Theres another trashed up Kancil back on the streets and it is owned by the same man.
donielleWe’ve all been there, squeezing through a tighter-than-usual spot in a car park and ending up
of Volkswagen Tiguan just broke six million mark globally, making it as the best-selling Volkswagen model
car and started scouting around the C-segment cars.Car Selection Process I had a budget of RM130k Model
19 - 25 October 2019 Fuel price update: RON 97 up by 1 cent Monday PLUS highway celebrates successful
other hand, sold 38 units only (down 97.6%) for the two-month period despite having just introduced the Model
This being VWs most successful model, they have spent considerable effort to sharpen the Tiguan to keep
The 7-seater Honda BR-V receives its first facelift since the model was launched in 2016.
The y-o-y growth continued into August and September of 2020 registering over 17 percent growth.Like
Complains about sketchy panel gaps, paint issues, misaligned trim pieces, and poor lighting fitments
28 September - 4 October 2019 Fuel price update: RON 97 up 12 sen Monday The largest national eSports
Proton Saga armoured up a new infotainment system in the mid-life facelift.
Motor has quietly discontinued the slow-selling Toyota Sienta in Malaysia just as a new facelifted model
Although the suede/leather combo feels pleasant to the touch. 2020 Mazda 2 1.5 Hatchback - Noise
updated for 2020.Both the Alphard’s and Vellfire’s list of safety features have been bumped up
not help to repair car scratches.While toothpaste contains mild abrasives, it is not enough to remove paint
Touch ‘n Go has reiterated yet again that it will soon remove all parking surcharges.
This feature would allow users to connect to their cars with a touch of their fingertips via a smartphone
Perodua has successfully held its first-ever Body & Paint (B&P) Skill Contest in a move to step
8,118,000 Hongqi H9 2.0 R JPY 7,205,000 Hongqi H9 2.0 X JPY 6,578,000 Hongqi H9 2.0 Y
(New Toyota Rush 2019 Model | Gallery)The New Toyota Rush 2019 is an SUV that was introduced in Malaysia
Assemblyman in Penang reportedly stepped on the wrong pedal of his Mitsubishi Triton and caused the pick-up
entry 2.0G 2WD model.Of course, the additional feature will result in a bump in prices, which is now up
Proton has filed for several new trademarks.The trademarks that Proton has filed for include “iN-Touch
its similar for tyres as tyre sizes are rather specific.Let’s use the aboves tyre, 255/40 R21 Y
and despite having a low average paint thickness of 88.9 μm, every panel has a consistent finish
few months time as the Geely Xingyue L.The Geely Xingyue L will be the third CMA platform-based Geely model
More Honda cars on the road translates to higher Body and Paint (BP) service intakes.As of October 2019
build quality and featuresIt should be noted that the Proton X70 we tested was the fully imported (CBU) model
FOR SALE: Model Y T Sportline TS5 wheels, no tires, no TPMS, wheels only, 700 miles on them, moving to different size. $1600 OBO. One rim has slight curb rash but have the touch up paint for it. Located in SoCal. Happy to deliver around SoCal.
Hi, I was the animation supervisor on Rogue One, and as such I was intimately involved with the creation of Tarkin. I’ve decided to chime in for one purpose only, to clarify the process we used. I have no interest in trying to convince anyone to like the results more than they do, or to argue with anyone about how “real” our work looked in the film. Again, I just want to clarify our process for informational purposes. The broad plan was to hire an actor, film them on set in costume, and just replace the head with a CG Tarkin head, leaving the real body in the scene. The actor on set would be wearing a helmet with small cameras mounted to it, to record their facial performance (similar to what you’ve seen in the behind the scenes footage from Avatar, or Planet of the Apes). That’s what we did, excepting that in about 30% of the shots, we opted for full replacement (head and body) with CG, because for certain shots it just made more sense. Guy Henry was cast because he’s a terrific actor, and had the bearing and vocal quality we were looking for. It was helpful that he also had a certain physical resemblance (high cheekbones, etc), though that was not essential, given that the plan was to completely replace his head with our CG Tarkin. That said, when remapping the facial expressions of one person onto another (Henry to Cushing), the more similar they are, the easier it’s going to be. The intention was never for Guy to do either a vocal, or physical “impression” of Peter Cushing, but rather to give us a performance that “felt” like Tarkin, both physically and vocally. So we never asked for, or expected a spot on vocal match, or for Guy to smirk, etc, like Cushing. We didn’t do any modulation or any other audio tricks with Henry’s voice. We didn’t compare waveforms with Cushing audio, talk to his old manager, or any of that other stuff mentioned elsewhere in this thread. We just used Guy Henry’s voice. I’m sure Guy watched the Tarkin scenes from ANH endlessly, and did his best to find a tone and delivery that felt right. Guy didn’t wear any prosthetics or makeup as part of the process, with the exception of the dots that help us track his facial movement. Someone in this thread talked about “makeup, cosmetics, physical altering”. No. Again, we just put dots on Guy’s face to track it’s movement, that’s all. Guy was filmed on set, in the costume. The movement of the dots on his face, and his voice were recorded simultaneously during filming. I mention this, because some VFX companies prefer a method where Facial Capture is done separately, on a specialized stage at a later time. We prefer to capture an actor’s performance all at once (voice, body, face) whenever possible. We also scanned Guy Henry on the ICT Light Stage, to give us a high resolution CG model of Guy Henry, and to capture his skin texture. Now why would we need a CG Guy Henry? We needed it for a few reasons: One is that once we’ve tracked the motion of the dots on his face in a given piece of performance, rather than immediately applying that motion data to the CG Tarkin, we instead apply it first to the CG Guy Henry. This give us an apples to apples comparison to see if we’ve captured and processed the facial performance accurately. When we’re satisfied that we have, we then apply it to Tarkin. Another reason, is that having the lighting data that is captured with Guy Henry on the Light Stage, gives us a sort of “ground truth” that we can compare our CG Tarkin to, to see if his skin is reacting to light realistically. Also, because there are many things about the fine details of Guy Henry’s skin that are appropriate for Tarkin’s skin (general tone, pores, etc), we can use the Guy Henry textures as a way to get a leg up on the Tarkin skin textures, rather than starting from zero. Ok, so we’ve hired an actor, and shot them on location. We’ve built a CG copy of that actor in order to be able to check out facial capture data to see that it’s accurate, and to give us a “ground truth” for the skin texture and lighting. Now we (obviously) have to build a CG Tarkin. I noticed some comments in another answer in this thread about his mouth “not being aligned to his chin”, or the ears being “too long”. Again, I’m not here to argue the merits of our work, but I think it’s useful to point out that if you assembled hundreds of photographs of Peter Cushing (as we did), you would find that he can look vastly different from one photograph to another, depending on his expression, the lighting, the makeup, the focal length of the lens, the year the photo was taken, etc etc. So comparing a single frame of our Tarkin to a single photo of Cushing is not a particularly valid way to troubleshoot whatever issues there may be. Luckily, we didn’t have to work from just photos. We had in our possession a life casting of Peter Cushing’s face. It was made not long after New Hope, so it was very accurate in terms of Cushing’s age, etc. Of course we know that sometimes the process of taking a life cast can slightly distort the face of the subject (the weight of the casting material can pull down on the skin), so we were mindful of that. That casting was a