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when were paddle shifters invented Q&A Review

Why is automatic transmission less fuel efficient?

I would say modern automatics will beat any body but few expert drivers in efficiency. The point is that the automatic will do it day in day out. Also most automatics have a clutch in the torque converter that will lock it preventing slip. So when the shift is done and the TC is locked the trany works like stickshift. Then there the double clutch transmissions. Those have two parallel gearboxes. One has all even gears and the other all odd gears. The clutches are designed to take almost full load when engaged. If you step on gas the trany logic anticpates you will shift up and select the next higher gear in other gear box. When the rpm and speed criteria are met it will clutch the other GB on and clutch the first GB off. If you are decelerating the process is similar the difference is it will preselect the next lower gear and then swaps the gearboxes. The DCT has no slip. Therefore it has losses similar to a stickshift. It was invented in very early days of automobile but only recently were the DCTs used in mass produced cars and motorcycles. The DCT can be also operated manually with paddle shifters.

What is the difference between CVT, VVT and VTEC?

you may get your answer here: CVT A ,continuously variable transmission,, or CVT, is a type of automatic transmission that provides more useable power, better fuel economy and a smoother driving experience than a traditional automatic transmission. Advantages of the CVT Engines do not develop constant power at all speeds; they have specific speeds where torque (pulling power), horsepower (speed power) or fuel efficiency are at their highest levels. Because there are no gears to tie a given road speed directly to a given engine speed, the CVT can vary the engine speed as needed to access maximum power as well as maximum fuel efficiency. This allows the CVT to provide quicker acceleration than a conventional automatic or manual transmission while delivering superior fuel economy. Disadvantages of the CVT The CVT's biggest problem has been user acceptance. Because the CVT allows the engine to rev at any speed, the noises coming from under the hood sound odd to ears accustomed to conventional manual and automatic transmissions. The gradual changes in engine note sound like a sliding transmission or a slipping clutch -- signs of trouble with a conventional transmission, but perfectly normal for a CVT. Flooring an automatic car brings a lurch and a sudden burst of power, whereas CVTs provide a smooth, rapid increase to maximum power. To some drivers this makes the car feel slower; in fact a CVT will generally out-accelerate an automatic. Automakers have gone to great lengths to make the CVT feel more like a conventional transmission. Many CVTs are programmed to simulate the "kick-down" feel of a regular automatic when the pedal is floored. Some CVTs offer a "manual" mode with steering-wheel-mounted paddle shifters that allows the CVT to simulate a conventional stepped transmission. Because early automotive CVTs were limited as to how much horsepower they could handle, there has been some concern about the long-term reliability of the CVT. Advanced technology has made the CVT much more robust. Nissan has more than a million CVTs in service around the world and says their long-term reliability is comparable to conventional transmissions. VARIABLE VALVE TIMING Time to confuse and educate you further now, because the concept of a static or single-mode combustion engine is a little out of date in today's world. Because of the nature of fuel injection, carburators, the 4-stroke cycle and valves, the internal combustion engine only really works really well at one particular range of speeds. Any higher or lower and you start to cock up fuel efficiency, reliability and power. To overcome this issue, and to try to make engines more usable throughout their rev ranges, manufacturers invented various different types of variable valve timing. The idea is simple - alter the timing and/or size of the intake and exhaust ports at different engine RPM’s to ensure that the engine is as efficient as possible throughout it's range of operating speeds. Thanks to a day of piss-poor weather and a lot of spare time on my part, I now bring you an explanation of some of the range of variable valve timing methodologies and how they work. I'm not going to go into all the different variations, combinations and permutations because there are so many now. However, a top-level overview ought to tell you what you need to know. So without further delay: HONDA VTEC VTEC stands for Variable Valve Timing and Electronic Lift Control. Not sure why it isn't VVTEC other than it would look like a typo, but there is another variation called i-VTEC, meaning Intelligent-VTEC. The basic functionality of VTEC is surprisingly simple, and hence well-used and very reliable. In its simplest form, VTEC allows the valves to remain open for two different durations. A short opening time for low-speed operation to give good torque and acceleration, and a larger opening time for higher speeds to give more power. To do this, the camshaft has two sets of cam lobes for each valve and a sliding locking pin on the cam follower that determines which lobe is operating the valve. The locking pin is moved by a hydraulic control valve based on the engine speed and power delivery requirements. The two lobe shapes are referred to as fuel economy cams and high power cams, meaning that Honda engines with this technology are really two engines in one - a performance engine and an economical engine. The two animations below show a pair of cam lobes and followers to demonstrate the fundamental operation of VTEC. The left animation is fuel economy mode - the blue locking pin is not engaged so the two followers run on their respective cam lobes independently. The yellow one is the main cam follower which pushes on the valve. On the right, in power mode, the blue locking pin is engaged so now the red cam follower is locked to the yellow one which, now being driven by the red one, no longer contacts the lower profile cam lobe. Because the red