces pilot workload and provides engine monitoring and executive lifting functionalities. Executive Lifing measures actual usage rather than planned mission profiles which can achieve up to 50% Life Cycle Cost savings compared to other engines without this advantage. This is key not only to achieving the unparalleled standards of reliability but also in making the engine cost effective over its performance life. Executive Lifting reduces maintenance costs, especially given that the EJ-200 maintenance philosophy is a modular concept. Rate of Climb 317 Mtrs / Sec With 90KN Thrust Speed 2.1 - 2.2 Mach & 2,900 kms Range Combat Radius Ground attack, lo-lo-lo : 601 km Ground attack, hi-lo-hi : 1389 km Air defence with 3hr CAP : 185 km Air defence with 10-min loiter : 1389 km G Limits : ,+9/-3 w/ int fuel and two AIM-120 Impressive Thrust to Weight Ration of 1.15 Empty Weight 22,000 lb / 9,999 kg Max Take-Off Weight 46,305 lb / 21,000 kg Ferry Range 5,382 km / 3,310 miles — with 4 x drop tanks Typhoon is the faster aircraft and has a significantly superior thrust-to-weight ratio which gives it better acceleration at all altitudes. This also allows Typhoon to retain and regain energy faster (than say Rafale) in a horizontal dogfight situation. Another key factor in maneuverability is Wing Loading ratio ; In aerodynamics, wing loading is the ,loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing,. It is expressed as kilograms per square meter, or pounds per square foot of wing area. Smaller the wing loading ratio , the better the turn performance. Euro Fighter - 310 ; Rafale - 327 ; F15C - 358 ; F-18 - 460 Kg / m2. It also has a significantly higher service ceiling of over 60,000 ft which allows it to operate uniquely well alongside the US F-22 Raptors ‘high and fast’ in the air superiority role which is exactly where it was designed to excel. RADAR , AVIONICS & COMMUNICATIONS Full Authority FCS & Quadruplex digital system. Modern and comprehensive Avionic package. The pilot’s control system is a voice throttle and stick system (VTAS). Heads Up and Heads Down Display systems M.H.D.D installed. Detection technology used in latest tranch is : X-band CAPTOR (I/J-band) ECR-90 pulse-Doppler multi mode radar,. An AESA radar provides an aircraft with a more efficient, more robust, longer-ranged and finer-detailed radar than older, mechanically scanned or passive systems. It has improved Jamming Resistance and acts immensely to increase the situational awareness and effectiveness of a modern fighter jet. The addition of an AESA radar has become necessary because almost all modern fighter aircraft have already transitioned to this architecture. The CAPTOR-E radar , being developed by the Euro RADAR Consortium led by Selex ES, is based on the existing ‘back end’ of the mechanically-scanned (M-scan) CAPTOR radar. All Weather Radar Features Synthetic Aperture, Multi mode A/A and A/G Fire Control Radar and Weapon System Support, with over 1,000 modules and a new AESA antenna mounted on an innovative repositioner. It can also cover low band Frequencies ,VHF/UHF. ,This gives the radar an unmatched field of regard without compromising performance and reliability. P.I.R.A.T.E SYSTEM A, ,Passive Infra-Red Airborne Track Equipment (PIRATE) ,system f,or infrared search and tracking or a Supplementary Radar. The Typhoon’s PIRATE IRST is far and away the most capable fighter-mounted system in operation anywhere in the world. Its phenomenal sensitivity caused problems during the first decade of service due to the sheer number of false positive returns but now that processing power has caught up enough to allow the sensitivity to be properly exploited for extremely long range detection of fighter sized targets, including stealth targets, it is becoming one of Typhoon’s strongest advantages in the air superiority arena. However, at present, the systems integration allowing the radar and IRST to be tasked together in an optimal fashion is still superior on Rafale. This is a core focus of capability upgrades in the P3E software package for Typhoon. The system picks up heat changes around it & by this spot subsonic aircraft as