terrific starting point for us, and gave us very accurate information. Starting from there, a very accurate CG model of Tarkin was created. As well, highly detailed textures, with pore detail, age spots, veins, etc etc. The CG hair groom was challenging, as the styling on Cushing for that role was a bit eccentric. So taking one shot from the film as an example, let’s say a medium close up: We track the movement of Guy’s head through space, so we can move the CG Tarkin head in the same way. We track the dot motion on Guy’s face to extract his facial performance. We apply that motion to the CG Guy Henry, and if we’re happy with how it looks, we apply it to the CG Tarkin. By the way, someone in this thread theorized that perhaps the CG Tarkin was missing “micro expressions”. While we are always trying to increase the accuracy, and detail of our Facial Capture system, I have to say that even now, we are capturing very fine detail, including very tiny, barely perceptible micro movements. We are familiar with Paul Ekman’s work, and the importance of Micro Expressions, and have tried hard to be sure that level of fidelity exists in our work. If it was happening on Guy Henry’s face, it was happening on Tarkin’s face. Now we have the real Guy Henry body, with the CG Tarkin head. We paint out any bits of Henry’s head that Tarkin doesn’t cover up. We make adjustments to the facial performance to make it feel more “Tarkin”, since (unsurprisingly), Guy Henry doesn’t use his facial muscles the same way that Peter Cushing did. Guy doesn’t smile like Cushing, doesn’t form phonemes like Cushing, etc. So we have to do a sort of “motion likeness” pass. This is done by our animators, using a very light touch. Note: the point is NOT to change the acting choices made by Guy Henry, it’s just to adjust things so that when Guy chooses to smile, it looks like a Tarkin smile, not like a Guy Henry smile. Of course in doing so, we have to be very careful to maintain exactly what sort of smile it is. We don’t want to transform a mocking, insincere smile into a genuine, warm smile. The Tarkin head with final facial performance is lit to match the lighting in the footage, and rendered. The rendered CG Tarkin head is composited onto the real Guy Henry body. There are of course many many steps to each one of the steps I’ve outlined above. Each one of these steps encompasses the highly skilled work of many many very talented artists and technicians. So again, like it, don’t like it, that’s none of my business. I just wanted to get the facts out there, in terms of our process, because there was some inaccurate information being posted. Thanks for reading. H
As someone who isn’t a Tesla owner, BUT is on the search for a new daily driver and have tested out extensively Tesla. I would say…YES ABSOLUTLY. BUT it depends. I won’t buy any electric Kia or entry-level family car (Model 3) because for that price I would be happy to buy a performance vehicle or save it for something better in terms of quality and design. However, because of my lifestyle and the fact that I drive 1) very few miles and distance 2) always against the traffic flow. 3) Single and don’t need to do any family thing I could easily own a sport car or even a supercar as my daily driver with no problem. But, I could easily own an electric car too. As someone who grew up with more upscale vehicle, when I drove and tested out Tesla, I expected that it would blow my brain off because of how advance it suppose to be or it is. I was impressed, but not too impress either. I have to say that I could see why someone would easily buy another brand that isn’t Tesla: Shit quality (the biggest reason actually and something that people who have and actually appreciate luxury vehicle will understand). Ahem I remember when Tesla used to have good interior with a lot of option like any luxury car. Now, because of underproduction and high-demand they have eliminated many options, which is a major drawback for many people who are used to luxury cars. Before and After: “Vegan Leather”- okay personally, I think this should just be an option or at least offer consumer to have full and real leather. But wait they can’t. Cause of production problem. Like its still fake leather and its the same shit that most other car brands even the most cheapest one offer. Panels and attention to details is very very low. Some people, like me, appreciate and have an eye for every single components a car has and how its made and the quality. NO PREVIOUS LUXURY CAR OWNER WANT TO BE TOLD THAT “PLEASE CHECK YOUR CAR IF ANY PANELS OR PAINT IS BAD”. WE DONT EXPECT THAT. Interior design (very important if you are used to luxury vehicle) In the case of the Model 3/Y. I don’t like how simple it is, especially for the price. Like it doesn’t even have a front gauge cluster, just a big screen in the middle. It has its appeal for some people, but personally I don’t like it that much due to that fact that I like to go fast and be able to read easily without taking my eyes from the front view. Personally, I like to have some tiny details and focus on details, such as buttons and trims parts. Or thing you never notice (like the rim of a cupholder being made out of aluminum instead of plastic). Exterior design (subjective, but understandable). Model Y/3 look like a fucking frog. It isn’t beautiful at all. In addition to that, for some people it could be too quirky and not subtle. Warranty Tesla doesn’t have the best warranty for an electric car. That honors goes to Jaguar. Performance When it comes to taking it to the track or going in corners. Some people like a nimble steering and feel. Suspensions and driving I’m going to be honest but the suspension was not the best I ever driven. Lack of customization and real luxury (a big blow to Tesla) Tesla only offer 5 colors (white, black, midnight grey, blue, and red), two rims, two interior option (three for Model S/X), No sunroof option, No ambient lights, No 3D camera compared to BMW, Audi and MB, No special order request or individual premium, no personalization or changes to badges, and other things. You get it Tesla are not luxurious due to the fact that they are more catered now to the mass. Its not bad, but they have done it in a way that compromise their luxury touch for those who are used to luxury car and to the original buyers of Tesla’s. When it comes to their model as someone who is used to luxury cars, Model 3/Y personally is less luxury as more of an economy or just premium car. But not luxury. I say this because the Model Y/3 is often compared to traditional luxury car brand by car journalist due to the price. In my opinion, within Tesla, the best in my opinion is Model S/X cause its their flagship to start with. However, they have lowered their quality and their customization possibility. Now which electric car would I buy, that isn’t Tesla? Well here’s my list: Audi E-Tron Look at that beauty. I drove this SUV. For people who are transition from petrol to electric, I would say Audi is definitely the winner. Quality? Go to the dealership see one sit in one and see the difference. Its immediate. They have two body style: Sportback Normal For those who care about rear visibility and practicality its easy to guess why Audi E-tron Normal is a great choice compared to let say a Model Y. Now lets see the option they have: Oh wait. We see that they have over 5 colors! Wow! ALSO THEY HAVE INTERIOR AMBIENT LIGHT. So whats the con of this SUV?: Well to start with the price jumps super fast (German characteristic) and for the fully packed version of it, One could buy a Model S/X. Audi E-Tron GT The only problem with this car is that its slighty cheaper than the Taycan. WTF!? I want it to be the same price as the Model S or cheaper. Porsche Taycan, (honestly my favourite of all the electric cars) Hey They even offer a Station Wagon version! Now this one is my favorite. Beside the performance, it offer such a great handling. I would argue even better than Tesla when it comes to corners. This is just the tip of the ice-berg on Porsche options, as Porsche have soo many options. Now the only thing I don’t like about this car is that, well they charge me for every single detail of this car, when other brand such as Tesla and even Audi comes