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sonic blue paint touch up Q&A Review

Who would be your all-time, all-star 5-person rock band? Vocals, guitar, bass, drums, wildcard. Alive or dead, from any genre. Not your favorite/best of each position separately, but the 5 you think would make the best music & live shows together.

I really like this question precisely because it acknowledges that the band would have to work together — so it isn’t necessarily asking for a supergroup in which everyone’s ego would be in everyone else’s ego’s way, but a group of musicians who could work together to create really interesting music. But of course there’s no real way to know who would get along well with whom, is there? Once we admit that, the imagination opens up all manner of possibilities, and to be honest, I could dream up variations on answers to this question for hours. But of course it should be acknowledged that the greatest bands we’ve had have all, for one reason or another, been perfectly themselves. What sane person would have subbed out a member of The Beatles? The Stones (in any of their three great incarnations)? The Who? R.E.M.? The Clash? The Magic Band? Could Last Exit have worked with any other personnel? And who would say that Tom Waits and Elvis Costello did not choose supremely gifted units that meshed perfectly together? Bands like Booker T. and the MGs, The Band, Étoile de Dakar, and the house bands at Motown and Muscle Shoals are other instances of perfect units in rock and R&B. Perhaps the greatest assembler of bands was Miles Davis. In many — all but some of Miles’ bands, really — it would always have been possible to find more virtuosic players. But better, more cohesive units? Hard to imagine. And of course sometimes supergroups work. Anyone who’s heard ,Jazz at Massey Hall, — Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Bud Powell, Charles Mingus, and Max Roach, than which no greater supergroup seems imaginable — knows that they can, in fact, work out just fine. Probably more often in jazz than in rock, but still. My one reservation about this question is that it specifies all but the “wildcard” role and limits the possibilities for unusual but effective ensembles — and it all but eliminates the possibility of a larger ensemble like the Famous Flames or the JBs, who are without question among the greatest bands of the past century. It leaves out any number of great Zappa ensembles. And I dare you to look at the village that built ,To Pimp a Butterfly. I’m going to offer a few different lineups that would do fascinating, challenging, and, one hopes, beautiful things together. But generally, what I always want is a rhythm section that never ceases to move, that can do just about anything, but which plays for the song; a great guitar player; and while a great lead singer is essential, I am especially partial to bands with multiple strong vocalists who not only trade off lead duties, but who can sing beautifully ,together. ,Ensembles of this type run the gamut from The Blind Boys of Alabama to The Beatles to The Beach Boys to The Drive-By Truckers and The New Pornographers. Let me add that I’m going to leave The Beatles out of this; I believe none of them could ever do better than what they did together. Let me also add that these are not really best-evers or “final choices” or anything silly like that. They’re flights of fancy. Okay, so. Let’s see. And let me issue a challenge to anyone reading this: what would you ,name ,these bands? 1 Vocals/guitar/piano/all the things: Prince Guitar/vocals: Jimi Hendrix Vocals: Mavis Staples Bass: Bootsy Collins Drums: Billy Cobham (alternatives: Tony Williams, Clyde Stubblefield) This is a dream band for me. The Experience and the Band of Gypsys made wonderful music with Hendrix, but neither provided him with the sort of rhythmic base that could really have taken his music forward: that, as much as anything else, is what is ,so ,awful about the fact that he died before he could work with Miles. Here he would have the combination of funk and forward momentum we can only dream of: Cobham is the wizard who drives Miles’ ,Jack Johnson ,and other masterpieces, and Bootsy Collins is… well, he’s God. People who think of his extroverted presence in P-Funk ought to remember that he also played on all the funkiest James Brown recordings in a less ostentatious, but equally miraculous, role: Collins serves the occasion, always. This rhythm section, I suspect, would be capable of virtually anything. Hendrix’s lyrics have a kind of goofy brotherhood jive to them, and he was always self-conscious about his singing, even though he was affecting and distinctive. What I decided this ensemble needed, though, was: a songwriter, arranger, multi-instrumentalist, and vocalist of the highest caliber — a frontperson and studio rat of the highest order (like Hendrix) but longer on songwriting and vocal arrangement. I considered Sly Stone, and he might have worked here too, but I wanted multi-instrumentalism: so, Prince. Prince had soul power and a great range, including one of the greatest falsettos in the history of American pop. But he always seems to work best with women as foils, and I thought an equally soulful, equally disciplined singer with a bit more gravel and grit would complete the picture wonderfully. Mavis Staples is, obviously, incomparable. (Etta James would also have been a fine choice.) Staples and Prince could have sung beautifully together, and Hendrix’s vocals, when given a prominent role, would have had all manner of support. I imagine that this band might produce remarkable collaborative work with all sorts of people: guest spots from Fela Kuti or Kendrick Lamar, for example. 