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otto cycle piston engine Post Review

An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine. It is the thermodynamic cycle most commonly found in automobile engines. #HBDMaheshBabu

It is the weekend now, so let's talk about something different, but still awesome and beautiful!This image has been my desktop wallpaper for years.Can you guess what is it?This machine represents one of the most brilliant ideas I have seen. (Answer in the next tweet.)

No one is going to guess this one

The Otto cycle, which describes the functioning of a piston engine ...: That is why the four-stroke principle to... http://bit.ly/igBWiJ

This is the Wankel engine, a surprisingly innovative type of internal combustion engines.Why is it so brilliant? In short, because it parallelizes the classical four-stage Otto cycle, all in one chamber!To elaborate a bit, let's see how a four-stroke piston engine works!

People who call an Auto Oto, end up roaming in them because when they want to buy an Odi no one understands them.

@LungFakeer When they say Otto they are actually referring to the Otto cycle of a piston engine.;-)

How is a piston engine designed wrong to some degree as I stated below?Please comment and tell me how they are wrong. Do you know? Tell us the principals that are being violated by the typical piston crank (Diesel or Otto cycle) engine. OK? I want to hear from you....

RT @ziquewahid: Brayton Cycle-combustion at constant pressure.(GTE). Otto Cycle-Combustion at constant volume. (PISTON ENGINE)

Ivor, as it's got a Otto cycle Rotary piston engine up front, I would guess a military plane, but a very old one around WW1

otto cycle piston engine Q&A Review

According to which thermodynamic cycle do two-stroke engines work?

Otto Cycles. The piston engines (2 stroke engine) that we will be looking at(above) are based on what is known as Otto cycles. Now Otto cycles are the thermodynamic basis on which the piston engines are created. Otto cycle is one of the cycles on which various heat engines are made, almost all heat engines that we know would be based on one of the cycles that you have been exposed to; the piston engine that we are looking at is based on what is popularly known as Otto cycle. I hope this will help.

What is difference between otto and diesel cycle?

Well this is a nice question, let us first of all take a look at what otto and diesel cycle actually are. Otto Cycle It is the ideal cycle for ,spark ignition, engines which has following processes considering air standard assumptions. The ,air standard assumption, allow us to treat air as working fluid, and the combustion of fuel is replaced by constant volume heat addition process, exhaust is replaced by constant volume heat rejection. 1–2 : ,isentropic compression, of air in cylinder. 2–3 : ,constant volume heat addition,. 3–4 : ,isentropic expansion ,of air. 4–1 : ,constant volume heat rejection,. Now let us take a look at diesel cycle. Diesel cycle It is the ideal cycle for ,compression ignition, engines and the process in accordance with air standard assumptions are. 1–2 : ,isentropic compression, of air in cylinder. 2–3 : ,constant pressure heat addition, to air. 3–4 : ,isentropic expansion, of air. 4–1 : ,constant volume heat rejection,. Here also we have replaced combustion process with constant pressure heat addition and exhaust with constant volume heat rejection in accordance with air standard assumptions. Now we can discuss differences between them. Differences between otto and diesel cycle: 1,: For a ,given compression ratio,, i.e V1 / V2 , the ,efficiency of otto cycle is higher ,than diesel cycle. 2,: The ,combustion, process occurs at ,constant volume in case of otto cycle ,and occurs at ,constant pressure in diesel cycle. 3,: ,Combustion in otto cycle, occurs due to ,generation of spark in the cylinder, when the piston reaches tdc and is ,instantaneous,. Whereas in case of ,diesel cycle, combustion is ,time consuming, and occurs due to ,injection of fuel in cylinder ,which is filled with ,hot compressed air, (at point 2 in figure) due to which ,auto ignition, of fuel takes place. 4:, Due to the fact that ,we compress air in diesel cycle ,rather than fuel(in otto cycle) , the ,air can be compressed to very high pressures, and then the fuel can be injected accordingly , thus ,incresing compression ratio and higher efficiency of diesel cycle. 5,: So ,for same max pressure of cycle, diesel cycle is more efficient ,that otto cycle. 6,: The ,compression ratio, in case of ,otto cycle ,is however ,limited, because in otto cycle , ,air fuel mixture is being compressed which can lead to very high temperature of air fuel mixture and can cause auto ignition, of fuel before the power stroke. 7: The ,compression ratio in diesel cycle, is also ,limited, due to the ,metallurgical reasons, , air is compressed to such temperatures which will ,not harm the engine parts,.

Why does petrol engine work on an Otto cycle only?

They don’t. Atkinson engine is becoming more and more popular with the rise of hybrid powertrain. Despite being more efficient, Atkinson engines offer lower power density. However electric motors in a hybrid configuration make up for the loss of power density. Toyota Prius, Chevrolet Volt, Ford Hybrid and PHEVs, Mercedes S400 Blue Hybrid are just some of the cars benefiting from an efficient Atkinson engine. There are also Miller engines such as VW’s latest 1,5 litre TSI engine called EA211 TSI evo. Miller Cycle engine is basically an Atkinson Cycle engine with a supercharger/turbocharger. P.S. Otto cyle engines can be two-stroke or four-stroke piston engines as well as rotary (Wankel) engines. Miller Cycle Engine of VW Golf 1.5 TSI Evo 150 DSG (2017)

Why is the Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Engines higher than that of Petrol Engines?