standard. However, if you (like me), likes very very simple Porsche and want an electric car that is soo simple that it actually feels more traditional than a high-tech electric car. Configure it to the cheapest option and buy this. Jaguar I-Pace Another good contender. Its very elegant, excellent built quality (more impressive given that its a Jaguar) and also has a superior warranty over Tesla in many ways. There are many other that I won’t be mentioning that are coming in the future, but I haven’t driven or sat at it yet. Given that the US will come late in terms of Electric car model compared to Europe, there’s very few options currently. However, I think Tesla are just very weird (in a good and bad way) and that could deter people from buying one cause theirs a lot of people that like things their used to already. [EDIT] As you can see clearly I am more of a Model S/X person and I personally want something that is more close to that. For those people who argue “Tesla is a revolutionary car company ya, uuu Tesla is not trying to be luxurious, ooo u buy a Tesla for its tech.” Please understand I don’t care about the miles. Its my money and clearly for does who aren’t car people then obviously tech will be seen more of a lux. As you can see, being affordable is something that I really don’t care. What I care is “good and reasonable price”, and performance and quality overall. In summary, a well balance and well rounded car. Very german in my own opinion. I am not willing to pay over $100k or over $95k on an electric car too easily because I could get a Porsche 911 or something like that.
Kinda hard to know what exactly you are asking. The entire pipeline? The software? or the techniques they use? Anyway, i will try my best to cover all these lines. 1- A Character Design is made and finished. By that i mean the right idea, mechanics, and the look and feel of the character, including colors and stuff. The mechanics are all tested with a character prototype, usually using another character model + weapon, and rough animation and effects to see if the character is fun and unique. 2- The character concept goes to a 3D modeler. he will make a high polygon count (depends of the technology and platform you are using, so for a mobile game 20k triangles per character is too much, for a console game is too little) on a modeling/sculpting program, usually Zbrush or 3DMAX. After that he will bake the normals after opening the UV* (is like making the computer memorizing only the way the light interacts with the character t) so the small details of the character look real and not flat, that can be also achieved with hand paint techniques, but mostly depends on your team skills. 3 -Now you need to make your high poly character into a not so high character** for optimization purposes . Remember, Games are just like movies, is about the illusion, so your game to run well everything in the game must be put into consideration. A crude example: Do you to model every single star, cloud and planet in your game’s sky or will you just put a picture of that sky? Is too far and too little, there will be no difference to the player eyes, but to the computer is more demanding to process 1 billion stars than one single image. Now you will apply the normals because you low poly character will totally look a lot like you high poly character from a distance To show this in a better way this is the “Dragon Whatever” skin for the Braum character ,Braum by jeebs - 3D model, have more detail than the realesed because it’s a heavy model and not really good for animation because some parts of it will probably cause deformations on texture. This is the final one. http://forums.na.leagueoflegends.com/board/attachment.php?attachmentid=949813 Is made this way so it could run on budget computers. **The model goes to another program called Maya to get the final touches, like cleaning up the model and fixing the topology. That means making the little squares more organized for the animation and painting. * UV are just the letters people choose for the Axis of the 2D textures since X,Y and Z are already used for the 3D plane. So the modeler cut the 3D object into a 2D map, like buying a globe and transforming into a map. Of course you will have to cut it right or when you paint and put again on the model it will deform the painting. There are a lot of techniques involved, and i’m just familiar to most of them, and everything i explained is just the outline of the process.
1. He was nearly eaten by a Great White Shark "It was this far away, and it chomped a few times but I survived it," is his typically low-key description of the terrifying event. "I had a huge fear of sharks, and when I did Blood Diamond in 2006 I actually got stuck in a cage with a great white, which was awesome," he told chat show host Ellen DeGeneres. "It was a gigantic great white. They actually said in 30 years this has never happened, but the tuna kind of got stuck on the top of the cage and the great white leapt out and tried to bite it and went into the cage with me. "Half of its body was in and out, and I flattened down at the bottom, and it was this far away, and it chomped a few times but I survived it." As if that isn't enough, he also had close brushes with death in a plane when one of the engines exploded. Oh yes, AND another time during a skydiving attempt when his parachute became knotted. His recent run-in with a grizzly bear suddenly seems like a walk in the park... 2. A woman once smashed him in the face with a wine glass and was sent to prison. Former model Aretha Wilson fled to Canada after the attack in 2005 but was eventually extradited and sentenced in 2010 to two years im prison. The attack five years ago left the Titanic star needing 17 stitches and extensive reconstruction surgery for gashes to his face and neck. 3. His mum, Irmelin decided to name him Leonardo because she was looking at a painting by Leonardo Di Vinci when he first kicked. 4. His Titanic hairstyle was officially banned by the Taliban - yes, really. 5. In 2009, Leo and Kate Winslet paid off the last living Titanic survivor’s nursing home fees. The stars were approached by a charity to help 97-year-old Millvina Dean so she wouldn’t have to sell her mementos to pay for her care. Miss Dean from the New Forest, Hampshire, was just nine weeks old when the liner sank with the loss of more than 1,500 lives in April 1912. 6. He can speak fluent German thanks to mum, Irmelin (and his sexy middle name is Wilhelm) 7. He founded the legendary P***y Posse In his early twenties back in the late 1990s, Leo was a party boy and his notorious group of friends was known as the P****y Posse. It included Tobey Maguire, who he met at an audition 25 years ago and has been friends with ever since. The pack also numbered David Blaine, Lukas Haas and Entourage stars Kevin Connelly. Their womanising and hell-raising exploits were legendary and even raised the ire of Senator John McCain who called Leo "an androgynous wimp.” 8. He almost changed his stage name to Lenny Williams Apparently his agent thought his real one was too “ethnic.” 9. He’s suffered from OCD since he was a child and would feel the urge to walk through doorways several times. The condition was highlighted when he played fellow sufferer Howard Hughes in The Aviator. "I'm able to say at some point, 'OK, you're being ridiculous,stop stepping on every gum stain you see. You don't need to do walk 20 feet back and put your foot on that thing,' DiCaprio said. "I remember my make-up artist and assistant walking me to The Aviator set and going, 'Oh God,we're going to need 10 minutes to get him there because he has to walk back and step on that thing, touch that door, and walk in and out again.'" 10. He was fired from his first acting job. DiCaprio made his on-screen debut when he was five years old in the children’s TV show Romper Room. However, he was dismissed for being too disruptive 11. He’s A Real Ladies Man. OK, no surprise there, but his list of conquests is pretty jaw-dropping. His tally of (known) girlfriends includes Bridget Hall, Naomi Campbell, Kristen Zang, Eva Herzigova, Gisele Bundchen, Sienna Miller, Bar Refaeli, Blake Lively, Erin Heatherton, Toni Garrn, Kelly Rohrbach and Rihanna (allegedly). source :,http://www.express.co.uk/entertainment/films/648126/Leonardo-DiCaprio-top-craziest-facts-Oscars-Revenant,