follower is running on a higher profile cam lobe, it now forces the valve to stay open longer. A Comparison of the Toyota VVT system Vs the Honda V-TEC On this page I talk about the two different methods used to increase the power output, and what's good and bad about them. What the two systems are, and why they are used By using a conventional valve system, to keep a modern multi-valve engine usable for the road, you are limited to about 85hp to 90hp per litre. You can use a bigger camshaft quite easily get a lot more power, but only at higher revs, and at the expense of power at lower revs. So, with a bit of lateral thinking, it is now becoming more common to be able to change that very cam timing that limited the engine power ,while the engine is running,. The Toyota VVT system isn't new, however, as similar systems have been in use for many decades before. But not for a mass production engine and certainly not with the highly accurate control of the modern engine management systems. The Honda V-Tec system is a relative new comer, and by using a system of far greater complexity than that used by Toyota, Honda is now making an engine that produces as much power as many of the better racing engines! So lets have a look at each system, and how they work ... Toyota Variable Valve Timing system, or VVT & VVT-i The VVT-type system has been around and in use by various companies for at least 40 years that I know of. (I can remember seeing a 1960's catalogue from the US that showed a special cam wheel that bolted onto a small block Ford engine's cam, and it had a mechanism that worked like a mechanical advance system in a distributor, so that as the revs picked up it advanced the cam timing. I also believe that Alfa Romeo or Fiat used a similar system back around then, or maybe before) VVT is simple and fairly effective. It consists of only two main parts; an 'oil control solenoid' and the VVT mechanism itself. This diagram shows a few more bits & pieces, but you can clearly see the main two - the VVT pulley and the OCV. (Oil Control Valve, or oil solenoid as it's often called.) The early VVT system was relatively simple, ie, at a specific rpm (~4400rpm on the 20 valve 4AGE's) the computer signals the OCV to open, this lets oil pressure go through a special gallery in the #1 inlet cam bearing, through the centre of the inlet cam to the VVT pulley. There's a small piston in the VVT pulley, and once it gets enough pressure behind it, it starts to move outwards, causing the outer part of the pulley to turn in relation to the inner part, due to the helical spline that guides the piston's fore & aft movement. Closer view & cutaway of the VVT controller So, when the computer signals for the VVT to operate, the OCV opens and thus causes the VVT pulley to advance the inlet cam timing by 30°, reference the crankshaft. (15° on the pulley itself) The rpm at which this happens is worked out by running the engine on a dynamometer with the inlet cam in both the fully advanced and fully retarded positions. Since the two different cam timing's will make different power throughout the rev range, (advanced inlet give more top end power at the expense of low end power, and vice-versa) there is a point where the power will be identical for both cam settings, and this is where the VVT is programmed to operate. Because the power output is the same with the VVT in either position, you can't feel anything when it happens. You ,can,, however, hear a change in engine note, just before there's a big increase in power! More detail on the the VVT logic - The VVT comes in three types for the 20 valve. To the best of my knowledge, silvertop 20v's pre May 1993 have the VVT actuate at about 4400rpm. Post May 1993 they seem to work on throttle position and ignore revs. The blacktops seem to work like this, as described on Club4AG - 1. Starting. When you crank the starter there will be VVT operation until the engine fires up, obviously to allow more air into the engine to allow an easier fire up. 2. Coolant temp. There is absolutely NO VVT operation when the coolant tempt is below 50°C except for that brief moment when you operate the starter. Reason obvious, who want to stress a cold engine. 3. Engine rpm. VVT will operate in any rpm between the range of 1500 and 7200 when the inlet manifold pressure is right. The min and max range can be a little out because I was reading from the car tacho. Trust me they are very close. 4. Engine load/inlet manifold pressure. This seems to be the single most important parameter controling the system. The VVT will NOT operate if the inlet manifold has more than about 5 inches of vacuum (can't get the exact reading because everything happen so fast. It's very close.). This is very close to zero vacuum which is atmospheric and that is about the maximum load the map sensor will read to tell the engine in an NA car. As you can figure out the throttle will usually be in the more than 3/4 position for this to happen. 5. VVT will work without the speed sensor. Now, back to the above schematic of the VVT. It shows the second evolution of the VVT system - called VVT-i - where instead of the simple 'on' or 'off' positions of the earlier VVT system, this version can make the inlet cam retard/advance to any angle between the maximum limits, and to do this the camshaft has a position sensor on the back of the head. This means that the engine is even more flexible in it's power output than before. The latest version, VVTL-i is described on ,this page,. It's completely different to the original VVT system, and is more like the V-TEC in operation. There are two engines that commonly use the VVTL-i system, the 1ZZ-FE/2ZZ-GE series and the latest (in 1999 & onwards) 3SGE, as used in the sporty Altezza. The early generation 'redtop' four 3SGE's have a single inlet VVT-i and the later 'blacktop' generation four 3SGE's have dual VVT-i controllers, one on the inlet and the other on the exhaust cam, and makes 200hp from 2 litres. So, using VVT technology, it's pretty easy to get around 100hp per litre. Toyota has now gone to the third evolution of the VVT, and it not only alters the cam timing, but it also alters the valve lift as well. The 'old' VVT system simply can't do this, so