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what is the difference between an overhead cam engine and pushrods Q&A Review

What are difference between Ford and GM?

Primary differences: Lots of GM cars are designed with the Chinese and Korean markets in mind. Most Fords are built mostly with the US and European markets in mind. Ford is much smaller in Asia then GM. GM still uses pushrod engines in many truck and muscle car applications. Ford hasn’t used a pushrod engine since 2004 and stopped using them on their top truck engines even earlier than that. Ford is in fact the only US brand to only use overhead cam engines in their light trucks. Ford cars tend to have a stiffer suspension and better road feel than comparable GM cars (ie Focus vs. Cruze). Luxury cars are important to GM and they spend a fair amount on R&D specifically for Cadillac. Lincoln is sort of an afterthought to Ford.

What is the difference between an American V8 and an Italian V8?

One is made in the United States (or Canada or Mexico), and the other is made in Italy. Seriously. That’s it. Without specifying anything else about these engines, that’s all that can be said. There are some general differences that get ,attributed, to American or Italian V8s, but they do not apply to every engine. Some, but not all, American V8s have pushrod overhead-valve cylinder heads, while most Italian V8s have dual overhead cam cylinder heads. However, American V8s like the Ford Modular have overhead cam cylinder heads as well. Some, but not all, Italian V8s have flat-plane crankshafts, while most, but not all, American V8s have cross-plane crankshafts. However, the current Maserati V8 uses a cross-plane crankshaft, while the Ford Voodoo 5.2 engine in the current Shelby GT350 uses an “Italian-style” flat-plane crankshaft. American V8 engines are generally, but not always, bigger than Italian V8 engines. This is not always true for any given pair of engines, however, as Ferrari’s 4.5L V8 in the 458 Italia is bigger than the General Motors Northstar 4.0L. Italian V8s generally, but not always, rev higher than American V8s. This is not always true for any given pair of engines: Ford’s aforementioned Voodoo engine revs to 8250 RPM, while the turbo 2.9L F120 in the Ferrari F40 only revs to about 7750 RPM. American V8s generally, but do not always, have more torque than Italian V8s as a consequence of being bigger. Again, not always true of any given two engines, since the engine in the new turbocharged Ferrari 488 GTB certainly has more torque than a relatively gutless 1970s-era severely restricted American V8, despite the latter engine being bigger. I hope this answers your question.

What is the difference between a twin cam and a DOHC?

A DOHC (Double Overhead Cam) is a twin cam. The cam operates the valves in an internal combustion engine. That can be a single camshaft or 2 (double) cams. The cams can operate the valves using pushrods or directly. So to answer your question, location is the only difference between the two.

What is the difference between V6 engines from different manufacturers?

Likely too numerous to list unless you are asking about a particular pair of engines. The V6 configuration is just one of many basic configurations engines can be built in. Nothing except its cylinder configuration (and that it is an internal combustion engine) should be taken for granted. Some major possible differences: What displacement is it in cubic centimeters? What is its bore and stroke in millimeters? These are part of how big it is. What is its V-angle (angle between the banks of cylinders)? Sixty degrees? Ninety degrees? Something else? What kinds of cylinder heads and valvetrain does it have? Some possibilities include pushrod / cam-in-block / overhead valve, cam-in-head single-overhead-cam (SOHC), and cam-in-head double-overhead-cam (DOHC). Does it run on gasoline, diesel, or some other fuel? Is it turbocharged, supercharged, or (most likely) neither? Is it made out of aluminum, cast iron, or something else? What direction is it meant to be mounted in a vehicle? All of these and other differences will affect the characteristics of a V6 engine.

What is the difference between a 2 stroke and a 4 stroke engine?