Somewhat. This may get a tiny bit involved, and may piss some people off. :D When Fantasy Flight Games came up with the idea of making a miniature game based on X-Wings and Tie Fighters, they got in touch with Lucas Films to get the licencing and such. Apparently part of the deal was that LFL let FFG have access to the original models they used for the movies. So the X-Wing, Y-Wing, Tie Fighter, ect… that FFG made is based on the same model that Lucas made for Star Wars. Now this has has caused a number of fights online, because a number of people think that Y-Wings are way bigger than they really are, and A-Wings are much smaller. So when FFG released those models you had a small but freaking loud group of people claiming the were the wrong size. However FFG could point at the original models they were given access to and show how the scale of their models where the same as the scale of the LFL models. This didn’t stop people from making thousands of posts saying FFG was wrong and were liars and stupid and all kinds of other childish shit… Perhaps that should’ve been a warning of how bad the fanbase was getting. But everything in the FFG game matched up with the official canon sizes, no matter how many screenshots someone had or how much they twisted the math. The fact is that while the models were in fact created with a great deal of thought in terms of scale, the background paintings were not. This for example is a painting and not models. When the artists was working on them, they were never given sizes of anything and so had no idea how big a A-Wing or Y-Wing was actually supposed to be, so the scale in the paintings is off by quite a bit. The models on the other hand were made with a solid idea of what the scale was supposed to be so those are correct. The problem is, you’d have to know if you’re looking at models or painting.
This depth picture is what I painted in about 30 seconds: With a mouse, literally impossible (at least in 30 seconds :0)) A mouse has a few basic channels: X for lateral cursor movement Y for vertical Various programmable Buttons (usually 3 minimum in the pro industries). A tablet and stylus duo has multiple map-able channels: All mentioned mouse channels above Tilt mapping 1024-4096 pressure levels depending on model Eraser mapping (like softer buttons) Point is, if you are doing any serious organic 3d sculpting, or photo touch-up, you will not realistically be able to compete with a good tablet user, even if you are using procedural texturing (where tablets also help). If you are doing hard surface modelling, any mouse will do since you are ostensibly moving and rotating CV’s, vertices curves etc. and don.t need any pressure or tilt mapping for the geometry, but couldn’t hoit! I prefer mice for hard surface work since sometimes clicking with my stylus can drop points in undesirable locations if grid snapping is disabled, but this can also be tuned. BONUS. I actually am so used to my tablet, I actually game with it, and is scary precise. JUST SAYIN!
Moving Lights (or just "movers" in the industry) sure are fun. No concert, dance, tradeshow, musical, or Event is complete without a bunch of them moving around, and some are even used ,well ,(though, less and less, I notice - I get more grumpy about this as I get older!). They came into mainstream being in the early 80's, were popularised from the early 90's, and came down in price over the next 10 years, so now, they are so cheap your local pub probably has a few over the dance-floor, and you can buy a basic one for US$400 or so (though, those are not the ones used for a touring show). One enormous, reputable vendor of moving lights in the 90's (and still now... kinda) was vari*lite, the band Genesis funded moving lights development through vari*lite for their Abacab tour in '81. Moving lights fall into two main categories: moving ,head,, and moving ,mirror ,. A moving ,head ,light looks like this: The egg-shaped thing moves around (up and down, left and right) with a very fine resoloution, so the beam from the front of the light can be placed pretty much anywhere, except behind the chassis (in this image, directly up). The egg-shaped thing contains the lamp, and many motors that control how the beam looks - more details below. Moving ,mirror ,lights looks like this: The moving mirror lights work from being mostly static, where the light beam is focussed, has colour and patterns applied, and shoots out the front lens, onto a mirror, which moves on two axis (up-down and left-right), but only around 135 degrees on each axis. The mirror moves incredibly fast, but it cannot shine in many places, as you can guess form the image above. For many purposes, this is not a problem, and the apparatus can be hung in any position, and the mirror head assembly can be rotated to suit the show (then locked off for the duration of the show). Why so different? Well a few reasons, and biggest one is cost: moving mirror lights are cheaper to manufacture (smaller motors, and less moving parts, as we shall see). Also, it seems, vari*lite had some patents on some big areas of moving lights, that stopped others from developing them, but that's no longer the case (I am not sure of the details). Moving lights are used extensively in the entertainment industry, which by its nature is transient: many shows are set up in a venue for a few days (or just one night), then packed down and moved out to the next venue, sometimes every three days for years on end (eg, U2, etc). Some moving lights stay in a venue permanently, ready to be programmed for whatever show is in that venue. Others stay in a venue for months (or even years), for the duration of that show (for example, a musical theatre show on Broadway). Others are hire stock, and the hire company wants to get those expensive things out on shows as much as possible. All this means, moving lights need to be ,tough ,to withstand touring, and ,modular,, so they can be repaired in the field, without being totally replaced. As is true in any business, the more robust and modular a Thing is, the more it costs... but the longer it lasts. Moving head lights hugely dominate the scene now, compared to moving mirror fixtures, probably by a ratio of 9:1, so I'll spend my time on moving head lights, with which I have the most experience. I was a lighting technician on events for 10 years or so, in my 20's (1993 to 2003). I did some touring around Australia and some based in various cities working from lighting hire shops, preparing equipment and working on shows. I have not worked in lighting for 10 years now, but I keep up with the developments, and there have not been many significant changes in the last 15 years or so, apart from LED technology (more in a moment). Moving head lights can be split into two further categories: ,profiles ,and ,wash, lights. The image above is of a profile style. These are used to project ,patterns,, that can be sharply in focus (or not, as the lighting designer chooses). ,Wash ,lights have a broader beam, to provide a "wash" of colour across the stage, with soft edges. A Wash light looks like this: Below, here's a pic from a show with a mixture of wash and profile lights (most shows will have a mixture of both). The white beams are from profiles, and the blue from wash lights: The white beams have been split into around a dozen smaller beams using a "gobo", making it look like there's a lot more moving lights than there really is - we'll talk about gobos shortly. Moving lights are controlled by specialised computer software (usually built into specific hardware devices), and are organised in a building block fashion, so key to answering this question is to understand how any one fixture works internally, then scaling this idea up over many fixtures, via a control system. Moving head Profiles and Wash fixtures have a lot in common (called the beam path, from the light source, to the front lens), so I'll go through both together, and note what elements are profile-only. The specific order of elements in the beam path changes depending on many variables, so I'll list these in one possible order. Moving lights weigh between 30 and 50Kg (66 to 110 lbs), and