Toyota has gone to a system much like the .... HONDA V-TEC Right. Let's not muck around. For straight power output, the V-TEC system ,craps, all over the VVT system. The latest Honda V-TEC engine, as used in the S2000 sports car, makes 240hp odd out of only 2 litres - That's a sparkling 120hp per litre. The V-TEC system is far more complex than the VVT, but it allows you to not only alter the cam timing, but to alter the valve duration and lift at well. It's really like having two engines in one - A 'sedate' one for grocery-getting, and the other a red-blooded high revving screamer. How it does this, however, is with a multitude of 'fiddly bits'. Here's a picture of the valve gear. Or if you can't see enough detail, try this one -> (121kb pic <-- and --> 85kb pic) Ok, pay attention - This is where it starts to get tricky! What happens when the engine computer decides to make the V-TEC shift to 'grunt' mode is this - Up until that point, the valves are operated by the pair of cam followers that run directly on top of each valve. A hydraulic valve opens in the head somewhere, allowing oil pressure to fill the pivot shaft that the cam followers swing off. The oil is then directed to a tiny set of pins that live in the inner follower. These pins push outwards when the valves are shut, locking the inner cam follower to the two outer followers. The inner follower runs on a cam lobe that sits between the outer two, and is ,much,bigger. This is the lobe that has the larger duration and lift, and so suddenly allows the engine to breath a ,lot, better. You can see from the above pictures, and the one below that there's been a huge amount of effort to make it all work. The cam followers all have small rollers, to reduce friction and allow for a larger cam lobe. The follower system of valve operation, believe it or not, is quite similar to the latest developments in Formula One engine technology. (Though the F1's don't use V-TEC, have pneumatic valve springs, a smaller included valve angle, and so on ...) Here's a picture of a head that's been cross-sectioned. If you look ,very, carefully at the right hand cam, you can just see the larger of the two sets of cam lobes hiding behind the smaller ones. Honda have also made a single cam version of the V-TEC, (V-Tir system??) though it only operates on the inlet cam valve timing/duration/lift. As with the twin cam system, it is quite elegant but has many small parts operating under high loads and speeds. (84kb pic) The point at which the V-TEC system operates is a purely rpm derived point, as was the VVT system, and is done for exactly the same reasons. Because of this, you will not gain anything on a standard engine (either type) by using one of the aftermarket controllers that let you alter the rpm at which the systems operate. All you'll do is create an unpleasant dead spot in the torque curve. Below is the Nissan version of V-TEC, the VVL system. It's basically exactly the same as V-TEC in design and operation and so I assume is used under licence. This engine is the SR-16-VVL 'bluetop' and they make about 175hp from the factory. There's a similar N1 version that has a red coloured cam cover and they're reported to make 197hp. There's only suposed to be about 400 bluetops and 80 redtops made, and they were fitted to the faster versions of the Nissan Pulsars in Japan. This engine is my own, and it's going into my ,Mallock, racing car. On the right is how it looked when I picked it up in Malaysia. The VVT and V-TEC in operation in the real world The Toyota engines seem to run slightly more aggressive cams than the Honda's, and so at lower revs they seem to (anecdotal evidence here ...) be a bit more pleasant to drive and make a little more power. There's also less of a transition when the cam shifting systems operate, but this is obvious due to the Honda system swapping over to a much more 'racy' cam profile. I think that the Honda's may seem to be a little 'flat' at lower revs because of this relatively large contrast, but I'd have to drive one and see a dyno chart to make verify this. Pro's, - Both systems allow you to have an engine that's quite a lot more powerful and yet still driveable than a 'conventional' engine would otherwise possibly be. The V-TEC is the obvious choice for outright power, and the Honda's certainly seem to rev a heck of a lot more than the Toyota's do. (The S2000 red lines at a stratospheric 9,000rpm - stock!) Con's, - You are pretty much stuck with limited modifications to the engine, eg, air filters, extractors, etc, to get more power. The reason for this is the very system that give the engine all that extra power - The cams & VVT/V-TEC. You ,can, of course use larger cams to get more power, but this defeats the purpose of having the VVT/V-TEC in the first place. You'll most likely lose power at low revs, and not gain a great deal at high revs. (The VVT will gain proportionally more than the V-TEC, however, as the V-TEC head is optimised - well, compromised - for the 'big' cam & 'small' cam and so using a larger cam may not help much at all) So, if you want an engine with power like a racing engine, then you're better off building a straight race engine right from the start. Or maybe a turbo engine ... The other concern I have is the longevity of these sorts of engines. I believe that the VVT system would be largely trouble free for the life of the engine provided that you keep the oil clean and change it regularly. Even more so with the V-TEC, as with all it's little bits & pieces in close formation in the head I'd hate to think what would happen if some of those little locking pins didn't engage properly at 6000rpm+. All that being said though, I have it on reliable advice that Honda have never had a warrantee claim for any V-TEC engine in the area of the head and/or valve gear. Quite impressive. I think that perhaps the best long term solution to getting large amounts of power from a relatively small engine is still by using a turbo, but if you like to hear the engine scream at high revs then one of these two systems is the way to go. source: ,Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT): What it is, how it works,, ,Bill Sherwood's VVT Vs VTEC Page,, ,The Fuel and Engine,.