While 2- and 4-stroke engines have many of the same components — crankshaft, connecting rod, piston — they differ in how they take in their air/fuel mixture and expel exhaust gases. A four-stroke engine uses valves that are driven by a camshaft (or multiple camshafts), which, in turn, is driven by the crankshaft via a chain, gears, or belt. Some engines use pushrods between the cam and a rocker arm to open the valves, while “overhead cam” engines activate the valves more directly, without pushrods. With the piston at the top of the cylinder just prior to the intake stroke, the camshaft has already opened the intake valve, and as the piston travels down the cylinder, a low pressure area forms within the cylinder, and air and fuel rush in passed the open intake valve to equalize pressure between the cylinder and the atmosphere. At the bottom of the intake stroke, the intake valve is allowed to close, and the compression stroke begins with the piston moving back up the cylinder, with both the intake and exhaust valves closed. When the piston is essentially at the top of the cylinder, the spark plug fires, igniting the compressed air/fuel mix causing it to rapidly combust and expand, which forces the piston back down the cylinder during the power stroke. (This is the stroke that turns the crankshaft, which in turn drives the transmission and eventually the drive wheel or wheels.) As the piston reaches the bottom of the cylinder, the camshaft opens the exhaust valve, beginning the fourth and final stroke: the exhaust stroke. As the piston travels upward, toward the top of the cylinder, it pushes exhaust gases out through the open exhaust valve. Then the process repeats. Two-stroke engines, on the other hand, have no valves or valve train. Instead, they have two ports — one for the intake, one for exhaust — in the sides of the cylinders. At the top of the cylinder, the spark plug ignites the air/fuel (and oil) mixture. As in a four-stroke engine, the combustion process causes the gases in the cylinder to rapidly expand, which drives the piston down the cylinder, turning the crankshaft, which ultimately turns the drive wheel (or wheels). Unlike a four-stroke, however, as the piston travels downward, it does double duty: it’s generating power because of the expanding gases pushing on the top of the piston, but the bottom of the piston pressurizes the fresh air/fuel/oil charge, forcing it up from the crankcase, through the intake port and into the cylinder. After the pistons rounds the bottom of the stroke and starts back up the cylinder, it again does double duty: it pushes some of the exhaust gases out of the cylinder (along with some of the fresh air/fuel/oil) then compresses the gases in the cylinder, prior to the plug firing again, to repeat the process. The advantages of a two-stroke engine is that it manages to do the same work as a four-stroke in half as many strokes, and because it doesn’t have any valvetrain, a two-stroke engine can typically rev quite high and extremely quickly. They also tend to be compact and lightweight. But two-strokes aren’t without their drawbacks. In particular, they run quite “dirty” because of two reasons: First, two strokes need oil in the air/fuel mixture to help improve lubrication of the engine, and that oil in the intake charge is what causes the engines to puff so much blue-ish-white smoke out the tailpipe. Second, the intake and exhaust gases getting mixed together, tends to make for dirty exhaust. The mixing of the intake and exhaust gases also tends to reduce engine efficiency, since the engine never really gets a pure air/fuel charge. Because of their poor exhaust emissions, two-strokes have been discontinued in all but a few applications (like weedwhackers and chainsaws). Interestingly, rotary engines — like those in Mazda’s RX-7s and RX-8s — have a lot in common with two stroke engines: the lack of a valvetrain, few moving parts, high-revving capability, small size, light weight. Exhaust emissions are better on a rotary, thanks to the tri-lobe design of the rotor which does a better job of preventing intake and exhaust gases from mixing (though the apex seals are a known weak-point, and do allow some blow-by that results in dirty emissions).

What is the difference between a connecting rod and a push rod?

A connecting rod provides mechanical connection between the piston and the Crank shaft and transmits the power for the combustion process to the crank A push rod provided a connection between the camshaft and rockers to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves in the cylinder head. Pushrods are more common in older engines and are not needed in many modern Overhead Cam engines with one or two camshafts mounted in the cylinder head to open and close the inlet and exhaust valves

What's the difference between a two stroke and four stroke motorcycle engine?