are roughly 400x500x700 mm (16x20x30 inches), throw around 1500 to 2000 BTU/hr, and draw around 16 amps at 120v... but there is a huge variety. The cost from US$400 to US$20,000, with an average being around US$8000 for a typical high performance touring fixture. The following elements are located in the "egg": ,Light source, The light source in a moving light may be a HMI (Hydrargyrum medium-arc iodide - "Hydrargyrum" is Latin for Mercury), where, as Wikipedia says, the lamp operates by creating an electrical arc between two electrodes within the bulb that excites the pressurized mercury vapour and metal halides, and provides very high light output with greater efficacy than incandescent lighting units. If not a HMI, lamps are HID (high intensity discharge) of some sort, an arc lamp (as opposed to a lamp with a filament, "incandescent", as you may have at home). Arc lamps are very efficient (lots of light output, for their energy consumption), expensive (US$500 to US$900 per, for ~2000 hours of use), and fragile. Way - and I mean WAY - more efficient, are LED's, and the entire lighting industry is being taken over by LED fixtures, which are shockingly good, and getting better. Their application for profile-based moving lights is limited currently, as the beam path means the light must go through many filters and lenses which each reduce the intensity of the light, so we need to start with a very bright source to begin with. However, LED's and associated electronics are getting more sophisticated, and we'll see more and more of them coming on the market. LED wash lights on the market are quite effective in smaller environments (eg, venues up to 1000 people). Here's a LED wash light. Each hole has one really bright LED in it (actually, probably a tri-colour LED): Some specialised moving lights (VL5's, one of my faves) use incandescent lamps, but that is very out of fashion now. Behind the lamp is a reflector, that sends as much light as possible in one direction, and an aperture of around 50 to 75mm (2 to 3 in.) diameter, which is the start of our beam path. ,Intensity, HID and HMI lamps generally cannot be dimmed (that is, made less bright), they only have two states, on and off, so a mechanical dimmer is necessary. There are a variety of mechanical operations, but all work on a similar principle. Because the beam is not focussed (because it has not passed through any lenses yet), any obstruction between the beam and the end of the beam path will cast a shadow that has very fuzzy edges - so fuzzy that effectively, all that happens is that less light comes out, from 100% (nothing in the beam path) to 0% (the beam path is fully blocked). A small thin metal sheet, perhaps with some sort of regular pattern of holes in it is used to dim the beam. More holes lets through more light, less holes lets less light through. The precise position of this mechanical "shutter" is controlled by a micro-stepping motor - the thin sheet of metal is mounted on the shaft, and can be adjusted in very small increments - a quarter of a degree, for example - giving extremely precise control of the intensity (usually measured in %, from 0 to 100). Below, here's an exploded diagram of one type of mechanical shutter assembly. The two "lawn mower" blades marked (4) are the thin sheets of metal that rotate in and out of the beam path (represented by the large circle). The stepper motors that control the blades are marked (7) (the x2 means there are two stepper motors, one for each blade). Moving light light sources get incredibly hot (LED's are the exception, which always run much cooler), and blocking the beam path so close to the light source generates intense heat, so Special materials are used here. All that being said, in many environments, moving lights tend to be operated at full intensity most of the time (that is, nothing in the beam path deliberately dimming the light), but some exceptions would be in "fine arts" applications - drama, dance, opera, etc, where more subtle lighting is appropriate. ,Strobe, This same mechanical dimmer can move (rotate) extremely fast, from fully closed to fully open, many times per second, giving moving lights a built in strobe effect that's remarkable; when a few hundred movers are strobing in synch, it's an amazing look. This effect does not work well on TV for some technical reasons, so the effect alone is seldom seen in that medium, but often used in live performances. ,Colour, Colour is subtractively taken out, via possible several methods, but a common method is graduated colour flags of cyan, yellow and magenta, giving an effectively infinite range of colours (and who's to say where one colour ends and another begins?). Colours can be smoothly cross-faded over any time-frame (say over 10 minutes from a dark blue, through red, orange, yellow, to white, to simulate a sunrise), or pretty much instant if preferred - or anywhere in between. In the below image, a series of flags (two each for C, Y, M, and "dim", for "dimmer", as discussed above in Intensity). The flags rotate in and out, again on the shafts of stepper motors, very accurately. In the below images, an isometric rendering of the same assembly from front and back, you can see each of the eight flags have their own stepper motor. Each flag's curved end starts as clear, and gradually gets more saturated in its colour of cyan, yellow or magenta, as it moves in over the beam path. Because subtractive colour mixing is not perfect, the result is often poorly saturated reds and purples, so many moving lights also have a colour wheel, with special dedicated colours that can be selected (as well as "open white" - no colour). These wheels work the same as the pattern wheels, below, and are either "in" the beam path, or "out" of it (eg, "Have you got the red in that?"). ,Patterns (profile only), In lighting parlance, a patterned beam is created from a gobo ("go between"), a thin piece of metal with a shape cut in it, placed in the beam path, producing a silhouette of the shape. Another common gobo technique is for it to be etched or painted on a disc of glass, which can be a range of colours. Basic gobos (for a static, not moving) light looks like this: There are literally thousands of designs available. These are 3 to 5 inches in diameter. Moving light gobos are smaller, at 1 to 2 inches, and fit onto a wheel of 8 or so, like this (these are glass gobos): Notice how each gobo has gear teeth around it - that's so when selected, they can be set to rotate at a range of speeds. Most moving lights will have two gobo wheels, one for rotating gobos, and one for static (or, non-rotating) gobos. One gobo wheel might be set to "open" - no gobo in the beam path - while the other is set to one of the 8 on the wheel. But this two-gobo-wheel mechanism means gobos can be overlaid (that is, both placed in the beam path), to create interesting effects (because they are in different places in the beam path, an adjustment of the focal lenses can result in a cross-fade in patterns, a neat trick... but because both gobos are in the beam path, intensity is noticeably reduced however). ,Effects wheel (profile only), The effects wheel is another wheel that some profile movers have, much like the gobo wheels, where other things can be placed - more gobos, special colours, or "effects". One example effect is "frost", which fuzzes the edges of the beam in a specific and predictable way. Another is a prism, that splits the beam into many versions of the same thing (mostly out of favour these days). ,Zoom and focus, Moving lights will have a bunch of lenses (up to six) to zoom (control the size) and focus (control the edge definition) of the light beam. More advanced fixtures will have broader zoom ranges. The "frost" in the effects wheel can make the beam in and out of focus (fuzzy edges) very quickly (especially, if the "frost" slot is right beside the "open" slot), the zoom and focus mechanisms are slow (a worm drive, usually), which is very precise and has lots of torque, but sacrifices speed. ,Pan and tilt, Two sets of stepper motors actuate the yoke (technically, one set may be mounted in the "egg"), usually via a gearing system and toothed drive belts. As all stepper motors, these are incredibly accurate (for example, a