2 Vocals: John Lydon Guitar: Robert Quine Guitar: Sonny Sharrock Bass: Jah Wobble Drums: Hamid Drake So here we’d have Lydon, as distinctive and pungent a vocalist as the rock era produced, with his punk origins and his influences from reggae, dub, krautrock, Middle Eastern music, etc., with two different guitarists who share a penchant for noise — Sharrock and Quine both have jazz and blues roots, but their reassembly of these roots could make for remarkably complex interplay. Hamid Drake is a tremendous jazz drummer, and has played with some of the wildest free jazz units known to man, and yet can do anything: hip-hop, funk, rock, you name it. He grooves mercilessly. One of my favorite jazz duo albums is the one he made with Peter Brötzmann, ,The Dried Rat-Dog, ,and that’s precisely because of how much he makes that wildman ,move,. Drake kicks ass on tabla, frame drums, balafon, congas — he is a percussion machine. Over that I’d want a fat, thick, implacable bassist, grounding all the noise in relentless groove and bottom. So why not (suspending any concerns about temperamental differences between him and Lydon) bring in Jah Wobble, who worked with Lydon in the original Public Image Ltd. to produce the inimitable white dub-punk of ,Metal Box? I’d want this group produced by Bill Laswell, not only for the bass and atmospherics and dubwise know-how and astonishing versatility, but because he could bring in all manner of guests who could give what looks at first glance like a noise-dub-jazz band from hell some of the contexts, contours and colors of Middle Eastern, Far Eastern, and African music that many of the principals love: think anyone from Pharoah Sanders to Maalem Mahmoud Gania to The Master Musicians of Jajouka. I considered Lou Reed as a vocalist for this group, but decided Lydon was a bit more appropriate for this range of influences. I’ll use Lou later. (EDIT: I never got around to it, did I?) 3 In this one, I am blithely ignoring the requirements for particular forces and adding a sixth player. Saxophones/Tarogato/etc.: Peter Brötzmann Guitar/vocals if necessary: Mary Halvorson Koto/shamisen/voice if necessary: Yagi Michiyo (Michiyo Yagi) Violin/Baritone Violin/Viola: Mat Maneri Bass: William Parker Drums: Paal Nilssen-Love Take brilliant instrumentalists accustomed to working in bizarre combinations, put them together, and you never know what you’ll get. Maneri, for example, has worked with the redoubtable Parker before. His recording with pianist Borah Bergman and trombonist Conny Bauer, ,The River of Sounds, ,is one of the most unusual and brilliant trio records I know. Mary Halvorson is my favorite avant-jazz guitarist working today (though if she couldn’t show up, one could always invite, say, Raoul Björkenheim, who has worked with Nilssen-Love and Parker in the past, to great effect); she trained up with Anthony Braxton and is responsible for much that is most exciting in many recordings by fellow Braxton alum Taylor Ho Bynum, saxophonist Ingrid Laubrock, and Jessica Pavone. Yagi, whose solo koto album, ,Shizuku, ,was released by an apparently very-impressed John Zorn’s label Tzadik in 1999, has made traditional Japanese instruments part of free jazz ensembles, recorded a stunning live trio album with Nilssen-Love and Brötzmann (the album is called ,Volda — ,that’s where it was recorded). And then there’s Brötzmann himself, the European Albert Ayler and, in some spiritual sense, the Lemmy of the saxophone, capable of tenderness and lyricism and poetry but famous for the shattering force of his reed playing in ensembles of all compositions and sizes. And then there’s Nilssen-Love himself. He is a terrifying beast, one of the greatest jazz and jazz-rock drummers I have ever heard. So much microtonal possibility here! But if I could expand this to an octet, I’d add a pianist — Marilyn Crispell, Alexander von Schlippenbach, or Aki Takase, most likely — to provide foundation (and enrich the sonic palette further), and I’d add a second, very different saxophonist: the brilliant alto player Rudresh Mahanthappa, who is one of my favorite living musicians. 4 Okay. For my next trick, a weird sort of art-pop-rock singing-songwriting je ne sais wtf band: Vocals/third guitar if needed: Carl Newman Vocals/guitar: Tanya Donelly Guitar: Marc Ribot Bass/Vocals: Gail Ann Dorsey (or: Shingai Shoniwa, or Meshell Ndegeocello) Vocals, drums, percussion, keyboards: Giorgia Hubley This is just a flight of fancy, really. It takes the songwriting dynamo of The New Pornographers, adds the eccentric but unfailingly melodic ex-Throwing Muse Tanya Donelly — the voice of an angel, and a guitar style notably influenced by… the endlessly versatile Marc Ribot, who has recorded everything from Latin music to the most memorable guitar parts on Tom Waits’ greatest albums to a guitar trio tribute to Albert Ayler to the klezmer-jazz beauties of John Zorn’s Bar Kokhba Sextet. He can complement anything he touches, but would join Donelly in making the poppiness of the group a little off-kilter, though Newman’s unerring songcraft would pull back the other way, and also inject krautrock elements. Dorsey, Shoniwa, and Ndegeocello are amazing and adaptable bassists, and all three can sing the paint off a car; either would lend this odd pop group a much needed soupçon of soul. I opt for Dorsey because I remember how she blew my mind (e.g., singing Freddie Mercury’s half of “Under Pressure”) when she was part of Bowie’s band on A Reality Tour. And then there’s Giorgia Hubley, whose soft, delicate, becalmed vocals, keyboard textures, and highly adaptable drumming are so central to Yo La Tengo’s achievement. I think this would be a weird and wonderful group. 