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What are some of the most popular modifications done to automobiles that actually ruin their performance?

Air filters. Exhaust systems. Underbody LEDs. Stereo systems. Actually, most things people do to their cars without researching what they're actually supposed to do and brainlessly fling onto their car tend to be harmful to its performance. ,Conical air filters/cold air intakes:, it's probably because this modification is so common that it's rather viciously debated over its efficacy. Some people claim that it lets too much dust into the engine, some think that it provides the air flow necessary to take advantage of some car's fuel systems, some think that it's generally a load of bull, some think they actually reduce air intake temperatures. What's for certain is that it's proven that crappy designs don't help. With modern intake systems, they tend to actually reduce air flow, increase noise, and heat the intake air more. When the modification is done on a car with a terrible stock air intake design to begin with, then it may actually help, but only when executed properly. (Credit to Mightycarmods for this awesome video) ---------------- ,Exhaust systems:, Usually anything with a pipe diameter of over 2.5" is overkill, unless you have a hugely powerful turbo car that needs it. When exhaust backpressure is reduced too greatly, it can actually cause performance to suffer, especially at lower revs where 90% of all driving is done anyways. Even more worrying is the possibility of having a car where critical engine functions are actually dependent on exhaust backpressure. And yes, this does exist. --------------- ,Anything solely cosmetic:, Extra weight. Need I say more? Okay, I'll elaborate. We car guys tend to like to throw whatever the hell we so please on our cars and don't always realize that it's not benefiting anything. Stereos and bling wheels are obvious sources of excess heft we don't need, but minor things like dashboard bobbleheads, air refreshners, ,gauges that aren't exactly necessary, (especially the boost gauges in NA cars, unless it's for vacuum), lambo doors, those useless "vortex" intake things, etc. They tend to stack up in weight and slow the car down. -------------- (Yes, that's a giant rear wing on a FWD economy car) Body kits/aerodynamic implements:, Totally useless for most of the cars these modifications are put on. Most cars in their stock guise aren't powerful/fast enough to need aerodynamic assists like a front splitter with canards or a massive GT wing. Especially the GT wing: these are put on FWD cars way too often. Don't even get me started on those body kits that are designed for nothing but show. Often times, these just add weight and the functional aerodynamic pieces sometimes produce a ton of drag as well. I will note that for those cars that actually need them, they can be of huge help. The provide huge high speed grip, can fine tune the grip balance front to rear, divide up the air flow to the radiator/oil cooler/transmission cooler/intercooler/etc., provide a ducting path for brake ducts, reduce wheel well air pressure, stabilize the car at high speeds by cleaning up turbulence in its wake, etc. etc. However, these are often for competition cars that have a hell of a lot more invested in them than just body parts. (Credit to Top Gear UK of the BBC for trying something this ridiculous) --------------- (ARGHHHHHHHHH) Cut springs/budget lowering:, Holy crap, I cannot tell you how many people I want to punch in the face for doing this. Effectively, what people do by cutting their springs is shorten the distance between the car and the ground without allowing the car to compensate for this. The spring/shock set up still wants to travel the same distance, but lo and behold, there's the tarmac in the way, so the car spends more time skidding off the ground than actually turning. I understand the point of lowering the CG, but this really does not help overall. The bushings get wrecked, the shocks usually end up shot, the ride quality is terrible, and everything just sort of falls apart. Even when you do it properly and use aftermarket lowering springs, you need to factor in camber adjustments. The suspension's new resting state is now at a point where it would normally be under load, so the suspension geometry should reflect that. But most people ignore this and end up wasting tires from excess camber that doesn't actually benefit cornering. So please, for the sake of all those tortured tires, get your car realigned/get those camber adjusters if you lower your car. (Note: Camber is exaggerated, you're not actually going to get this sort of camber from lowering your car) --------------- (+35HP on a 140HP car!) Performance "chips":, Most of the time, these are nothing more than a resistor, an LED, and a bogus chip that's pinned out to literally do nothing shoehorned into a plastic encasing. The logic behind these are to trick the ECU into dumping more fuel into the engine by making the intake sensors "read" higher than they are. This just causes rich AFRs that makes the engine sluggish and unresponsive. (Credit to Mightycarmods for actually mythbusting this sort of thing) --------------- (Heat range 10 plugs depicted. Most consumer cars use a heat range 6 spark plug) Spark plugs/wires:, A common mistake that ill-informed people make when they're trying to look somewhat knowledgeable, going for colder range spark plugs usually just makes the car run worse when nothing else is modified. It's a respectable but useless effort, as this just reduces the amount of the air-fuel mixture that's burned, making the idle and low revs sluggish and hesitant. Don't get me wrong though, in the right car, competition plugs make all the difference, especially with powerful coil/ignitor systems. Another thing that people are prone to doing is putting in competition ignition wires. These are designed for very powerful ignition systems (usually CDI-assisted systems) that would wear down the stock wires too quickly. By nature, these wires tend to have a much higher internal resistance to cope. When thrown on a car with a stock ignition system, it literally prevents the coils from sending a stronger spark to the plug, which doesn't help the engine whatsoever. --------------- ,91 octane/wrong octane or fuel in general:, No, putting diesel in your gasoline Honda 4-cylinder is not going to give it more torque. I haven't actually met anyone stupid enough to try that, but many people do fall into the trap of believing 91 octane is some sort of special race cocktail designed to make cars go fast. The octane figure is just an anti-knock number that indicates how likely it is to detonate under excess ambient heat. For cars designed to run on higher octane, it allows the engine to be built with a more aggressive CR, fuel/ignition map, etc. that produces more power and even fuel economy. For those of us with cars designed for 87 octane, it literally just makes it worse. I have a car that's recently been prone to overheating, so I threw 91 octane in it until I tore it down for a rebuild and it absolutely hated it. The fuel wouldn't burn like normal, so most of it went right out of the exhaust pipe. Also, don't use E85/100 in a car that's not meant for it. Your entire fuel system will disintegrate. --------------- Brake pads:, Surprisingly enough, yes, you can screw up your car with the wrong brake pads. For people that just street drive their cars, putting in super aggressive race pads can really mitigate brake performance under normal driving conditions. Pads have a specific heat range in which their coefficient of friction is at it peak usability. Most race duty pads, like the Hawk 9012, HT-10, etc. aren't designed for the cool temperatures of casual street driving. In fact, their coefficient of friction can be even worse than that of a regular old street pad. Unless you actually drive the car that hard, then a race brake pad is totally unnecessary and can actually reduce the car's braking performance. See the chart below: Also, and I might get some flak for this, special rotor designs may ruin braking performance as well. It's generally agreed that dimpled and fish hook rotors provide some benefit of removing gases from the rotor surface in heavy braking and that they wick away water during wet conditions. However, from there, people tend to argue endlessly over whether slotted/cross drilled rotors are of any benefit. On one hand, they provide the benefits of a dimpled rotor (in a more extreme sense as they have more material removed), but these rotors tend to tear up brake pads, create fault lines for the rotor to crack along, reduce the overall mass of the rotor (which is critical in preventing the brakes from overheating), and reduce the surface area on which the brake pads can act on. Generally speaking, if you use any special kind of rotor outside of its appropriate and intended usage, it may literally break. (no pun intended) (Fish hook-style rotor depicted) --------------- So basically, modifications that aren't done in context with the performance or use of the car can usually harm them. Most of these aren't absolute in that they ruin the car's performance, but they can prevent you from going faster when used inappropriately. It's why it's usually best to get professional advice on what to put on a car if you really want to go fast.

What life lessons have you learnt from driving?