fixture throwing a beam on to an area 20 metres (60 feet) away can be moved an inch either way to precisely line up with a performer or set piece. Moving head lights can rotate around 500 degrees, and tilt around 290 degrees, giving plenty of coverage of the stage. Moving lights can be mounted hanging above the stage nominally pointing down, side-of-stage mounted on a vertical truss, or floor mounted, nominally pointing up. In the control system, the axis' can be inverted so this makes sense when controlling the devices. Movers are sometimes placed on diagonal trusses, or moving trusses as well - they can be placed in any position, so long as they get their two inputs... ,Inputs, Moving lights require two inputs: power (regular power, usually auto-sensing 100 to 230v), and data. Data is usually the industry standard DMX-512 (actually RS-485, serial via two twisted pairs), using 5-pin XLR connectors (kind of like a mic plug, but with five pins), like this: ,Addressing, Each fixture needs to be "addressed", so it knows what to "listen" to in the data stream that DMX512 carries. DMX-512 controls 512 channels of information that may be from 0 to 100 (nominally represented in some control systems as %, but actually 0 to 255). Moving lights "take up" n channels - the more basic fixtures will take up 5 to 15 channels. More advanced fixtures might be 40 to 60 channels. For a 60-channel fixture, fixture 1 would be addressed as 001, fixture 2 addressed as 061, and so on. DMX-512 was originally designed for controlling static lights, such as you might see in a theatre or old concert, and 512 is more than any but the most enormous shows could need of "conventional" fixtures. But, it's only 10 51-channel fixtures, and larger shows will have dozens or even hundreds of moving lights on them (the musical theatre shows I worked on had 30 to 60), plus 350 conventional fixtures - that's pretty average for musical theatre. So, it's common to have several - or even dozens - of "universes" of DMX-512 running for any one show. Most lighting desks (discussed below) will have several 2 to 8) universes of DMX-512 outputs, and system techs might set one universe for the conventional lights, another universe for one brand of fixtures, or all the floor fixtures, or all the fixtures towards the front of the stage, or some other division that helps with testing, troubleshooting and maintenance. Addressing is done via a small control screen on the fixture itself (the same screen also allows techs to access diagnostics, and test functions), and some are touch screen these days (in the old days, it used to be a block of 8 DIP switches, for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and you'd switch them on and off to make any address from 1 to 512. Plenty of room for error!). Here's part of an addressing chart (for a 30-channel Cyberlight, actually an old-school moving mirror device) - this is for ONE of the 30 channels, channel 7, which controls the colour/gobo wheel (a lighting designer might specify some additional special colours to be placed in the gobo wheel for some reason, and the device does not really care what's in there): So, if on the control system, you adjusted channel 7 to be at a value of 88, the gobo wheel would be rotating (that is, from one gobo to the next) at a medium speed. If you set the control system at 47 (for channel 7 of this moving light), gobo position 6 would be in the beam path, and projected on stage. It might be out of focus, so an additional focus adjustment in channel 32 might also be necessary. ,Control, So we have a few dozen fixtures mounted over, beside and on the stage itself, they're plugged in to power, addressed, and have data daisy-chaining from one to the next. The techs have done basic tests (and when powered up, each fixture does its' own POST (power on self test)), each fixture is in it's neutral position (lamp on, dimmer closed so no light comes out, no colour, no gobo, pointing nominally straight down) and verified that everything is working. While that's always a big job (a medium sized concert for 15,000 people might have 60 moving lights, and 100 conventional lights, would use a touring crew of three and a local crew of 6 to get set up in 5 hours), in which you get very dirty, get numerous cuts and bruises, fix the 20-30 broken things that's typical of each setup, and run a few miles of cable, it's actually kind of the "easy" bit. The pointy end of the whole dealio is the control system, that "tells" which light to be what colour, intensity, point in what direction, and move how fast, to what position, when (amongst many other things). Here's a picture of a dedicated lighting control desk, called a Whole Hog 3 (my personal fave, but a getting a bit old school these days): The two screens are touch-screens, for selecting things. Most of the buttons and wheels are "soft" - they can be programmed to do whatever you like, but there are some conventions, for example, the four smaller grey dimpled wheels are often used to control colour wheels for mixing up a colour required. The blue trackball is usually used for positioning a beam's location on stage, kind of like a mouse pointer, but in real-life - the light beam moves around on stage as you move the trackball. Like a mouse pointer, you can move it fast or slow, and be quite precise. Almost all lighting control desks ("lighting desk", or just "desk") work in a similar way: in the set-up phase of a show, a lighting technician ("programmer") and a lighting designer work together  to create "palettes" of different things - groups of moving lights, colours, gobos, focus's, positions, etc - commonly used building blocks for the show. As programming goes on, the palettes will be added to and edited. I worked on touring musical theatre shows, so my examples will be based around that, but it's very similar for any event or show. For a large show, this may take several weeks of programming set-up. For smaller shows, if unlucky, it might be two hours before doors open! Then, the show "cues" (instructions to the system, that's triggered at a certain time in the show) can be programmed, from these building blocks. For example, the designer might say, "give me the front wash lights, at full, dark purple, in the downstage line position" - the programmer would simply: Push the "front wash" button to select the fixtures in this group (say, 8 wash lights) Type "@ full" on the keypad for full intensity (the 8 wash lights in this group would suddenly come on, very bright, pointing straight down in their neutral position, in the colour of white) Push the "dark purple" colour preset - the colour would instantly change to dark purple Push the "downstage line" position button - all the fixtures would instantly pan and tilt to the pre-set position, a line on the downstage (front) edge of the stage (These commands could be given to the system in any order, but it'd be normal for the programmer to follow the designer's speech pattern. It'd take less time to make the moving lights do this than it would to say it - the above is five button pushes, and a good moving light programmer touch-types). Then, the designer would go on to describe other lights' (usually, groups of lights) position, colour, pattern, etc. Once the designer was happy with the "look" on stage, the cue would be saved, and named (or saved in another palette, if that "look" was often used, reducing five button pushes to one button push in the future). Then, work on the next cue begins - maybe from the previous state (so, only the CHANGES will be recorded), or from scratch, so all the data will be recorded. The "moving" part of moving lights happens in two ways - a repeating movement could just be one cue - instead of the "downstage line" position, we might use a "position" called "audience circle", which happens to have a movement sequence recorded in the cue - say, every moving light pointing into the audience, and describing a circle at a certain size and speed. The size of the circle, the speed, and of course the colour and gobo can be set as the designer wishes. The other main way to do a "move" is to transition from one cue to the next, say, from the "downstage line" position, to the "downstage cross position", where, instead of pointing straight