What was like to live in rural areas in the United States during the 1940s?

I was born in 1949 in Dallas, so I can only answer this as it relates to my childhood in the 1950’s and time at the family ranch in Texas. The roads were lousy. ,There were no interstate highways, so a trip across county was on state and federal highways that meandered from town to town - like Route 66 - from one Texaco or Gulf station to the next. This was the heyday of billboards, ,including the sequential Burma Shave ads,. It was a lot of fun to travel by car, bus or train - I rode passenger trains all over Texas and as far north as Milwaukee, including a Pullman sleeper car attended by courtly black porters - ,when I was 12. There were no fast food chains ,with the notable exception of ,Dairy Queen,, which, late on a Saturday night, was often the only light on in town. How people socialized before Dairy Queens, I haven’t a clue. Most restaurants were Mexican cafes, cafeterias, one-meat-and-two-sides cafes, BBQ joints or simply glorified truck stops, like the Bluebonnet Cafe in Marble Falls. The finest restaurant in Texas was the Old Warsaw near downtown Dallas. The Cattleman’s Steak House was the place to go in Ft. Worth. No alcohol served at restaurants., You brought your own booze and bought a “set up” to pour it in. The way around this was to join a “club” which you could do for a fee at most restaurants. Or join a country club - most small towns had one, even ,Archer City (“The Last Picture Show” and “Hud”) Everyone went to church. ,If you could not get to church, you listened to the church service on the radio (there were only a few TVs and the programming day was limited.) You could still hear Lutheran services coming from New Braunfels and Fredericksburg (Texas German enclaves) in ,German. ,The best church services were the black churches - the singing, the preaching, the testifying. Funerals were a particular treat. Radio, not TV., You could listen, to Mexican super-stations, from hundreds miles away particularly if the cloud cover was right, even on a crystal set, which was all I had, tied into the bug screen to get a better signal. The music was primitive rock ’n roll, starting with Bill Haley and the Comets. The Caravan Show played Ray Charles and ,Lightnin’ Hopkins. We went to Mexico for vacations., From where I lived, the closest major international metropolis was Mexico City. So a trip to Mexico City by car was special. Both grandparents drove all the way to Acapulco on separate trips - well over 1000 miles on bad roads. Kids held up iguanas by the side of the road so that you could take their picture (for a price). Rural poverty could be positively medieval. ,Whether poor whites or blacks, some extremely poor people in the country lived the way people lived in the Middle Ages - no health care, no family services, sometimes no electricity. In tar paper shacks. One shantytown was called “Lolaville.” In rural Texas, I don’t just mean Dickensian poverty, I mean like ,Tara ,after Sherman had marched through. Poverty in America like only a Southerner can comprehend. Right out of ,Let Us Now Praise Famous Men. People were frugal,. Nothing went to waste, not pennies, not nails, not even rubber bands. Everything was re-used and repaired until it ,disappeared,. My mother made many of her own dresses and preserved fruits and tomatoes in Mason jars and Ball jars. We did not have toothpaste, we brushed with salt and baking soda. Everything was made in the United States., ,Everything,. I can distinctly remember items that were ,not ,make in America - a Rolleiflex camera, Swiss watches, British lead soldiers, Jaguars, MGs and Triumphs, Scotch, German kitchen knives, Mexican sombreros, Italian switch-blades and chianti wine bottles in straw covers - ,and that was it., Anything made in Japan was considered ersatz. Everybody worked ,- the men until they dropped dead (my father went to the office every day until three months before he died at 98), housewives without help in the kitchen, did laundry, cleaning, if they had help, they did volunteer work via the garden club, Junior League, or church. Blind people re-caned chairs. I worked at a cafe, mowed lawns, my friends had paper routes. No video games ! ,We played checkers, chess, cards, board games - Monopoly, marbles, played cowboys (Hopalong Cassidy and Davy Crockett), tree houses, Christmas tree forts, rope swings, and made our own gunpowder (salt peter + sulphur + powdered charcoal) for bombs. Whoever invented the bottle rocket should be in the schoolboy hall of heroes. We ate a lot of canned food, - vienna sausages, canned tuna made into casseroles, canned spinach, Wolf Brand chili and ranch style beans, peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, bologna sandwiches, frozen fish sticks - quality cuisine ! Plus fried chicken (scrawny flavorful chickens) and fried fish - preferably crappie (perch) breaded in corn meal. With ketchup, everything with ketchup. But not on homemade pecan pie, or homemade apple pie with a slice of cheddar cheese on top. Hardly anyone was fat., Men tended to be thin, women slender, an older man might become “portly” an older women “plump” but nobody was morbidly obese - I only knew of one such woman and she was pretty much a