From the first cart-looking Benz production to its latest sleek self-driven Mercedes F 015 there was a reason and PURPOSE as to why the first was produced by man and has, over time, gotten better to become what it is today - to basically fulfil the NEED of transportation. It doesn't matter if the production is a truck, tanker, tipper, tractor or a sleek drop-top. They all have their specific purpose whether for moving humans, garbage, or liquid and other goods. There was a need the MANUFACTURER was trying to meet which all started from his thought and no matter how beautiful a car is and what purpose it serves, if it is not driven to fulfill its purpose it is as good as not being a produced. And if it crashes out before it's time of service is over, SCRAP! From the first naked man God created to the present day man looking sleek in fancy clothes there was a reason and purpose as to why God thought to create man and watch him evolve over time to who he is today - to carry out an ASSIGNMENT in our passing through earth before our expected end. It doesn't matter who you are - male or female, boy or girl, adult or child, fat or slim. We all have our specific purposes as we move from time to eternity and there is something we carry that we must deliver before we bow out. It all started from the thought of the CREATOR. No matter how beautiful or handsome you're and how genuine your purpose, if you're not motivated to serve it or you die before your time it is a real WASTE! My sister, - Jane Keturah - tall, dark, and lovely. Spots a dimple on her left cheek when she flashes a smile with long silky hair rivering down her back. But all that don't matter because she passed in 2005 at 25. Reminds me of the beautiful 2005 Porsche Carrera GT Paul Walker crashed in - what a waste crashing out of lives race before it's time. As man is an extension of God's thought to serve a purpose, so also is car a man's thought to serve a purpose and this is the basis for my analogous lessons. God has never been closer as He left heaven to live in man as spirit and man has also left his house and enter a car to drive SOMEWHERE. What a bond between God and man! What a bond between man and machine! All for a purpose! We are in so many ways like the cars we drive. Man is a spirit, has a soul and lives in a body. A car is basically a engine, has tires/transmission and has a shell/frame. We were created and cars were manufactured. We've been bought with a price and so are the cars we drive. And from the stone age we've evolved from travelling the dusty roads to the present day asphalt as we still travel. We've come a long way from where we began and it can only get better. Thus, the inspiration to write... There's something to learn from everything we see and use around us that remind us of what and why you're alive today - to live and leave a legacy of service to humanity by the needs we meet. It will not be easy travelling this road of life but as you drive the vehicle of what you love, fuelled by the passion as your natural talents guide you to what is important in life, and the essence of it, THE great destination is inevitable! What counts as life is the productive time in the PROCESS in-between filled with the hurdles of life to be overcome in all the turns we take. Are you ready to take a ride as we start 1 February, 2017? I hope we all learn a thing or two from driving. Hop in and fasten your seatbelts. Let's go! From the way people talk, walk, knock and close the door to how they drive ( If they do) it gives me clues to who they are and how they do things...really. No two cars have same chassis number. That is how unique you are also. You may come from same family but you are not your father. Because your engine is behind doesn't mean you are going that way or would get there last. # 1 "If you can't fly then run, if you can't run then walk, if you can't walk then crawl, but whatever you do you have to keep moving forward" - Martin Luther King Jr. A car is designed to move and will rot and rust if it doesn't. Same with a house that is not in use and left to itself - it will eventually collapse. They are two important days in the lifespan of a car - the day it was manufactured and the day it finally touches the road to fulfilling it's use. But how can it be operated without its manual? Every car needs fuel, oil and a good warm to get ready for take off. Don't just stand there and admire a beautiful car because it is not going to drive itself. Take it out there and whip it! And how about a map and GPS to guide you to where you are going? Life starts the day you know your purpose and start on that road to accomplish it. You were designed to move and make things happen but when you don't, you're at the mercy of your environment and the condition around you. There's a manual the creator has inspired men to write - the Bible - coupled with the inner guide or GPS called the Holy Spirit to guide you in all your ways, show you where you are, where you are supposed to be & how you're designed to function. Keep it charged! Martin Luther King Jr only finished a race his father started. You cannot keep talking and warming up. It's time to get out there and make it happen! Don't just stand there and admire your dream anymore. Get on it and ignite that big dream in confidence and with a fuel of passion. Confidence is key. Confidence is self-faith. Believe yourself that you can do it and let go of everything braking your forward movement as you take a step of faith onto that pedal that gets the engine grinding while steering your wheels in the direction you want to see your dream go. Trust that every rev of effort will get you closer to your destination as you move without looking back. Nobody promised it would be easy - from the rough starts to the glitches, jerks and screeches, you may be booed and called a spoof but stay on course with the destination in mind. You'll get there! #2 "No one who puts a hand to the plow and looks back is fit for service in the kingdom of God." - Jesus Christ. In other words no one who puts his hand to the steering to drive and looks back is fit for a driver. Now, you know what car you've got and have decided how far you're willing to take it. Decide also what lane you will be on as you switch gears. You may reroute if need be and if you feel like you need more practice for perfection, go round the field again and again before you hit the road - for you and the car - for there's no sorrier sight than a bad driver with a good car or a great driver with a bad one. Once you hit that road, you don't look back! The side and rearview MIRRORS are just but a reflection of what is behind. For anytime you look back, you loose grounds or worse remain stagnant by turning a 'pillar of salt' to be used as a reference point by the wayside. You now know what your purpose is and have decided how far you're willing to go for it. Decide also your speed of execution as you plan to achieve it while making room for improvement. Meditate on it and try it out practically both to refine yourself and the plan because there's no going back on purpose. For Inasmuch as that is, a good dream/plan can have a bad execution and a good executor can get planning wrong. Be the best in your field of purpose! You may make mistakes as you strive for perfection on that road but decide to forget every hurtful past and pain when you REFLECT. Whatever you do, don't dwell on it and choke yourself with fumes of regret and anything that will keep you stagnant. The journey of a thousand miles begins with a step; take it and keep moving forward! #3 Bad attitude is like a flat tire; you can't go far in life until you change it. I mentioned before that a car is basically an engine with transmission/tires and and has a frame/shell/body. Everything else is just a plus for comfort. Whether a bicycle, tricycle, a regular car on four wheels or an 18-wheeler truck, without air, it ain't going far even if it moves. A regular car with 4 tires may have air in 3 but if 1 tire gets deflated, it slows down the car and makes movement hard. If you don't have a spare tire to replace it you will grind your wheels! Man is a spirit has a soul and lives in a body. No matter how spirit-filled and beautiful you are, without a soul, you're just a desperately wicked being. The soul is the seat of the mind, will, emotions and conscience housed in our 'hearts'. This is where your true essence is. That is why you have to guard your 'heart' with all diligence for from here ISSUES OF LIFE emanate. Four basic things you must have seated deep in you are ATTITUDE, CHARACTER, BEHAVIOUR AND HABIT. They are like the four tires of a car. No matter how good at what you do if you don't possess these in some combination people cannot stand you! God himself hates pride and resists it! Without a good character you'll damage your integrity. Be willing to change for the better. Be steered to action with courage and be pumped up with a consistent habitual attitude of gratitude as these and more are the AIR that pump the 4 'tires' above. Replace every swollen tire of pride and deflated tires of self-pity, timidity, fear and inaction! Be a 4-wheel-drive and you'll climb the highest and most rugged places others can't reach! #4 Can a fish climb a tree? Vehicles are manufactured for different purposes which determines what their primary assignments with be. Some for luxury, family use, garbage, some for transporting liquid, some for racing etc. And for such purpose every vehicle is equipped to do its job which makes each one UNIQUE in design, shape, size, weight, and even in the number of tires it posseses. The number of tires doesn't guarantee speed and that is why you shouldn't race an 18-wheeler against a mustang! A mustang can travel faster but cannot pull weight or carry goods the truck can carry. You may not be built to do same tasks the way others have been built. You may even be intimidated by what you see they have and what you think you lack but you can do something they also cannot do. What you possess is enough for you to get started. They may look like they have the advantage but you may in the end get there first. Some have speed to get there first, others have CAPACITY to pull weights. There are times it's good to shed every weight holding you back - procrastination, unforgiveness, envy, jealousy etc. Don't let nothing drag you down! You are unique! #5 In the end it will not be the years in your life that counts but the life in your years - Abraham Lincoln. When you've got a full tank you're tempted to go anywhere and everywhere until the pointer is almost on reserve before you choose carefully where is really important. Some have run their maximum mileage before they decide and prioritize their journeys. Let the mileage be a positive impact. Is it not how far but how well. When you're young fit and full of energy you will be tempted to be everywhere and in places that don't add value to you in any way. It takes discipline to restrain yourself. Everything is permissible but not everything is profitable. Passion and multi-talents. Choose and set your priorities. #6 Left-hand drive or right? Driving in US or UK? Manual or automatic? Can you drive in any setting wherever the steering is & wherever the road leads? Most of the fastest cars in the world have manual transmission and that puts you in charge. Are you so used to an automatic? Moving to another city/country?Learning a new language? Changing jobs? What are you used to doing? Are you developing skills for the future if change is to happen? Adapt to the setting you find yourself. Checkout of autopilot mode and do things differently! How fluid are you to improvise, adapt, overcome? Unlearn, learn and relearn. #7 If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together - African Proverb. Any Formula 1 race car will beat a VW Beetle anytime but the Beetle has extra seats. How many people are with you in the the car when you are driving? By design the car has buttons where you can adjust your seat not just for your comfort but that of the person behind you. Race cars have just a seat. Fast cars have 2 seats. Family cars have 4(+) seats. Transit buses have 14(+). What's the capacity you drive? What's your capacity to accommodate, tolerate, forgive, improve? Give people a chance. You may have to pull some weight sometimes not because it's weight but because you have the capacity. Create room; even for yourself, there is room for improvement. Just as trains have coaches, train/coach and pull someone along. Fast & Furious franchise ain't really about speed like it is about FAMILY. We can choose anything else in life except the family we are/were born into. Take care of your own and they will take care of you. #8 A road grader that wants to race doesn't know it's purpose but the day it finds out what it was really made for, it makes it not only easier for itself but other cars. If you are a bulldozer/grader will you pave way for others if you can't get there fast? There are times when purpose doesn't look like purpose at first because it doesn't seem like it's about you. The people who set the stage most times don't play on it! They just pave way for others and get recognition later. It takes sacrifice and maturity to do that. Albert Fantrau is said to be Christiano Ronaldo's friend and former teammate way back who sacrificed his own football career so that he(Ronaldo) could become a global football icon. Today, he is said to reap that reward in folds! Can you sacrifice for someone if you know paving way for that person is a selfless RISK worth taking? #9 If you don't build your dream someone will hire you to help build theirs - Tony Gaskins Jr. You are either on the wheel or somebody/something else is. There will be times you may not have a car and you have to hike, there may be times you have to drive a taxi or your boss, there may also be times you have a car to get you started but not your ideal type. Keep changing, switching and upgrading till you get the one you want. When you don't have a dream to live out then you're potentially for hire. It could be that you are helping to build someone's dream right now but don't want to settle for less and in building theirs you prepare to handle yours. You may change jobs or careers till you hit what you want but wherever you find yourself and you've got a chance to go for something better, do it. Don't let anything deter you from getting a better deal. Your time is limited so don't waste it living someone else’s dogma - Steve Jobs #10 Frida Polli said – your success will be determined by how well you can overcome hardship. A snorkel can improve engine performance while minimising the amount of water that gets to the air filter during wading and fording. Not every car was built or meant for the regular road. Some are built to handle rugged and off-road experience. And when such cars go in and out of deep waters and mud, they leave bold trails behind them to show others that it can be done. What you filter and listen to or tell yourself will determine if you can pass through deep waters and make it or not. Increase your faith and doubt will disappear. Because others may have been there and couldn't go it or endure it doesn't mean you can't. Don’t let anything get to you. YOU CAN! Keep your head up and you will make it through the wading water. And when you do, you become a living testimony for others to follow. So, how daring and enduring are you? #11 When you know where you want to go but don't know how to get there, you can follow someone who does or has been there before. There may be ditches the person cannot avoid and in the process, you go in too because you're following too closely. Give a braking distance in-between as you follow because every unique driver has their imperfection; not forgetting roads are at one time or the other under construction or maintenance. You can see something they are not seeing and avoid it. Even road marshalls get involved in accidents. Mentors are there to guide you to your full potentials. But before they are mentors, they are humans and have their own imperfections. Give them their needed space to avoid contempt which may cause you not to get 'the message'! Get the message before you 'kill’ the messenger. Not every coach is a player and not every driving instructor may be a good one but follow their instructions. Follow with caution and 'overtake’ if you 'see’ better because they can learn from you on the road to perfection too. Horn before overtaking. #12 Madness is doing same thing over and over again, expecting to have different results. No matter how big or small, long or short a vehicle is, the steering is what gives it direction during movement. It has direct connection to the wheels and transmission. You turn left or right, decide to go round and round, or go backwards or forward. It determines which road the vehicle goes. The human will determines whether ‘it’ will be or not. You alone have control over it. Not even God tampers with it. Nobody can force you to do anything against your will. You decide what you want. Steer away from the past to the future you want. From the way most people drive you can tell their level of patience and speed of decision-making. Take charge of your life and destiny. Some steering have led to civilization while others are heading for extinction. Where are you going? Decide to live because you've been given the power to choose between life and death. #13 Some accidents are caused due to assumption. Others are due to distraction. Others dues to ego. “I thought he saw me”,”that car came out of nowhere…” And the middle of the road is the most dangerous place to be. Because you were involved in an accident or witnessed one doesn't mean you stop going. When there's an accident people will be around for different reasons - to help, help themselves with valuables, stand aloof, or just pass by. When things happen to you people will be around you to either help you, be around to use that as opportunity to do something selfish, standby and watch if you make it or know about it and do nothing. When you do recover, cut your losses and move on. To avoid accidents never assume before you do things. Decide and don't be distracted. Indecision is also a decision itself. #14 Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. Drift like there's no tomorrow. Junket and jaunt. Travel the world and seven seas. You can't tell your limits until you have tried. Veer off the roads into the woods, go camping, drive non-stop in the deserts, travel in the open fields with the top down and feel the breeze on your face. And when it's time, tie cans to that car on your wedding day. This is LIFE. You only live once. There is no second take at it. Don't get boxed up in one corner all your life. Travel anytime you have the opportunity to and keep your mind open for opportunities on your way. Learn more, love hard, live free. Express yourself. I didn't really realise how much I loved my parents until I lost my dad then I started paying love attention to my mum. #15 You will knock your engine if you don't have water in your radiator and gauged engine oil. A cup of water can save your engine from knocking. You don't open a the radiator when it is hot. Keep your temper in check and consciously extend your ‘boiling point’ as you cushion misunderstanding with tolerance. If it lies with you don't pick, give or take offence. A moment of calm and a conscious refusal to reply could save the situation. Keep your mouth shut if you know you'll burst out words you would later regret. #16 It takes some experience (personal and second hand) to drive at night, in the rain, during a storm, foggy weather, flood, snow, sand etc and other conditions that are not the usual. When the elements seem not to be on your side or when a ‘suddenly’ happens what do you do? Should you go faster or slower, should you stop or not? ... On a rainy day when your wiper stops working and you have to go out would you know what to do with hydraulic fluid? You will never live as long to taste all of life's experiences first-hand. But you can learn from others and get wisdom before any of such ever happens to you. What do you do when a situation arises? Know it forehand. Feel free to ask about what you don't know. And when you know and you find yourself in the darkest of snowy nights when it's slippery, you will 'see' well and shine on. You may not see all the way but go all the way you see. Shine your way to the future you see. #17 When driving at night toward a stronger beam and yours is full too, you may have to beam down and even slow down to see better. There are times you will argue and have different opinions. It doesn't always mean you are wrong. It just means you have different opinions. My going may be your coming and vice versa. #18 It is always good to keep your shocks in excellent condition. They are there to absorb vibrations and shocks and keep the car's tyres in permanent contact with the road, providing optimum grip and stability when cornering and braking. Shock absorbers are part of the suspension, so if the shocks are worn, the vehicle's ride and comfort is compromised especially when the car is passing through rough roads or making hard turns. Events and people will happen in life that will shake you up. It may not mean that they are bad people or events either. But in the end they all bring maturity and a tough skin for things that hurt. Don't resist the shock. Absorb it and let it go. Don't let it affect your tires of ATTITUDE, CHARACTER, BEHAVIOR & HABITS. When iron is heated it doesn't shrink but expands. There is no movement until rubber meets road with some friction - this is where the true test lies. Whatever you're going through is just to expand your capacity to handle more. Trust the process and develop emotional stability. #19 Don't judge a book by it's cover. Ideally, good cars are judged by what is under the hood and it's performance before the body but it's vice versa in most cases. Don't always judge a car by it's looks - the dents, marks, dull paint. You may not appreciate it until you're told it has climbed Mt. Everest. Some cars are jested for the way the body looks until the rev is heard. What's a beautiful car without a sound engine anyway? The ugliest of cars are usually the most rugged of cars. Some people reserve their judgement and body-shaming only when they know how sound you are. People judge you mostly by what you wear and your looks before they want to know what you've got. Stephen Hawking has survived all these years against all odds. Be confident about who you are and what you carry! #20 A wedge… very small but effective in its purpose of holding in place a vehicle from rolling away when there's a repair, a flat, a change going on, on transit when being carried on a bigger vehicle. And in some cases a car might need to be towed and parked in a friend's garage. It doesn't matter how much or how small a help or support is in times of need. The help you give or you're given - it may be little but what matters most is the gesture and the motive behind it. From changing jobs to changing apartments or whatever move you're making at a time, when you need it, ask for help. There are times you may find yourself crashing on friend's couches and basements. Be grateful you've got help - to give or get. #21 Like the scenario of two men & a glass of water - one sees a half full glass, the other sees a half empty glass. Two different drivers, same car. One drives it going, another drives it coming back. One complains about the car, the other doesn't. One sees a half-filled tank while the other thinks it's half-empty. Eventually, different cars were given to each one again. One wishes there are things in the old car the new one should have, the other sees things the old car doesn't have. How do you view a situation? When you say you've moved on do you look back to see what the new doesn't have? You will not see the opportunities if you don't focus on the new one. The problem is not really the problem but how we see the problem is the problem. How do you see the challenges thrown to you? Perspective matters. #22 On this trips, there will be roadblocks, turnpikes, hold ups, flats, jerks, street lights that don't work etc before the last bus stop. There are also road signs to warn you and keep you in check. There are trips you will have to make alone. There are times you won't feel like it and almost quit. You may see delays as time waters and they may come in form of sickness and poverty and the likes. Look for the seed of good in everyone of such situation and develop patience in overcoming. Don't fret and don't stop. #23 What makes a classic a classic? Many cars have been manufactured, many are scrap now. Many cars are coming up and until a car is worthy of its place in service, it may be REPLACED, turned to a regular or worse, scrapped. Long service means specific quality fuel to work. You can't use premium motor spirit for a diesel engine. Your passion fuels the inner drive to deliver quality service. Your PLACE of service and quality of service will determine your position after ‘active’ service. What drives you? We all have different passions for different purposes. When you don't deliver you can be replaced! You can't serve the queen and be a regular! Be careful also of what enters you. When you are fueled by the wrong passion you will definitely knock your engine. Be driven by the right passion. #24 Jumper cables… always a lifesaver when needed by you or someone else. They're quite necessary as you never can tell when you may have a battery drain and you may need to start. As iron sharpens iron, battery charges battery. You can't connect cables with your hood closed. Be open. To get help or motivation at times you need to be open and ready to connect with brains that can give you the push/charge. Most lasting transformative change began this way. You may not meet them in person but the PEOPLE/friends you meet/hang around and BOOKS you read matter. They keep you motivated when you're drained! Connect to positive minds #25 There are times we get lost because we don't have a map or GPS to guide us on the road and we wander far from where we are meant to be or go. Every road is connected to another. No matter how wrong you've gone in the wrong direction there's always a turn ahead to make and get you back on track. The spirit in us is our guide only if we can follow it as it directs us. Where your journey ends, another's begin. #26 Lewis Hamilton - failed driving tests, closed circuit driver, black, controls are at hand. We all handle ours differently. Lewis Hamilton - One of the finest closed circuit drivers in history racing for McLaren. He is the Tiger Woods of racing and driving (on the tracks). But it will shock you to know that he has failed to pass driving tests to get a license about 31 times and was at a point issued honorary driver's license by the British government! The best is not always the best in every situation. We all have our tracks to run in life. We all have different situations that we find ourselves in and have to tackle them as individuals instead of looking at how Mr A did his. You can't win by looking at the other person. It's only a race if you decide it is. Run your race on your track your way. Be the best of you because even the best have their weaknesses. #27 There's a path that appears to be right... The roads we all drive on have names. Some are tarred, some are not. Some have potholes while others don't. Some are boulevards, some are highways, some are streets, some are Cul de sac but they all lead somewhere. What road are you on? Is it yours or someone else's? Does your road have a name? Will you be worthy of history books? Can it be found on the map to direct someone how to get somewhere? Chart your course and write your own history. You're the captain of your soul; the driver of your dreams. Are you on the right road? Where does it lead? Will you be remembered for charting a path? #28 A vehicle will always need servicing and oil change once in a while. No matter how dirty a vehicle is, it can always be washed. No matter how scratched it is, it can be detailed. No matter how damaged, rusty or beyond repair the car may seem, there is always a hope when the manufacturer handles it. The car was bought at a cost and something can always be done when insurance covers the damages. Check your documents and see all the insurance covers. No matter how shattered and bend-beyond-repair you think your life is, the creator can fix it. You've been bought with a price and that is your Insurance and an assurance of afterlife. Jesus is the propitiation and has paid in full for all damages. Your creator is not done with you until your purpose is fulfilled. Be maxed out before you take a bow… You can rev all you want but if you're not on gear you ain't going nowhere. You can talk all you want but if you're not engaged you ain't doing nothing. © 2017 NeuroKing's Analogies (Full book coming soon)

What are simple courses in the civil engineering subject?