far away as up to 100 km+. This means that the Typhoon can still shoot its advanced IR-tracking missiles at a target, even though its enemy has stealth features. PIRATE detects and tracks the Infra-Red signatures of multiple aircraft at long range, over a wide field of view, day & night and adverse weather conditions. Being a passive sensor, it enables the aircraft to gather early intelligence of threats and to maneuver stealthily into an advantageous tactical position without being detected by hostile electronic warfare systems. PIRATE is integrated with other on-board sensor systems for maximum sensor fusion effectiveness. PIRATE locates & provides ‘cueing information’ on ground targets. It provides data and imagery to Head’s-up & Multi-function Head’s -down displays, facilitating navigation and terrain avoidance in adverse weather conditions. D.A.S.S SYSTEM Defensive Aid Sub System with Electronic Counter measures against incoming Missiles. Offering a comprehensive suite of electronic support measures and counter-measures, the Praetorian Defensive Aids Sub System developed by the Leonardo-led EuroDASS consortium, is carried in 2 x wing pods that are an integral part of the wing. DASS greatly enhances Eurofighter Typhoon’s ability to avoid, evade, counter and survive evolving threats. It consists of : Electronic Support Measures (ESM) A laser threat and missile approach warning system An Electronic Countermeasures System (ECM), decoys, towed decoys Jammers and other sensors Avionics. Eurofighter Typhoon D.A.S.S is also equipped with a ,‘Towed Radar Decoy’, . carried in the starboard side as ‘built in’ to the wing tip. Towed decoy systems are for defensive purposes & used to protect fighter jets from radar-guided missiles. These countermeasures are towed behind the host aircraft protecting it against both surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles. They provide a radio-wave reflecting baid that attracts the RF-guided missiles away from the intended target. Miniature Air Launched Decoy MALD ENHANCED SITUATIONAL AWARENESS Even while still on the ground, the pilot can keep a check on the position of the aircraft to be intercepted via its Data-Link (a two-way radio-controlled data exchange). The Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD) is used to lure enemy air defense systems into revealing themselves or attacking aircraft or ISTAR systems that can provide targeting information for stand off weapons. With a range of 500 nm, endurance of 45 minutes, operating altitude of 40,000 feet plus, speed of Mach 0.91, modular electronics fit and emissions signature that is designed to mimic allied aircraft it can also be used to simply overwhelm air defenses with targets, if they attack MALD they are depleting their finite missile stocks. The data-link is provided by the ,Multiple Image Data System (MIDS),. It aids situational awareness information to the pilot. As a case in point - The french Super Omni Jet Rafale utilities ‘a one-way datalink’ with the missile when it has been fired, not the 2 - way ‘Datalink’. which Typhoon and Gripen E are equipped with – which allows for much more accurate and reliable guidance during very long range engagements whilst the missile is in semi-active mode. Kuwait’s Typhoons will be the first to use the Lockheed Martin Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (ATP), which has recently been upgraded to include two-color laser spot tracking, short-wave infrared, and advanced non-traditional intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (NTISR) modes. New-customer Typhoons Will Be the Most Advanced Yet *********************************************************************************** In 2011, the RAF deployed 10 x Typhoon aircraft to its base in Italy for operations in Libya, and achieved 4,500 flying hours without an engine change. The aircraft operated in its air-to-air role and for the first time attacked ground targets using laser-guided Paveway bombs. “The sensors on the aircraft are so good it’s a question of how we use that information and how we get it to other fast jets and ground allies. It is about ensuring the