recluse. Everyone had served in the war. ,My father had been a captain in the Army. my mother was a nurse, my future wife’s father had been an (gaijin) officer in the ,442nd Infantry Regiment,. The more combat you had been in, the less you talked about. Our pal Congressman Jim Collins had been an Army officer in the ,Battle of the Bulge, and he didn’t talk about it at all -, ever. Nicknames, - everyone had one. Anglos had Spanish ones - Lupe Murchison, Pancho Sutherland, Paco Hunt, Quatro Tolsen and El Rey Mullen. Girls had guy’s names - Toni Jacoby, Toni Franke, Toni Trojack, Micki (aka Spic) McNamara, Kelly (my mother) but only one man had a “girl’s” name: ,Carrol Shelby,, whose son’s Pat & Mike went to my high school. (And yes, they had the coolest cars). There was C.B. (Cigar Butt), Bubba Giant, Red Dog, Black Jack, Peachy, Patches, Bubbles, Sugar, Potly, Snake, Drifty, Shorty x3, Mullet, Odor and ,Nostril,. I was Stretch. A Coke was a rare treat, - bought from an ice chest at the corner store, pulled from a metal rack via a metal trap - Royal Crown Cola, Dr. Pepper, Nehi Root Beer, 7-Up - read the top and take your pick. Social events, consisted of church picnics (horse shoes, three legged races, spoon races), softball games, barn dances, square dances - including ,Musical Chairs,, the ,Cotton Eyed Joe ,and later, ,the Chicken Dance, - bingo, birthdays outdoors, weddings outdoors, funerals in un-air-conditioned churches, first communions and the 4th of July parade, complete with patriotic floats pulled by trucks or tractors. We rode horses,, my grandfather’s ,Tennessee Walker, was called “Lucky Strike” - my mother’s walking horse was “Sally Foot.” A saddle was a prized possession. My great grandfather invented ,one of the modern western style saddles in 1890., My walker is named “Blevins,” after Jimmy Blevins in ,All The Pretty Horses. Peddlers ,would come down the road pushing a cart, the most common of which was an Italian who sharpened knives ! Sonic booms ,- every time an Air Force jet broke the speed of sound, you’d hear a horrific boom that could shatter windows. This happened regularly without warning, at a time when we lived in constant low grade fear of a nuclear attack. Fallout shelters ,- people had fallout shelters built so that they could go hide in the event of nuclear attack and the resultant fallout of radiation. The McEntires had a real beauty of a shelter built in their backyard. Buildings had fallout shelter signs posted directing you to the basement. Trolley cars, were being phased out ,to electric buses, that hooked onto overhead electric lines via ,pantographs,. Daredevils on bikes would hitch a ride hanging onto the side of the bus. Children rode the bus alone - even to another town - with a note pinned on them. Parades and Pageants ,- small towns amused themselves, told their story and attracted visitors by throwing annual ,festivals/fiestas,, parades - like the ,Tyler Rose Parade,, and pageants, such as the ,Fort Griffin Fandangle,, (mocked in ,Waiting For Guffman,) or plays, usually associated with the local high school or church. Kids would put on costume shows to amuse themselves and the neighbors, right out of ,The Little Rascals., ,Carnivals ,would go from town to town, but if you wanted to see the circus or the ,Ice Capades,, you had to go to a city. State Fair, - before Disneyland and other mega amusement parks, ,the state fairs ,were the main forms of mass entertainment - an annual pilgrimage to the Midway, the livestock shows, the Auto Building, Big Tex welcoming the crowd, the extravaganzas at the Cotton Bowl (,Elvis in 1956,), salt water taffy, cotton candy, candied apples. It was ,the best,. Everyone smoked., We kids smoked dried grapevine. Men smoked hand rolled cigarettes, Lucky Strikes, Camels, Pall Mall and Chesterfields - no filters. Men smoked pipes and chewed tobacco loose out of a pouch - Red Man - or cut off of a “plug” of compressed tobacco - Bull of the Woods or ,Day’s Work,. I rode my bike to the store and bought chewing tobacco for the yard man Shorty Robinson when I was ten years old. Totally Huck Finn. Women smoked filtered cigarettes like Kents. There was very little dope,. The Mexicans may have had some marijuana, but I never got any until I was in high school and it was ,garbage ,-leaves, stems, the whole plant. Booze, - I had my first beer when I was about 10. It tasted ,nasty., Beers were local, Pearl, Lone Star, Shiner, and the Wisconsin beers - Schlitz, Hamms, Miller. Men drank bourbon. Mexicans drank tequila or ,pulque,. The only wine was ,Gallo ,and kosher - Mogen David (Mad Dog) 20/20, “Man, oh man, oh ,Manischewitz ,!” Later Lancers and ,Mateus, from Portugal. Yum. Adults didn’t “exercise.” ,The notion that someone would go “jogging” down the road in shorts and T shirt would have defied comprehension. There was one local gym frequented by “body builders.” Kids rode bikes, grownups did calisthenics with Jack LaLanne on TV, played golf with caddies carrying their bags, or pulled a bag cart, or they played tennis ,in all white garb, - with Wilson/ Jack Kramer, Dunlop or Imperial wooden rackets with “cat gut” strings. Football ,- we (boys) all played football, with the highlight to play “under the lights” when it was cooler at night. The