Engineering Mechanics Concept of measurement of mass, force, time and space, system of units, Fundamental & Derived units, conversion of units, required accuracy of results General Principles of static’s, Vector addition, subtraction and products, Resultant of distributed (linear & non linear) force systems, General conditions of equilibrium of co-planer forces, Laws of triangle, parallelogram and polygon of forces, Types of Beams, supports and loads, simple cases of axial forces, shear forces and bending moment diagrams, Problem involving friction on flat surfaces Geometrical properties of plane areas Work, energy, power, impulse, momentum, conservation of momentum and energy Rectilinear and curvilinear motions, Tangential and normal components of Acceleration, Simple harmonic motion Engineering Mechanics Lab Roof Truss To find the various forces in various parts of wall crane To verify the line of polygon on various forces To find coefficient of friction between various materials on inclined plan To verify the principle of moment in the disc apparatus Helical block To draw a load efficiency curve for a screw jack Books Recommended Engineering Mechanics 4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice Hall Ask a Question about Engineering Mechanics Engineering Mechanics Questions Answers View Lectures Lectures Notes of Engineering Mechanics - ,Coming Soon Engineering Drawing Introduction,:Drawing Instrument & their use.Types of lines & letters.ScalesDimensions & their Types.Planning of a Sheet.Types of Engineering Drawings. Geometric Constructions & Engineering Curves, Parabola, Ellipse & Hyperbola. Projections,:Concept of Projection.Types of Projections, Orthographic Projection.1st Angle & 3rd Angle ProjectionOrthographic Projection of Points, Simple lines, simple planes & simple solids.Three Views of an object.Sectional Views. Isometric Views from given orthographic Views. Free Sketches. Of solid objects & building drawings. Building Drawings.,Building symbols.Types of building drawings, proposed drawing, submission drawing, Working drawing & completion drawing. Introduction to Bridge Drawings. Engineering Drawing Drawing Exercises:,Planning of sheet & practicing lines & letters.Orthographic Projections of given model, Sectional Views.Steel Structure Connections detail.Preparation of Plan, Elevation & Section of Single story simple buildings.Isometric & other three dimensional ViewFree Hand Sketches. Books Recommended Essentials of Drafting ,by, ,James D. Bethune,. Engineering Drawing ,by N.D. Butt. Ask a Question about Engineering Drawing & Drafting Engineering Drawing & Drafting Q's n Answers View Lectures Engineering Mechanics, 4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice Hall Computer Applications in Civil Engg. & Communications Part – A: Computer Applications Introduction to Computer Hardware Introduction to Operating Systems Introduction to Word Processors Introduction to Spread Sheets Introduction to Presentation Software Part – B: Communication Skills Brain Storming Process Analysis of Topic Audience Analysis Sequencing the Presentation Material Detailing of Material Preparing Conclusion Question & Answer Sessions Preparation of Presentation in Software Presentation to Audience Participating in seminars and interviews Presenting Conference Papers Books Recommended Mastering OfficeXP, by Gini Cortrte Communication Skills ,University of Phoenix Ask Question about Civil Softwares Civil Engineeirng Softwares Answers View Lectures Engineering Mechanics Applied Linear Algebra Vector Algebra:,Introduction to scalars and vectors, Vectors in the plane, Scalar and vector products, Lines in R2, R 3 and planes, Spheres, Orthogonal projections, Perpendicular distance from a point to a line and a plane, Vector spaces, Subspaces, Linear combinations, Linearly dependent and Independent set of vectors, Spanning of a vector spaces, Bases of a vector spaces and its applications in engineering and Business. Matrix Algebra:,Introduction to matrices, Matrix operations, Inverse Matrix, Rank of a Matrix, Echelon form of a Matrix and its applications in our daily life situation problems, i-e in line-communication as Air-lines, Telephone-lines, Connecting cities by roads. Determinants:,Determinants and its properties, Inverse of a matrix, Rank of a matrix, linearly dependent and independent by determinants. Linear system of equations:,Independent, Dependent and Inconsistent system of equations and its graphical representation, Trivial and non-trivial solutions of homogeneous system of linear equations and its applications as linear models in Business, Economics, Science, Electric Circuits and other branches of engineering. Solution of linear system of equations by determinants and its applications as Leontief input-output matrix of the economy, Coding and decoding theory. Linear Transformations:,Reflection operators, Projection operators, Rotation operators, Shear in x and y directions, Dilation and Contraction. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors:,Eigenvalues and eigenvectors and its applications as deformation, Markov processes as Mass-transit problems, Forecasting of weather and to develop the solution of the system of differential equations for mechanical system/electrical system and civil engineering, especially in public health engineering problems. Books Recommended David C Lay, Linear Algebra and its Application, 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley Publication Jan 1998 Ask a Question about Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Questions Answers View Lectures Engineering Mechanics, 4th edition by Irving H. shames, Prentice Hall Electrical Technology Power Systems layout, generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power Electrical Elements and circuits Electrical current, voltage, power, energy, Ohm’s law, inductance, capacitance, Kirchoffs laws. Introduction to node voltage and loop current methods. Principle of House wiring and Industrial wiring Diode Transistor and simple rectifier circuit. Electrical know how related to experimental design instrumentations like corrosion rate measurements, strain gauges, LDT’s LVDT’s. etc. Books Recommended Theraja, B.L. Electrical Technology, S. Chand (21st or 26th edition) Ask a Question about Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Questions Answers View Lectures Engineering Mechanics Semester - 2 Syllabus & Courses Mechanics of Solids Simple stress and strain Types of stresses and strains Load extension diagram for different materials Hooke’s law, Modulus of elasticity Lateral and volumetric strain. Poisson’s ratio Temperature stresses and compound bars Theory of torsion of solid and hollow circular shafts Advanced cases of shear force and bending moment diagrams for statically determinate beams. Relationship between Load, Shear and Moment. Theory of simple bending, Neutral Axis, Resisting moments and section modulus. Shear stresses in mono-symmetric beams Deflection of beams by double integration, moment area and conjugate beam methods Mechanics of Solids Lab Investigation of Hook’s law that is the proportional relation between force and stretching in elastic deformation, Determination of torsion and deflection, Measurement of forces on supports in statically determinate beam, Determination of shear forces in beams, Determination of bending moments in beams, Measurement of deflections in statically determinate beam, Measurement of strain in a bar Bend test steel bar; Yield/tensile strength of steel bar; Recommended Books Strength of Materials by Andrew Pytel & Ferdinand L. Singer Mechanics of Materials by E.P. Popov Ask a Question about Mechanics of Solids Mechanics of Solids Questions Answers View Lectures Mechanics of Solids - ,Strength of Materials Computer Programming for Civil Engineers Introduction to Programming & Visual Basic Visual Basic Code Components Data Types Variables Control Structures Procedures Arrays File I/O operations Lab Visual Basic Code Components (program examples) Data Types (program examples) Variables (program examples) Control Structures (program examples) Procedures (program examples) Arrays (program examples) File I/O operations (program examples) Programming related to Civil Engineering Matrix addition, subtraction and multiplication. Beam analysis program for simply supported, cantilever, Overhanging Beam Program for finding resultant of forces and its angle Program for stress analysis of composite bar Recommended Books Visual Basic 6 by Deitel & Deitel, T.R. Nieto Visual ,Home Page, by Deitel & Deitel, T.R. Nieto Ask a Question about Engineering Mechanics Engineering Mechanics Questions Answers View Lectures VB.Net for Civil Engineering Engineering Materials Cements, Ceramics, and Refractories:,Manufacture, properties, and application of lime, cement, ceramic and bricksMortars and concrete, Pozzolanic material, effects of various chemicals on cement and concrete. Methods of protection, strength and test of building stone. Quarrying and dressing of stone. Timbers:,Varieties and uses of important timbers, method of seasoning and sawing Decay, seasoning and preservation of timber, laminated materials. Glass and Plastics:,Composition, varieties, properties and use of glass, plastic, laminates and adhesive. Metals:,Composition and properties of ferrous and non ferrous metals used in civil engineering. Effect of various heat treatments on the properties of steel and its alloys. Corrosion and methods of corrosion control. Properties of thermal insulation material for use in buildings. Paints and Varnishes:,Composition, preparation, properties, test and uses of paints, plasters, varnishes and distempers. Other Materials:,Acoustical material and geo-textiles, properties and uses of asphalt, bitumen, rubber and asbestos, laminates and adhesive. Lab Gradation of coarse aggregate Gradation of fine aggregate Fineness of cement Setting time Normal Consistency Initial Setting time Final Setting time Tensile Strength of Briquette Compressive strength of mortar cube Soundness test of Cement Density of Cement Slump Test Recommended Books Neville A. Properties of Concrete, English Language Book Society Smith R. C. Material of Construction, McGraw-Hill Ask a Question about Engineering Materials Engineering Materials Questions Answers View Lectures Engineering Materials Lectures Calculus Single Variable Calculus,: Basic concepts of single variable function, Continuous, discontinuous and piecewise continuous functions, Periodic, odd and even functions, algebraic functions, Transcendental functions and its graphical representations, Applications of functions in our daily life situations. Differential Calculus:,Limits and continuity, Interpretation of a derivative, Geometric interpretation, Total differential and its applications in our daily life situations, The use of a table of different type derivatives, Higher order derivatives, Tangents and normals, Approximation of a function at a particular point by Taylor's and Maclaurin's series, Maximum and minimum values of a function, The first derivative test, The second derivative test, Point of inflexion and its applications in business and engineering. Integral Calculus: Basic concepts of integration, A table of integral formulas, Some rules of integration, Definite integrals, The area bounded by a curve, Integration by parts, Integration as the limit of a sum, Volume of revolution, and its applications in our daily life situations Multivariate Calculus:,Basic concepts of multivariate function, Level curves and surfaces, Limits and continuity, Partial differentiation, Geometric interpretation, higher partial derivatives. Tangent planes, Total differential, Vector functions and its differentiation and integration, The directional derivative, The gradient, Scalar and Vector fields, Normal property of the gradient, Divergence , Curl, Tangent planes and normal lines, Extrema of functions of two variables, Second partials test, Extreme value theorem, Method of Constrained optimization and Lagrange multipliers. Recommended Books Robert Davison, Addison Wesley, Mathematics for Engineers Antom, H. Calculus and Analytic Geometry, Johney Wiley and Sons. Toff and Mckay, Practical Mathematics S.A.H.Rizvi, Engineering Mathematics Ask a Question about Civil Engineering Civil Engineering Questions Answers View Lectures Engineering Mechanics Engineering Geology Introduction to Geology Importance of Geology for Civil Engineering Projects Physical properties and identification of common rocks forming minerals Rocks formation and classification:,According to the mode of occurrencesAccording to the Silica contents Weather and erosion: Weather classification, fresh, slightly weathered, moderately weathered etc. Discontinuity classification: Joints, faults and other fractures, micro structural features, such as lamination, cleavages, foliations, spacing of discontinuities as close, wide, medium etc, Description of Rock masses as thickly bedded or thinly bedded,Identification of filling in joints, sand clay and breccias etcColor of grains, description with respect to the rock color and identification as a course grained, hardness classification as soft with respect to test Geological classification and identification of Rocks by geological names Identification and subordinate constitutions in rocks samples such as seams or branches of other types of minerals for example, Dolomite, Lime