right information is in the right place at the right time.” — ,Air Cdre Linc Taylor, Royal Air Force. A U.K. Royal Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon used a brimstone missile to destroy a boat used by Islamic State in Syria, the RAF said Friday, 2019 February 22 release, marking the first time the aircraft has deployed the weapon system. Brimstone is an air-launched ground-attack missile developed by MBDA for the RAF, specifically to target enemy armor. The Brimstone launcher carries three missiles in a single weapon station. Its equipped with enhanced autopilot, the Dual Mode SAL / milli metric wave (mmW) seeker, and the insensitive munition-compliant rocket motor and warhead. For Air to Ground missions you have the ability to simply look outside at where a target is then cue the weapon system to look there with the Litening Designator Pod. Due to this capability it means that after identifying a target, you can drop a Paveway IV, 500-lb precision weapon on it in seconds. ************************************************************************************** WEAPONS Mauser Cannon 27 mm It has 13 hard points which allows for up to 3 fuel drop tanks and 10 missiles/laser guided bombs or 13 missiles/laser guided bombs Long Range 6 x BVR Matra- Meteor AMRAAM Close range SRAAM is 2 x AIM-132 ASRAAM. A range of air-to-ground weapons can be carried, including the new Storm Shadow CASOM, Brimstone anti-armour weapon, and the future Precision Guided Bomb (PGB). Manufacturers ban Euro Fighter in exports for carrying nuclear weapons. RAF standoff weapon is the Matra-BAe Storm Shadow cruise missile. SCALP - STORM SHADOW, ,Air-Launched, Long RANGE , Stand-Off Deep Attack Missile The Storm Shadow missile is designed to penetrate deep into hard rock targets. It is equipped with fire-and-forget technology and fully autonomous guidance. The missile has a length of 5.1 m, wingspan of 3m, and a body diameter of 0.48 m. It weighs 1,300 kg and has a range of more than 250 km. The Storm Shadow missile is equipped with a Turbomeca Microturbo TRI 60-30 turbojet propulsion system, which can produce a 5.4 kN of thrust. The missile is fitted with a two-stage bomb royal ordnance augmented charge (BROACH) blast/ penetrator warhead. The first stage of the warhead makes the way for the second stage by cutting the surface of the target. The larger second stage (main) of the warhead then penetrates into the target and detonates. The navigation system of the missile includes inertial navigation (INS), global positioning system (GPS) and terrain reference navigation for better control over the path and accurate target strike. The missile is fitted with a passive imaging infrared seeker. Once released from the aircraft, the missile follows a pre-programmed path at low level with the help of continuous updates from the on board navigation system. It employs imaging infrared seeker to compare the actual target area with stored imagery repeatedly until reaching the target. The Storm Shadow is also in service with the air forces of Italy, Greece, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is referred to as Black Shaheen in the UAE Air Force service. The Storm Shadow can be integrated into Tornado GR4, Tornado IDS, Saab Gripen, Mirage 2000, Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon and JSF F - 35 aircraft. CROWN JEWEL BVR - M E T E O R MBDA ** ,Meteor, : ,Beyond Visual Range BVRAAM Air to Air with Active Radar Guidance,. Meteor offers a multi-shot capability against long range maneuvering targets, jets, UAVs and cruise missiles in a Loaded Electronic Counter Measure environment , called ECM. It has range well in excess of 100 kilometers . Meteor can be launched as a stealth missile. It is equipped with enhanced kinematics features. It is capable of striking different types of targets simultaneously in almost any weather. Meteor’s stunning performance is achieved through its unique ramjet propulsion system – solid fuel, variable flow, ducted rocket. This ‘ramjet’ motor provides the missile with thrust all the way to target intercept, providing the largest No-Escape Zone of any air-to-air missile. No -escape zone of over 60 km is largest among air-to-air missiles according to manufacturer. Solid-fueled ramjet motor allows missile to cruise at a speed of over mach 4 and provides the missile with thrust and mid-way acceleration to target interception. The Typhoon is a super fighter within visual range , though we must always remember that at WVR , Its not fighting the aircraft but the pilot. ******************************************************************************* COSTS AND REVIEW SUMMARY Maintenance cost of Typhoon is on higher side than that of Rafale. Unit Cost in excess of 125 MUS$ per aircraft. Euro Fighter Edges out all competitors such as Rafale in its ,M,aneuverability, Higher THRUST Power , Increased Combat Radius, Excellent IRST , Advanced CM / Decoy system & higher Service Ceiling, . Yes Quality is Expensive. Its a potent partner for European nations with JSF Lightning II F - 35. “Where Typhoon acting as Air Superiority Leader and clearing Air enemy jets ; F - 35 Stealth acting as Battle manager - A, Command & Control capable - Data fusion Electronic based - Striker bomber ,role for taking out SAM , S - 400s , AWACS etc and other remaining flying assets , which may have avoided Euro Fighter Jet by flying away…! https://www.eurofighter.com/the-aircraft *********************************************************************************** Knowledge is a process of piling up facts; wisdom lies in their simplification. Thanks for reading..
Let’s first talk about ISRO. We all know about ISRO. Our jewel. I am no one to judge the highly smart and innovative minds present there. I can just press some keys to praise them as much as I can. People often ask questions like this or like ‘what is the ranking of ISRO in the world’ or ‘how advanced is ISRO’ etc. These questions are hard to answer because the programs of an agency depends on its motto. ISRO’s primary motto is national betterment. So ISRO is more focused on national developmental works through satellite launching and various other things related to national interest when that of other agencies may differ. The funding also differs greatly agency-to-agency., So, it is not justified to compare space agencies or judge smartness of scientists this way,. But we can discuss about various capabilities achieved by the agencies. This can be a way to do a rough comparison and hence have an idea how amazing our beloved space scientists are (may be just for fun!). I would consider several factors (in more or less ascending order in hardness) those can give an idea about how much advanced a space agency is. These are: 1) Satellite operation capability 2) Sounding rocket launch capability 3) Satellite fabrication capability 4) Orbital launch capability 5) Multiple satellite launch capability 6) Development of Cryogenic engine (required for heavy-lift vehicle) 7) Development of Semi-Cryogenic engine or similar (required for heavier-lifter) 8) Navigation and positioning system 9) Extraterrestrial exploration (Moons, Planets, Asteroids etc.) 10) Astrophysics research satellite/space telescope etc. 11) Reusable launch vehicle capability 12) Human spaceflight capability and space station operation and building capability Now let us see which countries/agencies have the above capabilities. According to 2015 estimates, around 70 different Govt. space agencies exist (along with a number of private agencies). 1) Around 60 agencies operate satellite(s). 2) Around 30 agencies have sounding rocket capability. ISRO sounding rocket family 3) Many agencies can fabricate satellites (exact number is problematic to know as this is increasing in good pace) ISRO satellite fabrication facility 4) Around 13 agencies have launch capability. ISRO launch facility 5) Around 9 agencies have multiple satellite launch capability. (ISRO has a record of 104 satellite launch in one go breaking previous record hold by Russia with 37 satellites in one go) 6) Only 6 agencies have developed and used Cryogenic engine: NASA (USA), CNES (France), CNSA (China), JAXA (Japan), ROSCOSMOS (Russia) and ISRO (India). ISRO Cryogenic engine and stage 7) Similar number of agencies have