social, athletic, ambience and ,gestalt ,of a school could revolve around football. No game with the regional rival was complete without a fight under the stands or on the field. The terror of all 4A teams statewide as ,Odessa Permian High School - MOJO, - whose exploits were made into the movie “Friday Night Lights.” Hunting and fishing, - We all hunted and fished. George Norsworthy and I would come home from school, get our BB guns and ,proceed to kill every bird we could find,. My mother fished and when she caught a big bass, she would cut its head off and nail it up onto the side of the garage. I killed my first deer when I was 14. Buying a new Remington 700 BDL bolt action 30–06 was one of the biggest events of my life. I still have it. Dove season was the highpoint of the hunting year - they’d come in like drunken jets to the maize fields. Picking lead shot out of duck meat as you ate was a real culinary adventure. Driving tractors, jeeps and trucks, before I got my farm hand “hardship” license at 16 was a blast. We had a tractor that ran on butane - the same fuel we cooked with. Whenever we filled it, flies would swarm around the filler cap thinking it was something else. Plowing a field in a tractor with a lot of low end torque and a tight turning radius is a treat only known to farm kids. Opening that rig up on a dirt road - with the rain flapper bobbing up on the smokestack - was solid glory at 30 mph. Cars had stick shifts - “4 on the floor” or “3 on the tree.” No AC, “bat-wing” swivel windows, roll down side windows, no seat belts ! Wind mills ,- were common in pastures without power; a top hand was one who could keep them working; Chicago Aermotor was the Cadillac. The rhythmic flap of the vanes in a breeze was soothing. Even the squeak of the gears sounded good, sounded ,country. The aroma of new mown hay was wonderful,. The crackling sound of the cicadas in the summer was magical. The pulsing glows of hundreds of lighting bugs along a creek was amazing. An in-coming thunderstorm was sublime, Wizard of Oz stuff. People had storm shelters. I remember many tornadoes - several near misses - and each one was ,thrilling. No air conditioning,- except in movie theaters and banks. At night, you slept on a cot with no sheets on a screened-in “sleeping porch” sometimes under wet sheets. You had an ,evaporative cooler - a “swamp cooler”, in the living room. After Sunday supper (lunch) the men would take a communal nap ,on the living room floor, - where it was cooler. If you could, you got out of Texas in the summertime - to the Ozarks, New Mexico, Colorado or to the Sierra Madre of Mexican - Cuernavaca, Taxco (where I got ,Montezuma’s Revenge,) or San Miguel de Allende. School ,- we rode bikes to elementary school, then took the bus to junior high and drove to high school. The ‘hoods’ road motorcycles. In addition to the 3 R’s (readin’, ‘ritin’ and ‘rithmetic) boys took wood shop and metal shop, girls took home economics. If we misbehaved, ,we were paddled with a board like a cricket bat., I was paddled more than most but it didn’t seem to register, probably because, to plagiarize Gertrude Stein, “there was no there there.” The largest “ethnic minority” in my school were Mexican Americans, followed by Native Americans, including Lois Matthews, who was ,gorgeous., There were no blacks due to segregation. We got into fights., In a street fight in high school, two guys squared off, Jay Neathery was smoking a cigarette, he cooly removed the cig and flicked it past the other guy into the crowd, Bryan Wildes turned to look at the flying cigarette and Neathery cold-cocked him. John Norsworthy was particularly adept at feigning being hurt - doubling over in mock pain, the other guy would stop and then John would gut punch him. What was important was speed, hand speed, which I didn’t have. I teased a guy, Keith Phillips, about having an older girlfriend. We went to the gym to fight it out with boxing gloves. I held my own. Keith killed himself a short time later by hanging himself. More going on there than I realized at the time, but clearly teasing him and fighting him was not particularly helpful. Larceny and mischief ,- we stole things: shifter nobs, hubcaps, we disconnected distributor wires, shoved potatoes up tail pipes. Randy Hancock and I would put our school books on top of Playboy magazines and walked out of the store - then sold them to other boys. Riding bikes down an alley pulling over trash cans was considered quality entertainment. UFOs, - we made fairly convincing UFOs by taking plastic dry cleaning bags, sealing the openings with tape, then filling them with natural gas and fashioning a fuse of cotton lightly dipped in gasoline. We took these gas bombs out to a field in my truck (my first car was a truck) lit the fuse and released them - they would get a couple of hundred yards up before they exploded. We did this often enough to have these “UFOs” written up in the local paper. College ,- about half of my high school class went to Texas Tech. Almost no one went out of state except a football star that went to Yale. Until my senior year, I had no clue if I would go to college, then I applied to Brown and got in as a “geographic diversity/token hick” acceptance - along with some other