The three main reasons: Higher compression ratio Unthrottled operation Lean combustion All three are significant factors in the higher thermal efficiency of Diesel engines. The theoretical maximum thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle engine is only dependent on the compression ratio and working fluid, per this equation: r = compression ratio. Gamma = specific heat ratio of the working fluid (1.4 for dry air). The equation for the diesel cycle is a little more complex as it also considers the cut-off ratio. Unthrottled operation in the Diesel engine virtually eliminates the pumping loop in the P-V diagram found with Otto cycle engines running at part load, since the piston doesn't have to work against a vacuum during the intake stroke. The pumping loop represents negative work in the cycle, as seen here: Very lean operation (as seen at lower loads) results in lower combustion temperatures and therefore lower heat losses in the cycle. Diesels also do not run richer than stoichiometry at high loads, unlike Otto cycle engines, so are also more efficient at high loads due to this. Otto cycle engines typically run about 15–20% over rich at full load.

Why can't we use oxygen to combust an internal combustion engine instead of air?

Pure oxygen should be carried around in tanks, pressurized, liquified or bonded chemically with other atoms that make it easier to handle but ready to make it available when it is needed, and it should be purchased and refueled periodically. Moreover, pure oxygen is a terribly reactive chemical and will virtually make anything burn, including metals. Imagine the hassle compared with the ease of getting air from the atmosphere. There are however, combustion engines designed to work where air is not so readily available and these, indeed, must carry their oxygen in special containers. One of these environments is the space beyond the limit of Earth’s atmosphere, or at least, where the atmosphere is so thin that oxygen is not technically available to feed a combustion engine. Other respondents have mentioned the fact that rockets carry their oxygen in tanks. But there’s another environment where “available” oxygen is missing: underwater. Although most underwater vehicles employ electric motors, which do not need oxygen to produce power, the mass and volume of the batteries may be just too much for some applications such as torpedoes. For this reason, many torpedoes employ Otto-cycle piston engines and carry their oxygen in various forms: some use compressed oxygen in tanks, for example the “Type 93” Japanese torpedo which sunk many ships during WW2: Type 93 torpedo - Wikipedia the HMS Eskimo after it was hit by a Japanese “Type 93” torpedo Other torpedo designs, especially Russian ones, use chemically bonded oxygen in the compound “hydrogen peroxide” which in a very diluted form is used as a disinfectant, while in the “high test” form (over 80% of hydrogen peroxide diluted in water) known as HTP, is able to release oxygen in sufficient quantity to power a motor without the need of air, but it is also dangerous and unstable. High-test peroxide - Wikipedia a cutaway of a Russian “type 53” torpedo showing one of the pistons of its two-cylinder Otto cycle motor One of the hypotheses about the Kursk submarine accident, is that it was sparked by the explosion of a torpedo carrying HTP: Kursk submarine disaster - Wikipedia the Kursk submarine after salvaging, missing the entire aft section A summary of torpedo propulsion systems can be found here: Torpedo - Wikipedia and in the link below you can find some photos of torpedo propulsion systems: Naval Undersea Warfare Museum and here’s a mother lode of information about modern torpedoes, including their vast range of propulsion methods: The world’s deadliest torpedoes - Naval Technology Given the small diameter of torpedoes (50 to 60 cm = 20″ to 25″) unusual engine designs are quite common, for example the axial pistons engine: more information than you may ever want to ask about axial piston engines here: Axial Internal-Combustion Engines Incidentally, the Soyuz orbital vehicle maneuver rockets are powered by HTP. Another propellant used in oxygen poor environments, which this time contains both the oxidizer and the fuel, is the “ammonium perchlorate”; it is used both in torpedoes and in rockets: Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant - Wikipedia Not to mention solid-fuel rocket boosters, used both in rockets and “hypercavitating” torpedoes capable of 200+ kts (360 km/h!!) Isn’t it interesting that two totally different applications such as rockets and torpedoes, led to the development and use of similar solutions to provide oxygen for combustion engines in oxygen-poor environments?

Which IC engine SI or CI has more specific output and why?

Specific output of an SI engine is more than that of CI engine. First of all, Specific output is the power obtained per unit of piston displacement. Now, keeping total piston displacement in one cycle constant, we will have same compression ratio for both the engines as volume before compression and after compression will be same for both engine. For same compression ratio, Otto cycle has more efficiency than diesel cycle. So power for an Otto cycle will be more. It can be generalised from the fact that we use SI engines for lighter vehicles. Had it been opposite, SI engine could have no further use!!