developed Semi-Cryogenic or similar capable engines. ISRO is developing one and it is in advanced phase of development (expected to be complete in 2019 as announced by ISRO). In this context, the question of comparing payload launch capacity comes. ISRO is still lagged in this case. For example, Ariane5 rocket (ESA) capacity is 21 ton and Delta-IV Heavy rocket (United Launch Alliance of USA) capacity is almost 29 ton to LEO. Some former/under development vehicle have even higher capacity. ISRO’s most powerful rocket GSLV-Mk3 capacity is 8 ton to LEO. But hopefully, with the newly developing Semi-cryogenic engine, ISRO can build their planned ULV and HLV within not much long time which will have much higher capacity. For example, ULV-heavy variant capacity (replacing GSLV-Mk3’s liquid core stage L110 with semi-cryo SCE-200) will be 15 ton to LEO and HLV (with some further modifications) should have capacity of around 25 ton to LEO i.e. a true heavy-lift launch vehicle. We can hope for at least ULV-heavy variant within coming 4–5 years. [Edit (6/18/2017): ISRO announced recently that SCE-200 will be ready in 2019, the stage will be ready in 2020 and the rocket with that stage will fly in 2021 if everything goes right so it is 4 years as I have predicted earlier] ,ISRO to flight-test kerosene-based semi-cryogenic engine by 2021 8) 6 agencies have navigation and position satellite system. NASA (GPS-global), ROSCOSMOS (GLONASS-global), ESA (Galileo-almost global), CNSA (BeiDou-now regional, to be global), ISRO (IRNSS- regional), JAXA (QZSS- under development- local). ISRO IRNSS 9) Again, 6 agencies have operated extra-terrestrial probes. The biggest achievement is by NASA and then ROSCOSMOS. ESA, ISRO, JAXA and CNSA also have got a lot of successes. (To be specific, ISRO is the ,4th, agency to reach Mars (after NASA, ROSCOSMOS, ESA) and the ,1st, to reach Mars in first attempt. ISRO has also reached Moon and the ,4th, to touch down on the lunar surface (after NASA, ROSCOSMOS, ESA). ISRO has discovered water on the moon using a payload built by NASA) Chandrayaan-1 found water on Moon MOM reached Mars, (I will later describe how frugal and innovative was MOM mission) 10) ISRO is one of the few agencies (dominated by the above 6 and very few others) to build, send and operate astrophysics research and observation probe/space telescope. ISRO sent Aryabhata (which was an astrophysical observation) as the very first satellite of the agency. Now they operate Astrosat which is an advanced multi-wavelength space observatory (unique of its kind) to study various mysterious objects in the universe like neutron stars, gamma ray burst, black holes etc. There is plan to send such cutting-edge probes in near future also. 11) In the past, only USA and Russia built partially recoverable and reusable vehicles but those are now retired. Currently, only SpaceX (a private agency of USA) has reusable vehicle in form of Falcon-9 rocket. ISRO is developing their own reusable vehicle called RLV. China, Japan are not doing that currently (as far as I know). ISRO Re-usable launch vehicle (technology demonstrator) 12) Only 3 countries have full human spaceflight capability (USA, Russia, China) to launch man-rated vehicle, build and operate Space station. Although International Space Station is used by more number of countries but these 3 are ahead of others. ISRO has plan of human mission in future but for now this is not their primary focus. They have also a fraction of the budget of other elite agencies. But they are working on required technologies at their own pace and also claimed that they have the technological capability to build a space station. I discussed here: ,Tirtha Chakrabarti's answer to How long will India (ISRO) take to send its first astronaut in space? Along with all these, a very vital factor is budget. ISRO works with a fraction of budget of the other big agencies. For example, In 2017, ISRO’s budget is 1.4 billion USD (maximum till date) where that of JAXA, ROSCOSMOS, ESA and NASA are around 2.03 bn, 3.2 bn, 6.2 bn and 19.5 bn USD respectively. So, considering all of the aspects, it can be said ISRO is one of