A four stroke engine utilizes a set of valves usually located within the cylinder head typically one for intake and one for exhaust (there are various combinations of these valves but to keep it simple we will just list the two intake and exhaust) to operate the timed opening of the valves is a camshaft either belt or chain driven directly from the crankshaft at half the speed of the crankshaft and connected via the valve train pushrod or overhead cam and that type engine goes through four cycles or revs to operate intake compression ignition and exhaust the twostroke engine basically does not use any valves in its desighn with exception to newer style twostrokes that utilize either a reedtype valve directly mounted within the intake passage closest to the crankcase as possible or a rotary valve that is a timed opening in a disk mounted directly to the crankshaft and the carburetor is mounted to the engine directly to the side of the engine and the disk works like a window that opens at a specific time to let the intake fuel/air mix enter the engine now how this all works is as the piston goes upward in the cylinder it creates a vacume in the crankcase that draws the air/fuel mixture in and as the piston comes back down the cylinder there are passages that are cast into the cylinder known as transfer ports that let the pressurized mixture go up and into the cylinder just about when the piston is at the bottom of the cylender and as the piston travels back up you have the compression ,ignition and exhaust following and since this motor does not utilize any mechanical valves or valve train or camshaft to allow air in and ight of the motor but instead timed ports and utilizes the engines crankcase as a means to draw air into the motor via the piston going through its cycles and the intake path going directly there and then up through the transfer ports into the cynder to be compressed the engine utilizes no motor oil within its crankcase and depends on its lubricating the rotating assembly (crankshaft and connecting rod) by having oil mixed with the fuel either directly via a oilpump or premixed in the fuel tank so without those mechanical valves ,valve train and camshaft to operate the two stroke does the same operation as the foursttoke but makes the power in two cycles/revs instead of four .not to mention the weight savings of less components and less drag on the engine to run a camshaft and valve train the twostroke can rev much faster than the four stroke but cannot even come close to the amount of torque that the four stroke creates because it is also necessary for the four stroke to have a much heavier flywheel to carry it over on the exhaust cycle otherwise known as the dead cycle that the four stroke makes no power having to push the exhaust out where the twostrokes pressurized intake charge pushes the exhaust out as it goes in the cylinder .

What is the J-platform in Royal Enfield? How is it different from the previous ones?

Thanks for the A2A. That’s a nice question! Royal Enfield J-Platform is the base design of their new 350cc engine that debuted in the Meteor 350. Note that J-platform engine is just the base engine and not the motorcycle itself. RE will soon use this engine to update other motorcycles in its lineup - Classic 350 and Bullet 350. Or come up with other models that use the same engine or a variant of the engine. This is the major difference between the UCE engine (Left) and new J-platform engine design (Right): In 2009, RE combined the gearbox and crank case in a single unit, which were earlier 2 individual units. That’s correct - the gearbox was a separate unit and the engine itself was another unit. Both were connected by the clutch chain that transferred power at the crank to the gearbox and front sprocket. The unified design led to the name “Unit Construction Engine” or UCE. However, the valve train didn’t change much. Just that the UCE engine had hydraulic lifters for the pushrods to eliminate frequent manual adjustments. Look at the green arrows highlighting the pushrods. The pushrods are actuated by cam gears that run in the RHS section of the engine. When pushed up by the cam lobe, they press open the valve in the head. The alternating cycle of the inlet and exhaust valve drives the 4-cycle engine. The advantage - old school thump! Because the movement is not as strictly governed as in the latest engines with timing chains. Also the engine design is simpler carrying forward the old technology with modern refinements. However, the disadvantages outweigh the advantages - vibrations at high speeds, ineffective valve operation at high rpm, etc. All because of the distance between the cams and the valve tips. Here’s where the cams reside. The two vertical cylinders on the top house the hydraulic lifters. The new J-platform is like a big-ass version of let’s say a 150cc Honda Unicorn engine. It uses similar technology. The valves are actuated by rocker arms pushed by overhead cam-shaft residing in the engine head itself. The camshaft is connected to the crank by a timing chain. The result - super-refined performance, better power delivery, better fuel economy, engine can run at higher rpm and hence higher top speed, less vibrations. Disadvantage - no slow-revving, lazy thump. But that’s a good thing considering the advantages the rider gets. This design is used in most entry-level single-cylinder motorcycles. The Himalayan and Honda H’Ness CB 350 too use similar engine design. The rest of the features and ergonomics come from external design. So, that’s what primarily distinguishes the J-platform from the former UCE platform. Please stop by, read, and follow my space. Content contribution welcome!