stone, Calcareous sand stone, sand. Classification of Durability of Rocks in Dry and wet condition with durability test,Engineering and physical properties of rocksGeological technical properties of rocks used as building stones, as a decorated stones and as a industrial rocks such as color, luster, streak, specific gravity, water absorption and unit weight etc. Brief Introduction to structural Geology: Plate Tectonics with respect to the global application, earthquakes, causes of earthquakes, protective measures against earthquakes and zoning of earth quakes in Pakistan Role of geology in selection of sites for dams, reservoirs, tunnels and other civil engineering structures Brief introduction of local geology Mechanics of Solids 2 Analysis of stresses and strains at a point due to combined effect of axial force, shear force and bending moment Mohr’s circle for stresses and strains Relationship between elastic constants Theories of Failure Unsymmetrical Bending Shear Stresses in mono-symmetric beams Shear stress distribution in unsymmetrical beams Shear flow, shear center, concentration of stresses Thick and thin walled cylinders Analysis of curved beams and beams on elastic foundation Short eccentrically loaded columns Core of a section Rankine Gordon formula for intermediate columns, slenderness ratio Eccentrically Loaded Columns Inelastic behavior of beams in flexure Shape factor of a section. Recommended Books Strength of Materials by Andrew Pytel & Ferdinand L. Singer Mechanics of Materials by E.P. Popov Ask a Question about Mechanics of Solids Mechanics of Solids Questions Answers View Lectures Solid Mechanics Lectures Construction Engineering & Graphics - Building Construction & Design, + ,AutoCAD Building Construction:,Site Selection for a building, Orientation and Setting out for construction Layout Techniques: Layout Techniques with special reference to buildings. Excavation in different types of soils Masonry construction Types of stone and brick masonry; bonds in brick masonry, Alignments, Plumbs, leveling & cambering. Form work Form work for general in-situ construction, props, bracing and horizontal shuttering platforms. Damp proofing, in building, Interior and exterior surface finishes Various types of floors & roofing systems, planner & non-planer roofing system, roof treatments. Expansion joints, and construction joints Wood work ,in building construction Other Engineering Projects. An over view of construction aspects of different types of engineering projects, e.g. buildings, retaining structures, bridges Construction specification Common defects ,in building construction their causes and remedial measures Lab Architectural Drawings, Structural Drawings, Plumbing and Electrical Work. Computer Aided Drawing (AutoCAD) General and basic know how related to computer aided drafting, e.g., coordinate system, drawing setup procedure, basic draw commands, basic edit commands; Layers, creating test and defining styles options, block and drawing import/export options; Cross hatching, save and plot (2D) and isometric drawings. Use of Auto CAD in drawing plans, elevation and section of single and double-storey buildings Structural Analysis INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: Definition of structure, types of structures: pin jointed and rigid jointed. Types of structural members. Types of beams, supports and loads. Stability of structures. Redundancy. Determinate and indeterminate structures, Degree of indeterminacy. Sign conventions for bending moment and shear force etc. ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE RIGID JOINTED PLANE FRAMES: Definition. Analysis of determinate frames. ANALYSIS OF DETERMINATE PLANE TRUSSES: Definition and common types of trusses. Classification of co-planar trusses. Methods of analysis of trusses; Method of joints, Method of sections, Graphical method. ROTATIONS AND DEFLECTIONS: Deflection diagrams and elastic curves. Castigiano’s theorem for trusses beams and frames. Unit load method. Theorem of virtual work for trusses beams and frames. ARCHES: Definition. Linear arch. Eddy’s theorem. Three hinged parabolic and circular arch. Bending Moment and shear force diagrams. Influence lines for shear, thrust and moment. INFLUENCE LINES:,Definition. Influence lines for statically determinate beams and paneled girders.Influence lines for reaction, shear and bending moment of statically determinate beams and paneled girders. Influence lines for axial forces in trusses. Influence lines for composite structures. TRAVELLING LOADS:,Maximum bending moment and shear force at any section. Criterion for maximum moment and shear.Absolute maximum bending moment. CABLES AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES:,Cables. Stiffened suspension bridges with three hinged stiffening girders.Shear force and bending moment diagrams. THREE MOMENT EQUATION:,Derivation of 3-moment equation. Application of 3-moment equation to the analysis of indeterminate beams Labs Demonstration of various types of structures and supports. Demonstrate the stability of structures using model structures. Determination of the horizontal thrust and maximum bending moment in a three hinged parabolic arches. Determination of the horizontal thrust and maximum bending moment in a two hinged parabolic arches. Determination of the deflections and rotations in overhanging beams. Demonstration of influence line Investigation of the buckling struts Determination of shear cente Recommended Books Wang, C.K. Intermediate Structural Analysis, McGraw Hill West, H.H. Analysis of Structures, John Wiley & Sons. Hibbeler, R.C. Structural Analysis, Prentice Hall. Ask a Question about Structural Engineering Structural Analysis Questions Answers View Lectures Structural Analysis Lectures Town Planning & Architecture Architecture,Historical DevelopmentGeneral introduction to history of architecture; Emergence/Development of Islamic Architechure. Influences Geographical, climatic, religious, social, historical. Principles Truth or purpose & beauty. Qualities,Strength, vitality, grace, breadth and scale. Factors Proportion, color and balance. Use of Materials,Stone, wood, metals, concrete, composites, ceramics.General Treatment to Plan of BuildingsWalls and their construction; Openings and their position, character and shape; Roofs and their development and employment; Columns and their position, form and decoration; Molding and their form decoration, Ornament as applied to any buildings. Town Planning Definitions,Trends in urban growth; Objectives of town planning; Modern planning in Pakistan and abroad. Preliminary Studies,Study of natural resources, economic resources, legal and administrative problems, civic surveys and preparation of relevant maps. Land Use Patterns Various theories of land use pattern. Location of Parks and recreation facilities, public and semi-public buildings, civic centers, commercial centers, local shopping centers, public schools, industry & residential areas. Street Patterns Lay out of street, road crossing & lighting; Community planning City Extensions Sub Urban development, Neighborhood Units, Satellite Town and Garden City Urban Planning,Issues related to inner city urban design and emergence/up gradation of squatter settlements.Introduction to Urban & Regional Planning using GIS Recommended Books Snyter, J.C. Introduction to Urban Planning, Milwaukee McGraw Hill Book Co Fletcher, S.B. A History of Architecture. The Athlone Press. Ask a Question about Town Planning Town Planning Questions Answers View Lectures Town Plannig Lectures - ,Coming Soon Mechanical Technology Basics of Thermodynamics,Thermodynamic systems,Laws of thermodynamics,Laws of perfect gasesEnergy equationInternal Energy, Enthalpy and entropy of the working fluids Prime Movers:,Internal combustion engines: type, working principle, cycle operation and performance,Steam EnginesSteam TurbinesAir-compressors Air-Conditioning:,Introduction to Air-conditioning and refrigeration. Heating and cooling load and its calculations, comfort chart, outline of AC systems Lab Practical # 1: To study the different components of petrol engine. Practical # 2: To study the cooling system of automobile engine. Practical # 3: To study the lubrication system of automobile engine. Practical # 4: To study the ignition system of automobile engine. Practical # 5: To study the fuel system of automobile engine. Practical # 6: To study the air-intake system of automobile engine. Practical # 7: To study the 2-Stroke Reciprocating Engine. Practical # 8: To study the vapor compression system. Practical # 9: To study different components of refrigeration and air-conditioning system. Practical # 10: The layout of boiler room. Practical # 11: To study the boiler of the steam engine power plant. Practical # 12: To study the steam Engine of the steam engine power plant. Practical # 13: To study the turbine of the steam engine power plant. Practical # 14: To study the condenser of steam engine power plant. Differential Equations Ordinary Differential Equations: Basic concepts of ordinary differential equation, General and particular solutions, Initial and boundary conditions, Linear and nonlinear differential equations, Solution of first order differential equation by separable variables and its applications in our daily life situations, The techniques like change of variable, homogeneous, non-homogeneous, exact, non-exact, linear and nonlinear Bernoulli could be used in case of complications. Solution of second order differential equation by theory of operators and its applications as forced and free oscillations, The extension of second order solution criteria to higher order differential equations, Solution of the system of differential equations by theory of operators and its applications in our daily life situations. Partial Differential Equations: Basic concepts, Linear and nonlinear p.d.equations, Quasi linear and Quasi nonlinear p.d.equations, Homogeneous and non-homogeneous p.d.equations, Solutions of p.d.equations, Boundary and initial conditions as Dirichlet condition, Neumann condition, Robbins/Mixed condition, Classification of p.d.equations as Elliptic, Parabolic and Hyperbolic. Analytic solution by separation of variables of the Steady-State Two-Dimensional Heat equation/Laplace equation and Unsteady-State One-Dimensional Heat equation/Diffusion equation with homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. D'Alembert's solution of Two-Dimensional Wave equation with homogeneous and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. Fourier Series: Periodic waveforms and their fourier representations, Calculating a fourier series, Fourier series of odd and even functions, Half range fourier series, Fourier series solution for the above p.d.equations. Recommended Books Kreyszig, E.Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Wayne and Erson. Abell & Braselton, Brooks /Cole, Modern Differential Equations, Second edition Ask a Question about Engineering Mechanics Civil Engineering Questions Answers Download Kreszig Solution Differential Equations Solutions Fluid Mechanics Introduction to fluid Mechanics & its classification.,History of fluid MechanicsApplication of Fluid mechanics in Civil Engineering.Distinction between solids and fluids. Physical Properties of Fluids:,Density, Specific weight, Specific Volume, Specific gravity, Viscosity.Newton’s Law of viscosity. Surface tension. Compressibility of fluids. Fluid Statics:,Static pressure, Pressure height relationship, absolute and gauge pressure,Measurement of Pressure, Barometer, Bourdon gauge, Pizometer tube, simple and differential manometer, Basic principal of various pressure measuring instruments.Forces on submerged plane and curved bodies. Buoyancy and Stability of submerged and floating bodies. Fluid Kinematics: Basics Concept about steady and unsteady flow, Laminar and Turbulent flow, Path lines, stream line, stream tube, uniform and non uniform flow. Basic Equations:,Continuity Equation, Energy Equation and Momentum Equation.Application of Energy Equation and Continuity Equation to incompressible fluids. Fluid Measurement: Venturimeter, Orifices, Mouth pieces and Nozzles, pitot tube, Weirs and Notches. Flow through Pipes:,Laminar Flow through pipes, Darcy’s Weisbach equation for flow through pipes,Hydraulic and Energy gradient lines, Losses in Pipe lines. Transmission of Energy through Pipes Flow through Open Channel:,Uniform flow through open channels. Chezy’s and Manning’s formula for uniform Flow through open channels. Most efficient cross section of open channel. Labs Demonstration of various parts of Hydraulic Bench. Experimental Study of laminar and turbulent Flow. Experimental Study of tube gauges and Dead weight pressure gauges. Calibration of Orifices by Various Methods. Calibration of venturimeter. Calibration of Rectangular and Triangular Notch. Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem. Determination of Metacentric height. Study of Various losses through Piping arrangements. Recommended Books Robert L.Daughetn, Joseph B. Franzini, Fluid Mechanics with Engineering applications E.H.Lewitt, Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics Ask a Question about Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Questions Answers View Lectures Hydraulics & Fluid Mechanics Surveying & Levelling I Introduction Surveying instruments; chains, tapes, steel bands, their types & uses. Chain Surveying Ranging & Chaining of Survey lines. Field work & Plotting of Chain survey Compass Surveying,Prismatic Compass& Surveyor compassUses, Bearings, Local attraction, Fieldwork & Plotting. Plane Table Surveying Parts and accessories. Methods of surveying. Two-point and three-point problems. Leveling General principle. Types of levels and their temporary and permanent adjustments. Methods of levelling. Reduction of levels, Precise levelling and Trigonometric Leveling. Theodolite., Types and uses of theodolites. Temporary and permanent adjustments. Measurement of horizontal and vertical angles. Tacheometrical surveying Methods of tacheometrical surveying. Field work and computation Traversing Traversing with prismatic compass, theodolite and plane table, computations and adjustments of traverse, transformation of Co-ordinates Omitted Measurements Calculation of Areas and Volumes Earthwork calculations. D.M.D. method, Simpson rule and trapezoidal rule. Labs Practice on measurement of distances and introduction to measuring instruments Chain Surveying and plotting Compass Traversing Plane Table by methods of radiations and Intersections Two Points Problem Three Points Problem Level adjustments by two-peg method. Profile and Cross-Sectioning Theodolite traversing Recommended Books Kavanash,B. Surveying principles and Application, Prentice Hall Irvine, W. Surveying for Construction, McGraw Hill. Davis, R.E. Surveying Theory and Practice, McGraw Hill Ask a Question about Surveying & Levelling Engineering Surveying Questions Answers View Lectures Engineering Surveying Engineering Economics Basic Concepts Introduction to Engineering Economics Time Value of Money Different Methods of Analysis (Present Worth Analysis, Annual Worth Analysis etc.) Concept of Internal Rate of Return & Its use in Engineering Projects Various Types of Costs (Maintenance, Repair, Other Overhead Costs etc. ) & Benefits & Its Use in Engineering Projects Economical Life of Construction Equipment Inflation Depreciation & Its Types Cost Escalation Introduction to Break Even Analysis & Its Application to Engineering Project Sensitivity Analysis Demand and Supply Analysis Theory of Pricing & Theory of Production and Laws of Return Funding, Funding Agencies and Planning Commission Types of Business Organizations Labor problems, Labor Organization, Prevention and Settlement of Disputes Recommended Books Donald G. Newman E.Peul Degarmo Ask a Question about Engineering Economics Engineering Economics Questions Answers View Lectures Engineering Economics Lecture Notes Structural Analysis II Method of Consistent Deformation:,Analysis of statically indeterminate beams, frames and trusses. Castigliano's second theorem (Method of least work).Slope Deflection MethodDerivation of equation, Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames without joint movement. Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames due to yielding of supports. Analysis of portal frames with joint movement. Analysis of closed frames and multistory portal frames. Moment Distribution Method Concept, Distribution and carry over factors, Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames without joint movement. Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames due to yielding of supports. Analysis of continuous beams and portal frames with joint movement. Analysis of multistory portal frames. Plastic Analysis Elastic versus Plastic Analysis in Steel Design, Upper & Lower Bound Theorems, Statical Moment & Mechanism Methods. Design of Beams, Propped Cantilever, Fixed ended & Continuous beams & frames, Design Examples Analysis of Arches Analysis of two hinged circular and parabolic arches with supports at different levels. Influence Lines for Indeterminate Beams,Use of Clark Maxwell and Betti’s Theorm, Law of Reciprocal Deflections, Influence lines for moment and reactions in proposed cantilevers. Influence lines for support reaction of two and three span continuous beams. Influence lines for Shear Force and Bending Moment at any section of the beam. Recommended Books Wang, C.K. Intermediate Structural Analysis, McGraw Hill. West, H.H. Analysis of Structures, John Wiley 7 Sons. Hibbeler, R.C. Structural Analysis, Prentice Hall. Ask a Question about Structural Engineering Structural Analysis Questions Answers View Lectures Structural Analysis Lectures Numerical Analysis Interpolation and extrapolation; Finite differences, forward, backward and central differences and its operators form, Linear and higher order interpolating polynomials, Newton's Gregory forward & backward difference interpolation formulas and its utilization as extrapolation, Lagrange’s interpolation, Numerical differentiation based on differences, Numerical integration; Trapezoidal and Simpson's approximations, Romberg integration process, Numerical Solution of non-linear equations; Bracketing and iteration methods and its applications as multiple root methods, Direct solution of the system of linear equations; Gauss-elimination, Direct and indirect factorization, symmetric factorization, tri-diagonal factorization, Iterative methods like Jacobi's iteration and Gauss-Seidel iteration, Numerical solution of initial value problems; Single-Step methods and its comparison with Taylor's series expansion, Multi-Step methods, Higher order differential equations, System of differential equations, Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear boundary value problems. Soil Mechanics Soil Formation Soil and its constituents, weathering of rocks and types of soils. Description and Identification of soil (Visual-Manual Procedure), Mineralogy of soil solids. Physical Properties Water content, void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, specific gravity, unit Weight and their determination, Atterberg limits, sieve analysis, hydrometer and Pipette analysis, Stoke’s law, grain size distribution. Soil Classification, Grain size classification, Bureau of soils,. M.I.T., Unified, AASHTO and ASTM Classification systems. Textural Classification by triangular chart, united soil classification system, AASHTO soil classifications. Permeability and Seepage,Definition, Hydraulic gradient, Darcy's Law, Factors affecting permeability, Permeability of stratified soils, Laboratory and field determination of coefficient of permeability.Seepage force, quick sand condition, flow nets, boundary conditions, graphical method of flow net construction, determination of quantity of seepage, two dimensional flow, Laplace Equation, seepage through earth dams, design of filters Compaction,Definition, Compaction fundamentals, Moisture density relationships,Standard Proctor test and modified AASHO test for compaction, Factors affecting compaction, Compaction equipment, properties and structure of compacted soils, Specifications, field control and measurement of in-situ density, CBR test. Vertical stresses in soils Definition, stresses caused by self weight of soil, Geostatic stresses, stresses caused by point loads and uniformly distributed loads: Boussinesq and Westerqaard theories, Pressure bulb, stress distribution diagram on horizontal and vertical planes; stress at a point outside loaded area, Newmark’s charts and 2:1 Method Soil Exploration Importance of soil exploration, soil exploration methods; probing, test trenches and pits, auger boring, wash boring, rotary drilling, Percussion drilling and geophysical methods, soil samples, Disturbed and undisturbed samples, In-situ tests (SPT, CPT and PLT) Introduction of related Software Labs Identification of Soil (Visual Manual Procedure) Determination of Moisture content of soil Determination of specific gravity of soil Determination of liquid limit of soil Grain-size analysis of soil (including both mechanical and hydrometer analysis) Determination of Plastic limit and Plasticity Index of soil Determination of shrinkage limit of soil Classification of soil according to AASHTO and USCS Modified/Proctor Compaction Test Constant Head Permeability test (Granular Soil) Falling Head Permeability (Granular and Fine grained soils)

How could we choose a material which can transmit more amperes of current?

Wires as we define here are used for transmission of electricity or electrical signals. Wires come in many forms and are made from many materials. They may seem simple but engineers are aware of two important points: -Electricity in long wires used in transmission behaves very differently, than in short wires used in design of devices ,-The use of wires in AC circuits brings on all sorts of problems, like skin effect and proximity effects. 1. Resistivity/Impedance 2. ,Skin Effect, 3. Types of Wire Design, ,4. More on Wire Materials, ,5. Wire Insulation For more information click here ,Behavior of electricity in wires: Resistance and Impedance It's important to know if you are dealing with DC or AC power in a given wire. AC power has some very complex physics which cause some strange effects. This was one of the reasons why AC power ,was developed in the 1890s,, long after DC power. Engineers like ,C.P. Steinmetz, had to figure out the mathematics and physics first. AC Power:, In ,AC power, current likes to travel near the ,surface of a wire (skin effect)., AC power in a wire also causes a ,magnetic field to form around it (inductance),. This field effects other nearby wires (such as in a winding) causing ,proximity effect., All of these properties must be dealt with when designing an AC circuit. DC Power:, In DC power current travels through the whole of a wire. Size of the conductor and material (AC and DC power): Electricity travels more easily in highly conductive elements like ,copper,, silver or gold, the less conductive the material, the larger the diameter has to be to carry the same current load. Engineers choose ,the right wire diameter, for the job, raising current in a wire increases the resistivity and generates more heat. As you'll see in the diagram below copper can carry more current than aluminum while carrying the same load. Below: When Sir Humphrey Davy put lots of current through a thin platinum wire in 1802 it glowed and made the first ,incandescent light,! but just a few seconds later the wire melted and vaporized due to the heat caused by resistance in the wire. Quality of Material: Impurities and Crystals: Most materials have impurities. In copper the oxygen content and other materials in the copper effect the conductivity, so copper which will be made into an electrical wire is alloyed differently than copper which on it's way to becoming plumbing. Metals are crystalline (as you'll see in our ,Copper video,). Monocrystalline copper or aluminum has better conductivity than polycrystalline metals, however large crystal copper is very expensive to produce and only used in high performance applications. Resistivity: Resistance in a wire the describes the excitation of electrons in the wire's conductor material. This excitation results in the creation of heat, and loss of efficiency. In early DC power ,Thomas Edison, couldn't send his power a long distance without using wide-diameter copper wires due to resistance over distance. This made DC power not cost effective and allowed for the growth of AC power. Measurement Tools:, Engineers use ,Ohms Law, to calculate how much resistance a given wire will have. This tells us how much energy we will loose over distance. I = V / R, Amps = Volts divided by Resistance Formulas for Resistance and Conductance: Resistance = resistivity / cross sectional area Conductance = 1 / Resistance When Resistance is Good:, Creation of heat in a wire is normally a sign of wasted energy, however in a tungsten or tantalum wire the heat makes the wire glow and produce light which may be desired. Tungsten is used to ,make filaments, because it has a very high melting point. The wire can get very hot and glow brightly without melting. Tungsten would be very bad for power transmission since most of the energy put through is lost in the form of heat and light. In ,power transmission, we look for the lowest resistivity possible, we want to transmit power over long distances without losing energy through heat. We measure resistance in a wire by ohms per 1000 feet or meters. The longer electricity has to travel, the more energy it looses. Superconducting Wire and Resistance: Above: Superconducting wire can be made into a metallic "tape" Above: ,Carl Rosner, , Mark Benz and others used special superconducting wire coils to produce the ,world's first 10 Tesla magnet,. Niobium and tin are used instead of copper since materials work differently at different temperatures. One great solution to power transmission is ,superconductors,. As a metal becomes super cold (approaching absolute zero) it obtains a conductivity of infinity. At a certain point there is no resistivity at all. There have been experimental superconductive high voltage lines which were able to transmit power with almost no losses, however the technology is not developed enough to be cost effective. Magnetic Fields (inductance and impedance): Every wire used to transmit AC power creates a magnetic field while current flows through it. The magnetic field is visualized by concentric rings around the cross section of the wire, each ring closer to the wire has a stronger ,magnetic power,. Magnetic fields are useful for making very strong magnets (when in a coil) i.e. making motors and generators, however these magnetic fields are unwanted in power transmission lines. While resistivity of a wire can impede the flow of current and make heat, the inductance of a wire/transmission line can also impede the flow of current but this impedance does not create heat since the energy is 'lost' in creating a magnetic field rather than exciting electrons in the material. This impedance is called Reactive impedance in AC Circuits. We used the word 'lost' however the power is not truly lost, it is used to create the magnetic field and it returns when the magnetic field collapses. 