down, the fixture on the far left points to the far right, and so on. The move between these two cues can be set to occur at any speed (though, the maximum speed, is the speed the lights can move at, which depends on their weight, motor settings, make, and model, and so different fixtures may be specified by the designer for these reasons, as the speed of motion of moving lights is obviously an important factor to how the show looks). A musical theatre show might have 1,000 cues, each one painstakingly created from the building blocks, over the space of several weeks. A rock concert would tend to have "cue lists", one for each song (allowing the band to choose a set list at their whim, and drop or add songs for a specific show), and a song may have 10 to 300 cues in it, depending on the style of the show. There might be 20 colours in the colour palette, and 30 positions. At a trade show exhibition stand for cars, 20 moving lights might just rotate through the same three cues all day long (some of them would have a gobo of the car manufacturer's logo, that roves across the floor of the stand, of course, and maybe out into the aisle a little bit). When a touring show "loads in" (sets up) in a new venue, the fixtures will be in similar but different positions (and if the cues were executed, they'd look all messed up, because the positions were programmed for a different venue). But, by editing each position "building block" that every cue is based on, selecting each moving light, adjusting its pan and tilt, and overwriting the old settings, executing the cues will become correct immediately (because the colour, gobo, focus, etc does not change when the venue does). Thus, "touching up" the "position presets" is the bulk of the work on a venue change. The same applies when a fixture breaks and has to be replaced - a new fixture of the same type is hung in the same position, but because a tiny change in the hanging position can be amplified by the throw of the beam, some positions may need to be adjusted. All this is well and good, lights in the correct position illuminate the subject nicely, but especially for concert stuff (tho for almost all shows of any type these days), a big part of the look is the light beam in the air. Light can only be seen in the air when there's something in the air for the light to bounce off, into your eyes. We've all seen "god's fingers", shafts of sunlight before or after a distant storm, where the sun is hitting droplets of water or fog - a similar thing happens in performance spaces, but it's artificially generated. The most common method is "haze", where a light grade oil is "cracked" by forcing tiny bubbles of air through it, it's "atomised", and floats through the air. It's safe, tasteless and odourless, and seldom leaves much of a residue beyond the immediate area of the machine. Other methods of particle suspension is "fog" (by applying warm water to dry ice, producing a low (one to two feet) thick miasma on stage, or "smoke", where oils and glycol are mixed and heated, to produce billowing smoke (that often has a noticeable smell/taste, and may come in different flavours like bubblegum does). Smoke may interfere with the voices of performers, but is cheap to make, and effective if it's appropriately distributed. Smoke tends not to have the "hang time" of haze, so hazers, while expensive, are most often used for most shows.  Only two types of moving lights, moving head and moving mirror... ok, there are some others, but they barely rate a mention. One is a Comear DeSisti NAT, which is a truly weird device, where the head moves, but kinda like a mirror, but the beam can be in more places... but not as much as a moving head light. There some older disco effects which have very basic movement built in (usually, the lamp moves, and the other elements in the fixture are static), and there are oil projectors, where a disc of coloured oil is projected thru. The beam of light heats the oils at different rates, and the effect is projected onto a surface. Very 70's, and a great mesmerising effect - ideal for a 70's party, if you can still find a hire shop that has them.  The number of people on a lighting crew depends on the size of the show and the budget. Smaller shows, it's one person does it all (unload the truck, hang all the lights, run the cables, trouble-shoot broken things, design, program and operate the show, and pack it all up at the end - and probably drive the truck to the next venue as well!). On larger shows, there may be dedicated programmers for different types of moving lights, or different parts of the stage, teams of technicians (rigging, repair, etc), and so on. or, anywhere in between.
I live in a very harsh climate for cars (Toronto, Ontario). We don’t get as much snow as some other areas in the country but they pour salt and chemicals on the roads in the winter like you wouldn’t believe. All steel cars sooner or later succumb to rust here if you drive them in these awful conditions. I am a Tesla Model 3 owner so this question was my number one concern when purchasing. I use my car a lot in these very unforgiving conditions. The Model S and X models will have few or no rust issues at least from a structural standpoint. They are almost entirely made of aluminum that simply does not rust. Aluminum oxidizes. Oxidization although cosmetically displeasing doesn’t have the same structural impact that rust does. The Model S and X did have a voluntary recall on a bolt in the steering system made by Bosch. I have been under many cars and after 5 or 6 years there are lots of rusty bolts in most cars. Kudos to Tesla for the recall. I think it is very likely this bolt is in several other non-Tesla cars and has not been recalled. The Model 3 is a different story. It does rust. It has a lot of steel in it. All cars with steel in them rust. The hood and battery tray are aluminum along with several other parts. There have been some issues reported. The main rust areas reported are at the top rear of the front fenders (if the fender is misaligned and touches the body), rust stains on the door moisture drains at the bottom of the door and on the rocker panels behind the front wheels (looks more like missing paint to me). My Model 3 is absent of these issues. These issues although cosmetically displeasing are unlikely to develop into structural issues and the demise of the car. Tesla has been fixing the fender misalignment and has given out free rocker panel guards to help with the rocker panel issue. The Model 3 has some design features that may help it to survive harsh weather and catastrophic rust for longer than the average car out there. It is extremely well sealed on the underside of the car. This is a requirement because of the battery. For most of the underside of the car the battery and a couple of aluminum sheets and a battery between the road and the car. The rocker panels also seem very well sealed. Most bad non-cosmetic rust happens when salt and road debris collect. This collection happens in frames, around wheel wells, in rocker panels. There have been reported cases of Model 3s collecting road debris in the underside rear cover (under the trunk). This cover is plastic and should not lead to corrosion. Over the next decade, we will have the opportunity to observe the impacts of severe weather on the model 3. From what I am seeing now it seems it will hold up very well. The Model Y is new. I have not inspected one up close. I would guess it will be better than the Model 3 in terms of corrosion and longevity. Tesla is a company that learns from the past very quickly. The Cybertruck is a stainless steel exoskeleton. The body on the Cybertruck will not rust and should outlast the life of any human. This design has the potential of turning the automotive industry upside down. Automobiles are designed to strategically fail after loans are paid off and warranties run out. Most cars have a useful lifespan of 10 years and will limp along until 20 years old after that. The Cybertruck could entirely change this model. Buy once, use for life. This likely won’t completely materialize as at some point a technology refresh will be an advantage, but the vehicle lasting 2 or 3 times as long and going 2 to 3 times as far isn’t a far reach.