the top 6 (Govt.) space agencies in the world and in some specific cases, it stands even higher. ISRO’s innovativeness lies in their frugal engineering. How can ISRO achieve so many things in this relatively small budget? Because ISRO’s missions and projects are very cheap. There are various reasons behind ISRO’s projects and missions being so cheap. ISRO was established and started working in a period when India was very poor. Thus ISRO leaders developed a working style that produced maximum benefits with the minimum of effort. So, for decades, ISRO created some of the best examples of frugal engineering in India. Technology adaptation: It is one of the key factors to reduce cost. ISRO uses technologies adaptively in unusual and unconventional ways. It often uses older or previously used technologies in a new project or mission instead of designing and building completely new technologies for a new mission. For example: ISRO used the engine of Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV) in APPLE satellite instead of building a new engine. In Mangalyaan mission, PSLV that was used in Moon mission earlier was used as launch vehicle (instead of GSLV for it was not ready yet) which was not sufficiently powerful to inject the satellite directly towards Mars. (It placed the craft in Earth orbit and using a risky ,orbit rising maneuver technique, and ,gravitational slingshot,, it was injected towards Mars). ISRO couldn't wait for GSLV because it would have lost the chance to use a certain relative position of Earth and Mars that causes an ,economically cheaper, spacecraft trajectory (Hohmann transfer orbit). Use of PSLV instead GSLV itself was another factor to reduce the cost. The use of PSLV was a technology adaptation. Although ISRO had to use such a risky maneuver technique, it was very helpful to save cost overall. Often ISRO builds components on its own even if that is available in market. It helps to reduce the cost as commercial stuffs cost higher than self-made ones. For example: PSLV is getting changed over the years and ISRO miniaturized the avionics, and built its own chip and onboard computer. In many cases, technologies and machines are India’s home-grown and thus cheaper than the counterparts in foreign. ISRO uses the full power of software and emphasize on computer simulations. when other big agencies like NASA and ESA usually build three physical models of the spacecraft to test, ISRO uses computer sofware and simulations instead and finally builds a single model that will actually fly. ISRO did this in both Chandrayaan-1 and Mangalyaan mission. It’s a big cost saving approach. It’s also risky but ISRO wills to compromise and manage that. Testing are optimized as much as possible. It speeds up the development process and saves cost. Aggressive work-schedule: ISRO makes aggressive and sacrosanct work schedule to reduce the development time. When agencies like NASA takes several years for the development process for a new mission, ISRO emphasizes on proper and careful planning for a good amount of time and then does actual manufacturing works fast and aggressively. Engineers work round the clock, often in shifts at that period. It reduces the total development time and saves all the related expenses. For example, NASA’s MAVEN mission (Mars mission at the same time of Mangalyaan mission) took five years to be developed where mangalyaan took only 15 months. (although straightforward comparison is not justified because MAVEN was technologically more advanced and cutting edge but it is also true that it was ISRO’s first endeavor). This way ISRO’s technological adaptation, working methodology, self-dependence, low labor cost etc. altogether help the space missions of the organization to be economically cheaper in comparison to those by other elite agencies in the world. Frugal methodology to achieve amazing things is the symbol of ISRO scientists’ smartness and innovative capability. What about DRDO? People often call DRDO ‘incapable’ and ‘failed’. Why? Because we don’t know about DRDO as we know about ISRO thanks to our amazing media who are more interested to cover gossip