How does an “opposed-piston” engine differ from a “boxer” engine?

I see there’s still a lot of confusions about it. Here is a 2-crankshaft typical opposed piston engine (OPE), the Leyland L60: The Napier Deltic was a OPE with 3 crankshafts (intake ducts in purple, exhaust ducts in red): The Junkers Jumo 223 had 4 crankshafts: The Junkers SA was a single-crankshaft OPE: The Sulzer SG9 too: The MAP 2H88 as well: … and the Rootes (Comer) TS3 too: An OPE can be axial, without crankshaft: ",Opposed piston engine axial diesel," Contrary to what Matt wrote, an opposed piston engine is NOT an Atkinson cycle engine, but a so called “Atkinson cycle engine” could be in opposed piston configuration, as described in James Atkinson first patent, ,US336505A,. See ,my answer to What is the difference between the Atkinson and Otto cycles? Why is the Atkinson engine used in hybrid cars? Opposed piston and opposed cylinder configuration can be combined: see ,my answer to What ever happened to the OPOC engine? More info are in ,my answer to Why are opposed-piston engines not used in cars today?, and in ,my answer to What are the advantages and disadvantages of opposed piston engines? I suppose everyone knows what a “Boxer” or opposed, cylinder, engine is:

Why is the thermal efficiency of ICE less than that of an ideal otto cycle?

This is because an ideal Otto Cycle neglects key elements of real internal combustion engine technologies that have been implemented. the ideal Otto Cycle neglects all mechanical friction. This includes piston friction, crankshaft friction, any place you have moving parts, there is friction and it is ignored the ideal Otto Cycle neglects any power draw from mechanisms that the real internal combustion engine needs to function properly. There is no belt, no crankshaft, not even an allowance for the camshaft. the ideal Otto Cycle neglects heat losses to the engine block. The only heat loss included is the heat rejection of the hot exhaust gases during the exhaust stroke the ideal Otto Cycle neglects the fact that fuel is not be fully combusted by the time the exhaust stroke begins. the ideal Otto Cycle neglects any performance adjustments necessary from an environmental standpoint. A typical set of parameters for a real internal combustion engine results in a minimisation of carbon monoxide, unburnt fuel, and oxydes of nitrogen; the set of parameters to minimise all of these is often working against one another, so it's a compromise position which is not the optimal one from an engine efficiency standpoint. These differences point to the fact that there is a wide chasm between an idealised cycle and a real-world working cycle.

What is otto cycle?

Otto cycle is a gas power cycle that is used in spark-ignition internal combustion engines (modern petrol engines). An Otto cycle consists of four processes: Two isentropic (reversible adiabatic) processes Two isochoric (constant volume) processes ​ ​ ​ ​ In the above diagrams, p → Pressure V → Volume T → Temperature s → Entropy Vc → Clearance Volume Vs → Stroke Volume Processes in Otto Cycle: As stated earlier, Otto cycle consists of four processes. They are as follows: Process 1-2: Isentropic compression In this process, the piston moves from bottom dead centre (BDC) to top dead centre (TDC) position. Air undergoes reversible adiabatic (isentropic) compression. We know that compression is a process in which volume decreases and pressure increases. Hence, in this process, volume of air decreases from V1 to V2 and pressure increases from p1 to p2. Temperature increases from T1 to T2. As this an isentropic process, entropy remains constant (i.e., s1=s2). Refer p-V and T-s diagrams for better understanding. Process 2-3: Constant Volume Heat Addition: Process 2-3 is isochoric (constant volume) heat addition process. Here, piston remains at top dead centre for a moment. Heat is added at constant volume (V2 = V3) from an external heat source. Temperature increases from T2 to T3, pressure increases from p2 to p3 and entropy increases from s2 to s3. (See p-V and T-s diagrams above). In this process, Heat Supplied = mCv(T3 – T2) where, m → Mass Cv → Specific heat at constant volume Process 3-4: Isentropic expansion In this process, air undergoes isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expansion. The piston is pushed from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC) position. Here, pressure decreases fro p3 to p4, volume rises from v3 to v4, temperature falls from T3 to T4 and entropy remains constant (s3=s4). (Refer p-V and T-s diagrams above). Process 4-1: Constant Volume Heat Rejection The piston rests at BDC for a moment and heat is rejected at constant volume (V4=V1). In this process, pressure falls from p4 to p1, temperature decreases from T4 to T1 and entropy falls from s4 to s1. (See diagram above). In process 4-1, Heat Rejected = mCv(T4 – T1) Thermal efficiency (air-standard efficiency) of Otto Cycle, ​ ​ ​ ​ ​

Why aren’t car companies trying to develop "rotary engine" technology?

Mazda was the leader of rotary engines, Wankel engines in particular, they found that they requiered frequent mantenaince, were hard to make pass the emission standards and had not enough advantages over Otto cycle piston engines to be worth the issues, at least for passenger cars, they had a good run in LeMans but were banned and in light sport aircraft are useful for their power to weight ratio.