What is the difference between a cylinder head and the engine block?

In modern cars they are separate entities (not always true historically). The pistons go up and down inside the block, with connecting rods attached to the crank shaft. This is also known as the bottom of the engine. The top of the block is a flat ‘deck’, and the “head’ goes on top of that, separated by a ‘head gasket’ The head contains the valves and the spark plugs. Valves in the head are called “overhead valves’ (OHV). Both coolant and oil are supposed to flow between the block and the head through holes in the gasket. Depending on the engine, the cam shaft(s) are either in the block (pushrod) or close to the heads as “overhead cams” (OHC). With overhead cams, there can be one per head (single overhead cam SOHC) or a separate cam for the intake and exhaust valves (dual overhead cam DOHC). Pushrods are simpler and cheaper, and smaller. Overhead cams are more complicated and expensive, but can perform better, especially at high RPM. Blocks and heads can be an aluminum alloy or iron/steel. It was once common to have iron block and iron heads, but now aluminum is frequently used for both. Mixed iron block and aluminum head was tried, but it was always problematic as the metals expand at different rates as the engine heats and cools, and leaks at the gasket were common problems.

What is the difference between an overhead cam engine and pushrods?

Clearly; it’s in the description of the question asked. Overhead cam simply means the cam is positioned in the head of the engine over the pistons where there’s less linkage between the cam and the top of the valve that’s pushed into the cylinder to open and close allowing gasses to flow. Pushrod engines have the cam in the block of the engine, so they need pushrods to make the connection to the rocker arms that activate the valves. Pushrod engines have a short chain, from the crankshaft to the cam making them less likely to skip a tooth, putting the engine out of sync; giving them a better longer life if the engine isn’t revved to a speed higher than the design intent. Over revving a pushrod engine can cause the valves to float, meaning that the valve stays open longer than the cam is designed for. The extra mass of a pushrod and lifter temporarily aren’t making contact with the cam which can cause the piston to slam into the valve. That can cause the valve to bend and not seat properly, bend and or break the pushrod, and damage the top of the piston. When the top of the piston gets damaged, bits of the piston can scrape against the cylinder creating further damage. So, never over rev a pushrod engine beyond it’s designed limits. Overhead cam engines where the cam is on top of the cylinder head have a very long chain to connect the crankshaft to the cam. These types of engines can rev higher than a pushrod engine with less fear of floating the valves, but they also have a limit of design. The biggest problems with an overhead cam engine is the chain or belt that drives the cam. The chain or belt being longer stretches due to wear and the timing becomes slightly altered, but most are designed to allow a slight timing difference. Belts being lighter have less mass to contend with than a chain, but belts tend to wear faster than chains. Manufactures make recommendations for changing the belt after an amount to usage. Both belt and chain driven systems battle centrifugal forces. The belt wants to spin in a circle rather than the direct path, so tension is taken up by a spring loaded tensioner to take up slack and prevent the belt or chain from skipping a tooth. When these components break while the engine is running the cam stops before the crankshaft; leaving some valves open potentially leaving the valve open enough to have the piston slam into it, bending valves and breaking away the tops of the pistons. Both engine designs can be “Built” up for racing and more power, but each have a limit to their top performance.


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