stories, dirty politics and really ignorant to scientific achievements, especially those related to defense. First, let us see what DRDO has developed over the years. (‘almost nothing’ some may guess right?) Guns: 1)INSAS 2)JVPC (under trial) 3)AAR MCIWS (under trial) 4)LMG (under development) 5)Ghatak AR etc. Artillery: 1)OFB light field gun 105mm 2)Dhanush Towed howitzer 3)ATAGS (recent tests made record in range) 4)BHIM Dhanush ATAGS Explosives: 1)CL-20: Developed for arjun Mk-2, It is 60X more powerful than RDX 2)ERA Mk-II: Latest explosive reactive armour for all IA MBT, IFV and APC Armoured vehicle: 1)Yuktirath MPV 2)NBC Recce vehicle 3)Tank-EX (Project shelved aftersuccesful TD , reason being hindrance created by Russia on IP rights). 4)DRDO Light Tank (Project shelved after successful TD demo, reason being “NO REQUIREMENT” as stated by Army) 5)DRDO TATA Kestrel 6)Abhay IFV (In development) Kestral etc. with many other upgrade and modification projects. Main Battle Tank: 1)Arjun Mk1 (62 ton) 2)Arjun Mk1A (68 ton) 3)Arjun Mk2 (60 ton) Offensive missiles: 1) Pinaka (variants) [rockets] 2) Prospina/NAG (variants) [anti-tank] 3) Amogha [anti-tank] 4) Brahmos (variants) [anti-ship,land-attack supersonic cruise] (JV with Russia) 5) Astra [bvraam] 6) Nirbhay [long range subsonic cruise] 7) Prahaar/ Pragati [tactical short range ballistic] 8) Dhanush [ship-launched ballistic] 9) Shaurya [cannister-launched hypersonic boost-glide] 10) Prithvi (family) [short-range ballistic] 11) Agni (family) [medium and intercontinental ballistic] 12) K (family) [submarine-launched ballistic] 13) Anti-radiation missile (Air-launched) 14) SFDR missile 15) Rudra Mk2 Defensive missiles: 1)Barak-8 [naval variant LRSAM and land variant SRSAM] (JV with Israel) 2) Akash 3) QRSAM (In development) Laser-guided bomb and smart bomb: Sudarshan Laser-guided bomb SAAW (smart anti-airfield weapon/smart glide bomb) Radars: Army: 1)Multifunction Phased Array Radar and 3D Surveillance Radar for Akash Missile Weapon System (Rajendra & 3D CAR respectively) 2)Low Level Light weight 2D Radar for mountainous terrain Air Defence (Bharani) 3) 3D -Tactical Control Radar for Air Defence (3D TCR) 4)Short Range Battle Field Surveillance Radar (2D BFSR-SR) 5)Weapon Locating Radar (3D WLR) 6)Multi Mission Radar (MMSR) – in development 7) FOPEN Radar – in development 8)Through wall detection Radar – in advanced development; prototypes ready 9)Ground Penetration Radar – in advanced development; prototypes ready Air Force: 10)Multifunction Phased Array Radar and 3D Surveillance Radar for Akash Missile Weapon System (Rajendra and 3D CAR respectively) 11)Active Phased Array Radar for AEW&C (First unit delivered to IAF for enhanced trials) 12)Low level 2D Air Defence Radar (Indra-2) 13)3D Low Level Light Weight Radar (Aslesha) 14)3D Medium Range Surveillance Radar for Air Defence (Rohini derivative of 3D CAR) 15)4D Active Array Medium Power radar for AD role (Arudhra MPR ready for user trials) 16)Airborne Electronically Scanned Array Radar for Tejas Mark II (In development) 17)Ground Controlled interception (delivered) 18)SAR for UAVs (in development; prototypes delivered and in trials) Navy: 19)Maritime Patrol Radar for fixed and Rotary Wing Aircraft (superseded by more advanced system) 20)Maritime Patrol Radar with RS and ISAR (XV-2004) 21)3D Medium Range Surveillance Radar for ASW Corvettes (In production, variant of 3D CAR) 22)Multifunction Phased Array Radar for Air Defence Ship (in development) 23)Maritime Patrol Airborne Radar for UAV (In development) 24)Coastal Surveillance Radar (CSR) (available for production) Swordfish Radar (Ballistic Missile Defense system) etc. Aircraft: 1)Tejas Mk1 (developed) 2)Tejas Mk1A (In development) 3)AEW&C 4)AMCA (one of the most ambitious projects, In development) Tejas mk1 UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle): 1)Nishant 2)Netra 3)laksya 4)Rustom I 5)Rustom II 5)AURA (One of the most ambitious projects, In development) UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle): 1)DAKSH 2)RUDRA 3)MASS 4)MARS 5)HIMBOT/SNOWBOT Others: Armour for HAL LCH Thermobaric ammunitions for Arjun tank Bullet