generally clueless Texans. My best friend was an American Indian from Texas who was recruited to play football. My GPA 1st semester was 1.6. The only reason I didn’t drop out was because I had no particular beef with the Vietnamese. Drought ,- ,the 7 year drought in the ’50s in Texas was so bad,, many people had to go get water from other people’s wells - and the other people shared their water; I remember this distinctly, the sharing. Politics ,- everyone was a Democrat in Texas in the ‘50’s. My parents made an exception for Eisenhower (who was born in Texas), and then went for Goldwater in 1964 - to the horror of their friends. Nixon’s “Southern strategy” kicked in and Texas flipped Republican. ,For awhile. Being a rancher or an oil man was all we aspired to., The first movie I remember was ,Giant. ,The bad guy wildcatter - Jett Rink - was played by James Dean. I wanted to be Jett Rink. All of my friends wanted to be Jett Rink. To this day, when we compliment a guy for being clever we say “He’s so Jett.” Dean paced off the boundary of his place “Little Riata” by goose-stepping the metes and bounds. I was 7 and I knew right then and there what I wanted to be in life -an oil man, preferably a ,wildcatter. ,When I walked out of the theater, I goose-stepped just like Jett Rink. I was on my way. All public places were segregated,- in the county courthouse there was a “colored” water fountain. Black people did the most menial jobs., At the ice rink at the State Fair, old black men would lace up your skates for tips. When I went up North to military academy, I saw a white man pushing a lawn mower. My friend George and I had never seen a white hired-hand pushing a lawn mower before, so we assumed he was retarded. When we spoke to him we were astonished that he was normal ! The domestic help, - the maids, yardmen, etc. were black. Trudy Miles, the cook, Shorty Robinson, the yard man. They raised us white children - ,all of the kindest, friendliest faces of my childhood were black. ,They worked hard all their lives, never complained, treated us kids kindly, ,and never had half a chance. No one in my family ever used the “n” word., Never. No one. Honest. It’s not that we were so ,enlightened,, it was just considered low class. We all said “colored man/ woman.” If I had said the “n” word, my mother would have washed my mouth out with soap - which she otherwise did, ,often. Our church -Holy Trinity - was not segregated., About half of the congregation were Mexicans and there were many black members, mainly Cajun creoles from Louisiana. When Kennedy was shot, we went to the McEvoy’s house and just sat their stunned watching pastoral American scenes loop on the TV. In Texas, Kennedy was our ,political redemption, - a Catholic President. Everyone else was a Baptist or Methodist., When I told my friends that there were more Catholics in the world than Baptists, they did not believe me. They had to look it up in the World Book encyclopedia. There were very few jewish kids. I can remember only 4 and they were all my friends, including Louis Silver, who, when his father died, my mother baked them a cake and I delivered it. No one else was there, just Louis and his mother and me and the cake. It was the saddest thing. Jackie Schnel had a sad smile and was killed when her Trans Texas Airways flight crashed in a storm. Beth Eldridge, a super bright gal, was my dance partner at cotillion where we won the Fox Trot contest. Richard Goldman was a “spastic” who Glen Shepherd, the captain of the football team, befriended and made clear that picking on Richard - which had not been uncommon - was thereafter a one-way ticket to Fist City. I don’t think anyone ever picked on Richard again at our school. Richard died in a convalescent home recently. Glenn lives out on a ranch near Italy, Texas, pronounced ,IT ,-lee. Queers ,- One of my best friends growing up “turned out to be” gay. I didn’t know it growing up, I didn’t know anyone that was homosexual - that I knew of, but when I learned that Charles was gay, I was convinced of something profoundly: that being gay is not a whole lot different than being left handed. Because Charles was such a great kid - one of the best guys on our block - and if he was gay, then being gay must be OK. Years later, he asked me to accompany him to what turned out to be an ugly ,confrontation with gay bashers in Fort Worth,. Accompany him I did, armed with a semi-automatic pistol tucked into my belt. No one bothered Charles that day. Mexican Americans were our friends,. They were our priests and nuns - who were, Sisters of Charity,, aka Flying Nuns. My first ‘sort-of’ girlfriend was Olga Gonzalez, or that’s what she thought. The ranch hands were Mexicans, - ,vaqueros,. They would come wandering up the road asking “,Tienes trabajo, ?” - “Do you have work ?” I remember them fondly: Cruz, Moises, Luz. ,Vaya con Dios companeros. Cisco & Pancho,. When we got a TV, my favorite show was “,The Cisco Kid,.” When he came to Dallas, my mother took me to Love Field to see him. His sidekick, ,Pancho,, had a sign-off at the end of every show: “See you soon !” ,(Hasta la vista,). To this day, I don’t say goodbye, I say “See you soon.” Just like Pancho.

What's the name of a manual transmission with paddle shifters?