2.) Skin Effect: In AC power electrons like to flow on the outside of a wire. This is because the changing of current back and forth causes eddy currents that result in current crowding toward the surface. Skin Depth Skin depth is a fixed number for given frequency, resistivity and permittivity. The higher the frequency of AC power in system, the more current is compressed on the outside of the wire, so a wire that is used at 60 Hz at a given voltage will not be ok at 200 MHz. Engineers must always have the skin effect in mind when designing circuits. See the ,wikipedia site for the formula used to calculate the skin depth. Above: engineers ,overcome skin effect by by using insulated stranded wire., If you make the individual strands equal to one skin depth, most of the current flows in the entire cross section and you use all of the copper. The downside is your wire must have a larger diameter as you need all the extra space for insulation. As the wire strands get smaller in diameter, and the insulation stays the same thickness, the ration of copper area to insulation can become less than one, then you will have more insulation than copper in the winding or cable. Below: Higher frequency AC = less skin depth. The 'faster' current alternates back and forth the more eddy currents it creates. This high frequency power supply operates in the MHz range, notice the special wire used on the right. The wire appears to be stranded and bare, but it is not, it has a clear enamel coating insulating it, so each small strand of wire carries it's own part of the current, with current traveling on the outside of each strand. This gives more surface area as a whole and allows for a large amount of current to travel through. Above: Compact fluorescent light electronics, the transformer is very small and is designed very cheaply. These parts often fail before the end of the typical life cycle of the unit.` Engineers and Costs Savings Design: Engineers use mathematics to calculate the 'skin depth' to find out how much of the wire is being used to conduct electricity. This is a critical part of the electrical engineers work in design of power systems. This work is also related to cost savings as engineers can find out what gauge wire and what wire type to use and compare that with other materials and configurations. Older ,electric motors,and ,generators, from the beginning of the 20th century were known to last a long time because at that time engineers could design the windings and type of wire for best performance since the costs of appliances and machines were higher. Today many motors burn out because engineers are forced to use the cheapest option - the least amount of material which can handle the current, however when the motor begins to overheat thinner wires of cheaper material will burn out faster. Ballasts (transformers) in modern lighting systems have a notoriously short lifespan in the effort to keep the cost per unit down. Hands-on Exercise: How Cost Effects Design You can see and feel the work of engineers, in wire design around your house. Simply find older power supplies or professional power supplies used with high cost machines or tools. Feel the weight of these wall-worts or power supplies. Now find a kids toy or mobile phone charger. Feel how light the transformers feel in comparison. If you are lucky you can find two transformers which convert power from the wall (120 or 220 V) to the same DC voltage for a device. If you open up the casing you can see the difference in the size of the gauge of windings, and whether they use copper or aluminum. You will clearly see how cost of the overall item effects design. 3.) Types of Wire: Below:, Types of wire used by utilities in power transmission: Below:, fixed wiring used in houses along with cords used in speakers, appliances and telephone systems. The graphic below shows old wires once used in houses (SJTWA and Type SE cable) and the modern standard romex. WIRING 1880s to Today: Above: 3 conductor underground copper wire (now rare) Below: Flat 'tape' wire used in superconducting magnets The best wire for the job: All electrical engineers must know about wires and think about using the right design and material for the task at hand. Here are the factors for determining wire design: -Durability (ability to flex repeatedly or be subject to crushing weights) -Voltage and Current level -Suspension strength (ability to hold its own weight over long spans between support) -Underground or underwater -Temperature of operation (like ,superconducting, wire) -Cost Solid Wire: Advantages: Less surface area to corrode Can be rigid and strong Disadvantages: Not good if flexed repeatedly, can break if flexed in the same spot Not practical for high voltage , Stranded Wire: Above: Stranded ,speaker wire, found in every household Below: Specialized use super-thick stranded copper wire -Stranded wire - lots of smaller wires in parallel, can be twisted together Advantages: Great conductor for its size Disadvantages: You may think this would be good for high frequency use because it has lots of surface area on all the little strands of wire, however it is worse than solid wire because the strands touch each other, shorting, and therefore the wire acts as one larger wire, and it has lots of air spaces which makes for more resistance for the size Braided Wire: Advantages: -Great for durability compared with solid wire -Better conductivity than solid wire (lots of surface area) -Can act as an electromagnetic shield in noise-reduction wires -The more strands in the wire, the more bendable and strong it is, but it costs more Special Wires: Solid with braided exterior or some combination of this, these wires are used for all kinds of special applications. Coax cable is used for radio or cable television transmission because in its design braided and foil conductors on the outside keep frequencies trapped inside. The shielding prevents stray electromagnetic energy from tainting the area around sensitive receivers. Below: Video on types of wire used by electric utilities: Hands-on Exercise: Wire Guessing Game Gather bits of scrap wire from around you house or school workshop, collect short samples of different types. Now use the charts above to figure out what kind of wire it is, what it is made of, and list the uses for each. Show this to your teacher and see if you guessed right. Wire comes in so many exotic types that you may find yourself with a real mystery on your hands. Use internet searches to try to identify all of your samples. 4.) Wire Materials: The most common material for electrical wire is ,copper, and ,aluminum,, these are not the best conductors however they are abundant and low cost. ,Gold, is also used in applications because it is corrosion resistant. Gold is used in automobile airbag electronics to guarantee that the device will function many years later despite exposure to harmful elements. Above: gold used in connectors for Motorola chips Gold is usually used in contact areas because this point in the system is more exposed to corrosion and has more potential for oxidization. Aluminum, wrapped around a steel center wire is used in power transmission because the aluminum is cheaper than copper and doesn't corrode. The steel center is used simply for strength, to hold the wire over long spans. Above is a typical ACSR cable used in overhead powerlines around the world. Good conductors which are a solid at room temperature: Platinum, Silver, Gold, Copper, Aluminum 4.) WIRE INSULATION: Left: To make an efficient motor or generator windings have to be packed tight together, minimizing air spaces. Wire used in motors and generators is generally coated in enamel to allow the windings to be packed tight together. Traditional rubber or polymer insulation would make the wire diameter thicker, this is one reason why old electric motors were bigger and heavier than modern motors of the same horsepower.

Is the Honda Accord a better vehicle than the Civic?

There are so many ways to interpret this question but going by the way you have asked, it seems you are a regular folk seeking out a simple answer. Most everyday consumers when buying an automobile should think for the following things. 1. Purpose :, This is the most important aspect. When I say purpose it means how are you going to use that car. Are you just a city folk or do you take long highway trips with your family every now and then. If you drive around in city both the cars are equally good rather I would incline my opinion on Civic as its easier to maneuver in tight spaces and is cheaper on your pocket both investment and maintenance wise. On the other hand Accord is a heavier vehicle and offers more stability and safety on highway speeds. It has wider wheelbase and a bigger engine which addup for this purpose. 2. Region, : This is also a very important aspect as the place you live in reflects the road and weather conditions around you which will eventually decide how much do you spend on the maintenance of your vehicle. Popular belief that if you live in a place where the road conditions are just average so you buy a average car. I say exactly the opposite. Buy a heavier car , bigger cars are not just big in size they are built to stand tougher conditions as well. The suspension, wheel bearings, axles, chassis etc are built to stand more stress and strain, so even though you pay more in the beginning you will eventually end up saving on undesired maintenance in the long run. Whereas if you belong to a place with silky roads both the cars perform equally as the stress never kicks in. 3.Terrain :, This could be considered as a extension of the previous point but its importance led me to make a separate point for it and what I mean is vehicles respond and behave very differently depending on the elevation. A car used in hilly regions will be exposed to more engine stress compared to a car on flat roads. This is different from previous point where we discussed the stress on suspension, bearings etc which is imposed by road conditions. As a golden rule your engine will last you a lifetime if used on 35-45% power output. (Let me explain this-- the speed at which your vehicle is traveling is not a measure of engine power as so many people believe. Its actually the little gauge besides it, yes tachometer that measures your engine power. Keep it within the above defined range , change your engine oil and air filter on time and believe me your engine will last for lifetime) Okk all that explained how does that theory fit here... hilly regions demand more power. Since larger cars have more engine power they offer you that power at a lower engine rpm thus reducing wear and tear and extending the life of your engine. 4. Resale : ,I personally do not believe that a particular brand or vehicle is supremely better than the other. But people factors such as availability of spares, market share, availability of service personnel etc form the opinion of people thereby creating a better opinion of the car and increasing its resale value. This is a adding bonus if you prefer to change your car every 3-5 years as it puts less load on your pocket when you decide to change. Judge your market and surroundings and take action accordingly. 5. Specs Chart : ,Every manufacturer publishes a spec chart for every vehicle it manufactures. Grab those sheets and analyze your decision based on the above mentioned points. The best car is the one you decide suits best to your needs. Both the above mentioned cars are manufactured by a highly reputed manufacturer. There is no reason for them to manufacture one car better that the other. Its just the need of people that makes them explore into different variables of the market. 6. Cost :, I know most people would think that this should be on top of the list but in my opinion cost is a very personal factor for every individual. People may bargain on value for money, accessories, features etc. Agreed 100%, but thats only possible when you try to compare a vehicle in the same segment from two different manufacturers. For example a American built vehicle will offer you much more in safety compared to a Japanese or Korean manufacturer who will offer more on cosmopolitan features like Bluetooth, radio etc which by the way are much cheaper to offer but grab a lot of attention. As this is not the case here I have put this point at the bottom of the list and thus I said in the beginning that there are many ways to answer this question. Lastly, I have not judged the vehicles based on cosmopolitan features and looks as they are a very variable factor and vary highly in opinion from individual to individual. I have tried to answer the question on a larger basis on a theory that will help folks decide between any cars they are trying to pick out.

Which subjects are important for KPSC civil engineering department?

CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION Traditional materials: stone, brick, tiles-roofing and flooring, steel, timber, lime, cement, their manufacture, properties and codal requirements. Mortar, cement concrete, properties, specifications and tests for quality control. Reinforced concrete, fibre reinforced concrete and ferro-cement applications. Paints, enamels, varnishes, tar, bitumen, asphalt, properties and use. Modern materials: plastics, rubber, polymer, fibre reinforced plastics, manufacture, properties and use. Introduction to composites and smart materials. Building Construction: Foundations; Stone Masonry; Brick Masonry -Rules for bonding, stretcher and header bonds and English Bond; Doors and Windows; Stairs - proportioning and designing of different types of staircases for residential and commercial buildings; Different types of roofs. RC Constructions - Lintels and sunshades, beams, one-way and two-way slabs. Plastering and pointing: types, preparation, properties, uses and defects. Formwork for construction. Damp proofing. 2. SOLID MECHANICS, STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SOLID MECHANICS: Fundamentals of force system. Concept of Rigid body and deformable bodies. Free body diagrams. Centroid and moment of inertia of plane areas. Simple stress and strain. Hooke’s law. Mechanical properties of materials. Elastic constants. Simple flexure theory, Bending stress and shearing stress distribution across sections. Deflection of beams, Macaulay's method for deflection of statically determinate beams. Compound stresses - analytical method, graphical method - Mohr's circle of stresses. Torsion, transmission of power through hollow and solid shafts. Beams of uniform strength. Combined bending and torsion. Strain energy. Columns & struts. Elastic stability of columns. Bending moment and shear force diagrams for simply supported beams, cantilever beams and overhanging beams. Analysis of simple trusses. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: Definition of statically determinate and indeterminate structures. Deflection of beams: moment area method, conjugate beam method, strain energy method and unit load method. Rolling loads and influence lines for statically determinate beams and bridge trusses. Three hinged arches, cables and suspension bridges. Analysis of indeterminate beams, frames and trusses: consistent deformation method, slope deflection method, moment distribution method, Kani’s method. Plastic analysis of simple beams and frames. 3. CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY, REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES, STEEL STRUCTURES, PSC STRUCTURES CONCRTE TECHNOLOGY: Concrete making materials - Manufacture of Cements, types of cements and aggregates, properties and testing, Water, admixtures. Fresh concrete, workability, compaction, curing. Strength of concrete, elasticity, shrinkage and creep. Durability of concrete. Testing of hardened concrete, destructive and non destructive testing methods, Concrete mix design, Quality control and acceptance criteria. Special Concretes. Concrete chemicals. RC STRUCTURES: Strength properties and behaviour of concrete and reinforcing steel. Basic principles of working stress design. Limit state design concepts. Designing of members subjected to flexure, shear, torsion, axial forces and combinations, uniaxial and biaxial bending of columns. Design of simply supported and continuous beams and slabs; two way slabs, isolated and combined footings. Computation of deflection and crack width. Design of staircases. Design of retaining walls - cantilever and counterfort type, Design of water tankrectangular and circular tanks, underground and resting on ground. Design of framed structures. STEEL STRUCTURES: General principles of elastic method of design of steel structures. Bolted and welded connections. Tension and compression members. Laterally supported and unsupported beams. Unsymmetrical bending. Built up beams. Plate girders. Members subjected to axial force and uniaxial and biaxial moments. Introduction to the limit state design philosophy of steel structures. PSC STRUCTURES: Materials. Pre and post tensioning methods. Losses of prestress. Stresses in concrete due to prestress and loads. Prediction of long term and short term deflections. Limit state of collapse in flexure and shear. Limit state of serviceability. Transmission length. Anchorage zone stresses. Design of endblock. Design of pre and post tensioned beams. Analysis of composite beams. 4. FLUID MECHANICS, HYDROLOGY & WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING FLUID MECHANICS: Introduction and Terminology, Basic properties of fluids, Pressure and its measurement, Hydrostatic pressure on surfaces, Kinematics of fluid flow, Dynamics of fluid flow, Velocity and Accelerations, Stream Lines, Equation of Continuity, Bernouli’s Equation, Irrotational and Rotational Flow, Velocity Potential and Stream Functions, Continuity, Momentum and Energy Equation, Navier Stoke’s Equation, Euler’s Equation of Motion, Application to Fluid Flow Problems, Pipe Flow, Darcy’s Equation, Losses, Water hammer, Depth, velocity and Discharge measurements. Dimensional analysis, Similitude and Model studies, Dimensionless Parameters, Laminar Flow Between Parallel, Stationary and Moving Plates, uniform flow in open channels, Non uniform flow, Critical flow, Rapid and gradually varied flow and its concept and Design, Hydraulic jump. Centrifugal pumps- Vertical turbine pumps. HYDROLOGY & WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING: Hydrologic cycle, Water budget, Catchment. Precipitation: types, measurement, intensity, duration, temporal and spatial analysis. Infiltration, soil moisture, evaporation, transpiration, Groundwater. Runoff: components, factors, hydrographs, unit hydrograph, flood estimation. Irrigation: objectives, methods, irrigation water requirements. Components of irrigation system and design principles. Water Power Engineering: Basic principles, types of schemes. 5. HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES Reservoir planning, Types and Design of Dams and Weirs, Types, methods and Design of Energy Dissipation Structures, Spillways- Types, Functions and Designs. Flood control: Introduction, flood plain management, flood plain definition, hydrologic and hydraulic analysis of floods, storm water management. Flood control alternatives: structural and non-structural measures. Flood damage and net benefit estimation: damage relationships, expected damages, risk based analysis. Canals – Types, Designs, Distribution Systems for Canal Irrigation, Canal Capacity, Canal Losses, Alignment of Canals, Most Efficient Section, Lined Canals, Their Design, Regime Theory, Critical Shear Stress, Bed Load, Design of Head Regulators Canal Falls, Aqueducts, Measuring Flumes, Canal Outlets, Sluice Gates, Gates for Outlet works, Valves for Outlet works, Canal drops, Escapes, CD Works, Design of river training works. Retaining Walls, Bulk Heads, Rockfill Dam, Coffer Dam, Grouting. Seepage and its control in Hydraulic structures. Failure and Restoration of Hydraulic structures. Rivers, Their behaviour, Control and Training-River Morphology, Sedimentation of Reservoirs and Canals, Causes and Reclamation of Water Logged and Saline Soils for Agricultural purposes. Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater in the command area. Rain water harvesting. 6. SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING SOIL MECHANICS: Soil formation, Three phase system, Index properties of soils, Soil classification, Hydraulics of soils, Stress distribution in soils, Soil compaction, One dimensional consolidation, Effective stress and pore water pressure, Shear strength of soils. Soil exploration, Earth pressure and its determination. Bearing capacity - Theoretical methods and Insitu tests, Stability of slopes by various approaches, Load carrying capacity of single and group of piles. Ground improvement techniques. FOUNDATION ENGINEERING: Loads for foundation design, Depth of foundation, proportioning of footings, Geotechnical and structural design of isolated, combined and raft foundations. Analysis of pile groups. Design of piles and pile cap. Design of cantilever, counterfort and soil reinforced retaining walls. 7. TRNSPORTATION ENGINEERING Introduction and Terminology, Principles of transportation engineering. Traffic Engineering: Vehicular and road user characteristics, traffic studies, junctions and signals, traffic control devices Highway alignment and geometric design: Highway alignment, cross-sectional elements, horizontal alignment and vertical alignment Highway design and construction: design of flexible and rigid pavements, WBM and bituminous concrete roads and highway maintenance, highway drainage. Railways: Rail gauges; coning; adzing; railway track components, functions, requirements, and width of formation; creep; tractive resistance; geometric design; points and crossings; stations and yards; signaling and interlocking. Docks & Harbors: Types of harbors, tides, wind and waves, breakwaters, docks, quays, Transit sheds, warehouses, navigational aids Tunnels: Introduction to tunneling, tunneling through soils, soft and hard rocks, tunnel ventilation Airports: Introduction to airport planning and development, Airport design standards 8. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Essentials of water and wastewater engineering systems, quantities, sources, water distribution systems, planning and analysis. Wastewater collection. House drainage. Water and wastewater characteristics. Drinking water standards. Unit operations and processes of water and wastewater treatment. Design of treatment units. Water pollution control: Effluent standards. Disposal of wastewater. Stream sanitation. Water quality indices; Solid waste management: Characteristics, treatment disposal; Air Pollution Control: Sources and Characteristics, effects, Control; Noise Pollution Control, measurement & analysis; Hazardous solid waste: Classified wastes, Disposal of hospital wastes; EIA: Introduction, case studies 9. SURVEYING Introduction and Terminology, Basic Principles of Surveying, Measurement of horizontal distances, Chain surveying, Compass surveying, Compass traversing, Introduction to leveling, Reduction of leveling, Contouring, Plane table surveying, Theodolite surveying, Trigonometric leveling. Tacheometry, Curve setting, Computation of area and volumes, Electronic Distance measurement, Hydrographic surveying, Photogrametry and Remote sensing, Preparation of Maps, Map Reading, Errors and its Classification, Precision and Accuracy, Probability Analysis. Principles and uses of Electronic Theodolite, EDM, Total station, Features of Total Station, Characteristics of Total Station, Modern Surveying, Remote Sensing (RS), Global Position System (GPS), Maps, Global Information System (GIS) Systems. 10. BRIDGE ENGINEERING Bridge site investigation and planning, bridge hydrology, Standards of loading for highway and railway bridges, Culverts, bridge superstructures, Design of R.C.C. beam and slab bridges, load distribution methods, Bearings, Design of bridge substructures and foundations, Design principles of prestressed concrete, steel and composite bridges, Introduction to cable stayed and suspension bridges, flyovers, temporary and movable bridges, construction and maintenance of bridges and flyovers. 11. ESTIMATION, COSTING AND SPECIFICATIONS Methods of estimating, line estimate and detailed estimate, measurements, taking out quantities, typical estimates for buildings, and Civil Engineering works, Specifications for all types of building items. Analysis of rates, data for various building items, Earthwork calculations. Valuation of buildings. 12. CONSTRUCTION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT Introduction: project forms, management objectives and functions, Organizational chart of a construction company, Manager's duties and responsibilities; public relations; Leadership and team - work; ethics, morale, delegation and accountability. Man and Machine: Man-power planning, training, recruitment, motivation, welfare measures and safety laws. Machinery for Civil Engineering: Earth movers and hauling costs, factors affecting purchase, rent, and lease of equipment, and cost-benefit estimation. Planning, scheduling and Project Management: Planning stages, construction schedules project specification, monitoring and evaluation; Bar-chart, CPM, PERT, networkformulation and time computation. Departmental Procedures: specifications, tendering, contracting and arbitration. 13. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Definition, scope and importance of Environmental Studies, Need for public awareness. Natural Resources Renewable and Non-renewable Resources. Natural resources and associated problems. Concept of an ecosystem: Structure and function of an ecosystem, Producers, consumers and decomposers, Energy flow in the ecosystem, Ecological succession, Food chains and ecological pyramids, Biodiversity and Its Conservation, Environmental Pollution: Definition, Causes, effects and control measures. Pollution case studies. Disaster management, Social Issues and the Environment, Environmental ethics, Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust. Wasteland reclamation, Consumerism and waste products, Acts related to Environment Protection, Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation, Human Population and the Environment.