proof jacket Successful testing of Ku band seeker for ASTRA to replace russian seeker SANJEEVANI MK II, a device designed and developed to locate victims trapped under the debris was handed over to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and Kerala Gov. Under Barrel Grenade Launcher (UBGL), ,for INSAS and AK-47 rifle was introduced into service with order for 10,000 Launchers. The state-of-the-art microcontroller based system Instant Fire Detection & Suppression System (IFDSS), ,BMP-2/2K developed for providing protection against fire to the troops & engine compartment, was accepted by the Army. Production order worth Rs. 168 crores has been received. CuTi alloy was developed by DRDO to make hand tools which are heat and spark free.TOT given to Pune based startup for mass production. The Combat Free Fall (CFF) protection system to meet the requirements of high altitude paratrooper’s mission requirements was designed developed and is under limited series production. A Submarine Escape Set (SES), ,for escape from an abandoned submarine from depths of 100m was designed and developed. Navy has projected a requirement of over 400 suits. Holographic vision for small arms,ToT given to BEL and Several startups for production. High Nitrogen Steel for reducing ARJUN mk 2 weight. Direct energy weapon: 1)Aditya 2) LORDS 3)Drazzler *NAVY Sonars: 1)APSOH (Advanced Panoramic SOnar Hull mounted), 2)HUMVAD (Hull Mounted Variable Depth sonar), 3)HUMSA (Hull Mounted Sonar Array, Follow on to the APSOH series), 4)Nagin (Towed Array Sonar), 5)Panchendrya (Submarine sonar and fire control system) Torpedos: 1)Varunastra heavyweight anti-sub torpedo, 2)Thakshak thermal torpedo, 3)Lightweight torpedo, 4)Advanced light torpedo (Shyena), 5)Microprocessor controlled triple tube torpedo launcher, towed torpedo decoy. Anti-torpedo system (Mareech) Anti-satellite weapon technology (DRDO claims to have it but will not test, rightly) Samyukta jammer/EW system Electromagnetic Railgun (It’s a futuristic technology and DRDO theorized and prototyped this in 1994, even before USA) Ballistic Missile Defense System (AAD+PAD/PDV) (The Israeli Green Pine radar will be replaced by indigenous Swordfish radar) *Something, (I won’t take the name of this as a peace gesture and it’s not for use). Even the development and test of this thing fooling CIA’s intense activity and American spy satellites is another story of DRDO scientists’ smartness and innovative capability. ISRO also helped in the project by analyzing US spy satellites’ trajectory and timing to avoid those. Non-defense: Human Waste Management for soldiers in siachen and other civil purposes. Chicken-gunya detection for forces in Naxal prone areas. The indian railways has also introduced bio-toilets in many trains nowadays. That technology is patented by DRDO and TOT has been done to various private industries. And so on and so forth… but this is an incomplete list and you can see how ‘inactive’ or ‘incapable’ DRDO is. Let’s see how huge amount of money DRDO literally burns all day every day… Budget: Difference in the R&D share of GDP in other countries: USA: 2.8% China:2.1% Russia: 1.3% ,India: 0.85% In amount, Defense R&D expenditure: USA: 90 billion USD (not to mention private firms’ own defense R&D expenditures) China: 40 billion USD Russia: 18 billion USD India: 2 billion USD ISRO (with 16000 employees and mainly focused on space research)’s budget is 1.4 billion USD (totally justified and necessary as India is rising as a space power) where DRDO with 24000 employees (Scientists 7500, DRTC 8000, admin 9000) and focused on literally everything related to defense and sometimes beyond)’s is a f**king 2 billion. With this ,huge, budget, DRDO actually develops the above mentioned stuffs and Indian armed forces, the 4th strongest military in the world, uses around 40% (which is not small amount considering the massive size and requirement of Indian armed forces) indigenous stuffs and this percentage is rapidly increasing. Hence proved, ,lazy and unsuccessful, DRDO ,wastes, taxpayers money. Sarcasm apart…these all indicates how smart our defense scientists are as well.