Pasi Leino, is on the right track, but let me refine their answer a bit. First, we need to understand the very basics of how a transmission works and what it does. What does a transmission do? It converts the circular revolutions of the engine to turning the wheels of a car. All the stuff happening in the engine (and you’ll have to see my other answers for those explanations) results in the crankshaft spinning in a circle, facing the back or the side of the car. We could remove the transmission (and many electric cars don’t have one!), but combustion engines can only spin so fast, and we want to be able to go faster than 30mph. So transmissions have gears with different ratios so that the engine may spin once and the wheels turn twice or in a different gear the engine may spin once and the wheels turn half a rotation. That’s a bit of a subject for another time, but suffice it to say, it translates engine motion into wheels that spin. Rear wheel drive diagram of a drivetrain for simplicity’s sake. So knowing that, we know that we need to be able to change those ratios as we drive around. That means we’ll need to disconnect the engine from the transmission for a moment while we select another gear, right? A traditional manual transmission uses a clutch and pedal to accomplish this. Essentially, there’s two plates with grabby stuff (friction material) that press against each other - the clutch disc and the pressure plate. When you push the clutch pedal, you are, quite literally, prying them apart. We differentiate automatic and manual transmission by whether they use a torque converter or not. An automatic utilizes a torque converter, and a manual utilizes a clutch. Traditional clutch assembly, with the pressure plate on the left in red, the clutch discs in the middle (with the springy-things on the hub) and the flywheel on the right (with all the teeth on it). An exploded view of a torque converter When automatics were invented - and modern automatic transmissions resemble those original automatics only at the most basic levels - they realized that they needed a smooth way to shift, and that a physical coupling wasn’t going to work. They ended up putting two fans in a bath. And I’m not kidding. This is a torque converter: It utilizes a method called “fluid coupling” - basically, you submerge two fans in a viscous fluid (a viscous fluid is thick and harder to move), and when you spin one, the other will spin because the fluid that gets moved by the first one will push the second one. I won’t get into the details of torque converters, but that’s pretty much how they work. That’s why your automatic shifts so much more smoothly than even the best driven manual with a clutch. A Ferrari F355 F1, one of the first cars available with a semi-automatic transmission. Originally, paddle shifted cars like the Ferrari F355 F1 utilized automated manual transmissions, sometimes called “semi-automatic transmissions.” Magnetti-Marelli made this transmission, and it was a full-on regular manual with a clutch, they just removed the pedal and actuated it with hydraulics. Same with the shifter. The Interior of the F355 F1 - not the tiny aluminum T handle where the shifter would normally be, and the black paddles on the steering wheel. The exposed F1 transmission of the F355 F1 and a statement of repair bills. That type of transmission ,was, much faster than a human can shift a manual, but it was rough, each shift was harsh, and bluntly they broke ,a lot,. The F355 is a maintenance nightmare, and the F1 transmission makes it vastly worse. Some of that is due to Ferrari being Ferrari in the 1990s, and some of that is due to the fact that it was a first generation technology (time and experience always makes things better), but eventually, people figured out that there were better ways to do it. Let’s pause and take inventory. We’ve established what a transmission is for, how a manual transmission works, how an automatic transmission works, and what the difference is between them. That’s a lot of information for a question that only asked for the name of something, but it will help you understand the answer. So those better ways to do it? Someone (or some group of people) sat down and said “If we redesigned a manual transmission, ignoring the limits placed on it by a ,human, having to operate it, how could it be better?” Great question, and it led to the development of what’s called a dual-clutch transmission, or more commonly known as a DSG (direct shift gearbox). See, humans only have two legs, and one is operating the accelerator (gas) and brake pedals, leaving only one to operate the clutch. Driving a car is pretty complex, despite how we take it for granted; it uses both our feet and both our hands with at least two simultaneous controls (pedal and wheel) and sometimes as many as four (clutch pedal, gas pedal, steering wheel, and gear shifter). What if we didn’t have to limit it to a single clutch pedal? See, the thinking is, part of the time it takes to shift is separating those clutch plates so the transmission can select another gear, and then letting those plates come back together, but what if you could do both of those things at once? Use two clutches! Once for the even numbered gears, 2, 4, and 6, and one for odd numbered gears, 1, 3, and 5. Each set of gears has its own clutch plates so that when you shift from first gear to second gear, it can engage the even gear clutch at the same time its disengaging the odd gear clutch! Now, this is too complex from a human to do while operating a car, so we put all this stuff under control of a computer, and the shifter in the cabin looks like an automatic transmission with Park, Drive, Reverse, and probably Sport, but this is the kind of clutch that you see most often with paddle shifters. When you pull one, it sends a command to the computer controlling the transmission telling it to shift. There’s not mechanical linkage here at all, it’s sheerly electronic, and could be a button, a paddle, a pull on the shifter, or even a voice-activated input (well, not likely that last one, but they ,could,). Now, these days, it’s not uncommon for sporty cars with full-on regular automatics - like my car, a 2009 BMW 335i with the ZF 6HP electronic automatic transmission - to have paddle shifters, too. There’s one other kind of transmission, called a CVT, or Continuously Variable Transmission, but I won’t cover that in depth here. Suffice it to say, instead of a clutch ,or, a torque converter, it’s basically a belt on a cone that lets the belt move up and down, with the size of the cone determining the gear ratio. There’s advantages and disadvantages to it, but in practical application as of March 2020, they’re flopping piles of crap limited to mediocre economy cars, and I strongly advise against buying one. tl;dr - ,It’s probably a DCT, or dual-clutch transmission (DSG if it’s a Volkswagen), but it might be a regular old automatic. Depends on the car!

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