It really isn't who you think it is., It's not Ralph McQuarrie as many believe. Star Wars, Conception Artist Ralph McQuarrie was brought onto the project by George Lucas in 1975. He created iconic images that we've seen up on the screen and many early designs that were the genesis of what was to come. However,, ,much of the credit goes to model maker Colin Cantwell,. Here he is pictured on the left with George Lucas on the right., Cantwell was attached to the project as early as 1974. He was known as one of the defining model makers in ,Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey,. Cantwell's early ,Star Wars ,designs showcased the true genesis of what was to come as far as the designs of the ships. McQuarrie played a major role shortly after, but he was more known for the character designs and overall set/scene designs. Here are some of Cantwell's early concepts: An early design for the X-Wing A design that showcases many elements of what would become a Star Destroyer Looks very much like a snow speeder Legendary ,Star Wars, Special Effects Supervisor John Dykstra stated in an early article that he wrote in July 1977 (,Miniature and Mechanical Special Effects,): While all of the mechanical and electronic portions of the facility were being designed and constructed, one of the most important portions of the film was getting under way— the miniatures. Designs provided by Colin Cantwell were being modified to suit our photographic system and new designs for additional ships were being created. Joe Johnston had a major hand in providing the configurations that the final miniatures would incorporate. Here are some additional Cantwell models. You'll notice that the now iconic T15 Skyhopper (the model that Luke Skywalker plays with) was one of Cantwell's first original designs. Cantwell was brought in VERY early in the process, even before any script was finished. He worked directly with George Lucas in the conceptions of the various vehicles, due to the fact that Lucas was so impressed with Cantwell's work in 2001, as well as some model concepts he created on spec. Watch this AMAZING interview with Cantwell, where he touches on those spec models and his initial meeting with George Lucas, followed by his early work on the imperial starships and yes, the Death Star. And here's the real smoking gun. Watch this part of the eight part interview (time code 1:38 is when the below starts) with Cantwell where the interviewer references ,The Making of Star Wars, book that stated that Ralph McQuarrie recalled that Cantwell was brought onto ,Star Wars, a couple of weeks BEFORE McQuarrie was hired. Cantwell believes this to be correct and goes on to say that Ralph was painting as Cantwell worked on designs. Cantwell then says, "I designed them and built the prototypes." He credits George Lucas with describing to him the scenes in which the vehicles would be in and what the ships would need to be able to do. Cantwell's concepts were focused on being able to tell the "good guys from the bad guys." The interview goes on to prove that Cantwell even came up with the names of the vehicles as well (Y-Wing, X-Wing, etc.)! It's also divulged in The Making of Star Wars book that Cantwell would come up with the designs and then Ralph McQuarrie would then translate them into his paintings. Rock solid proof that Colin Cantwell WAS the designer of the iconic Star Wars vehicles! According to Cantwell himself, George Lucas had wanted him to start ILM. Cantwell, however, knew that committing to such a thing would require him to focus on Star Wars concepts alone for a huge amount of time. Cantwell wanted to branch out though. He wanted the business of model making to expand beyond a single film, thus, as he says, he was no longer wanted on "The Ranch." He went on to work on Steven Spielberg's ,Close Encounters of the Third Kind,, among many other projects. So there you have it. Colin Cantwell can now me named as an official unsung hero of the ,Star Wars, universe we now know. Thanks Colin!
Short answer: Giga Shanghai was built from lessons learned from Fremont. In a recent interview of Elon Musk by Sandy Munro, there is a section where Elon discusses paint issues and panel gaps. Elon mentions the key lessons that they learned - some problems don’t show up until you have ramped up production - for instance, the paint shop ran fine under normal conditions, but speeding up the line slightly reduced the drying time of the paint by a minute or two which had serious downstream problems. So items like a slightly defective heater wouldn’t show up under normal use, but losing that extra minute of drying meant that the problem was no longer covered up. And of course, during ramp up, you can’t afford to take the paint shop offline, so you just keep running it. Material science. Sandy asks why Tesla doesn’t just use a carbon fiber body - super strong, super lightweight, zero expansion. Then Elon simply mentions that metal expands. If you have a door with metal parts, it could expand or contract and not fit into the carbon fiber body opening anymore. This is the reason for panel gaps - sufficient room for the metal to expand or contract without inappropriate touching of moving parts. So it appears that what temperature you measure panel gaps (colder weather should have larger panel gaps) they can be larger or smaller on the same car. So Giga Shanghai has learned from these lessons - the paint shop will be larger and longer allowing for more drying time, perhaps with extra heaters as backup, even while operating at max capacity. Materials chosen for panels and how they are assembled will be to tighter tolerances to meet the need for expansion and contraction. More automation, leading to a more consistent assembly product. Fewer connections leading to less deviation in fit overall. The Model Y will take this a step farther with the megacasting for the rear frame and eliminate 100+ parts and connections - a far more consistent product. And as Elon has mentioned, it required developing a whole new aluminum alloy to allow rapid casting without having to temper or heat treat afterwards since that could warp the casting out of spec. Since Giga Berlin was started even later, it can be assumed that Made In Europe Model Y’s will be even higher quality and production speed. The hints of a new “super paint shop” implies a change in the painting process that doesn’t exist at Shanghai - perhaps allowing bespoke colors like Porsche does with its Paint to Sample program - ,Paint-To-Sample Is The Coolest Paint Option That Not Enough People Order,. As shown with Fremont having to resort to building a tent to revamp the Model 3 production line, EV’s coming out of California are harder to make. Vertical integration, including the design of a high capacity factory from scratch means that newer products, including Gigafactories, should be better with more iterations. We will see if quality and production improve over Shanghai when Berlin and Texas come online.