5 Vocals/guitars/saxophone/wtf: David Bowie (or — and? — David Byrne) Keyboards/guitars/percussion/wtf: Brian Eno Guitar: Robert Fripp Trumpet: Jon Hassell Oud: Rabih Abou-Khalil Bass: Percy Jones Frame Drums: Nabil Khaiat Percussion/berimbau: Naná Vasconcelos This group totally violates the rules. It’s an octet. And I wanted to add Rahmi Oruç Güvenç. But imagine the soundscapes this assemblage would generate. Rabih Abou-Khalil is one hub: a great oudist and a masterful bandleader, whose many brilliant records mingle jazz with the musics of the Middle East; Nabil Khaiat is his breathtaking frame drummer. Brian Eno, who should require no introduction, but who is, sadly, perhaps best-known by hoi polloi for producing U2, is the other nexus: he made ,Another Green World ,with contributions from Jones and Fripp; Fripp and Eno was a going concern, though finding their records is a ,bitch ,right now; Hassell, who has also explored Middle Eastern sounds, e.g., on his album ,Maarifa Street, ,made his greatest record, ,Fourth World Vol. 1: Possible Musics, ,with Eno, and Vasconcelos contributed weird and unforgettable percussion; if we added Bowie, he’d inevitably add a strange Euro tinge, but he’d also be 100% invested in the kind of floating sound such an ensemble would produce — and of course, he and Eno worked together many times, including on that incandescent trio of late-seventies albums, ,Low, “Heroes”, ,and ,Lodger, ,the last of which, thematized by travel, has its own flirtations with the Middle East (e.g. “Yassassin”); Eno also produced most of the greatest Talking Heads albums, including the punk/world masterpiece ,Remain in Light, (indeed, one wonders if the quondam King Crimson pairing of Fripp with Adrian Belew, who plays some guitar on ,Remain in Light, ,might not be interesting to try again in a context like this); the title of Eno’s forcebeat classic “King’s Lead Hat,” from which, I think, The Cars borrowed the verse melody for “Shake It Up,” is an anagram for “Talking Heads”; and together Byrne and Eno made the brilliant ,My Life in the Bush of Ghosts. ,Whatever this assemblage of talents could have made, I suspect I would have loved it. Really, I could go on putting together imaginary bands all day. These are just a few that came to mind, in no particular order. I have half a mind to start another one fronted by Gram Parsons, and still another built around the central hub of free-jazz bassoonist Karen Borca and Henry Cow’s Lindsay Cooper — that’d be something — but, you know, this is already excessive. Fun question, really!

Can you give a walk-through of all 50 Iron Man suits?

I am writing this answer since the other one to this question doesn't mention several armors. Ok this is going to be a loooooong list, considering the number of suits Tony has built. I’ll include pictures as well. I am writing this as the other answers don't include all the suits. Note :- The following answer is extremely long. If you are not a hardcore iron man fan, don’t bother. I’ve included pictures and a description, if needed. If there is no description, consider that I don’t have anything to add. 1) Mk I The very first suit, built by Tony with the help of Dr Yinsen. It doesn’t have much, other than the flamethrower and the extremely short flight time. But it did hold a special place in Tony’s heart. 2) Mk II The Mk II looks so much more streamlined compared to the first one. This one has an increased flight time, but not much weapons, since it was just a prototype, by all means. 3) Mk III Next up is the same armor as the Mk II, but with the red and gold paint job that Tony would go on to use for most of his future armors. 4) Mk IV The Mk 4 is the final end product - loaded with all the new tricks Tony had come up with. The armor was used in the Climax fight with Obadiah Stane in the Iron Monger suit. (,Iron man) 5) Mk V The Mk 5 is the first fully portable suit built by Tony. It could be carried around as a simple suitcase, albeit a weirdish one. Extremely light, but less weapons. 6) Mk VI This armor marks the end of the first couple of suits. It was featured in ,Avengers,, and has some new on board weaponry such as the laser. It could also be easily removed by the set up at the Stark Tower. 7) Mk VII The Mk 7 also featured in the A,vengers, ,used in the Battle of New York. It could easily wrap around Tony, without the need of any external technology. Also, it can only be worn if the user has the Wrist Band. 8) Mk VIII 9) Mk IX 10) Mk X Has new flight stabilizers. 11) Mk XI Prototype stealth armor. 12) Mk XII 13) Mk XIII New Rectangular chest RT. 14) Mk XIV 15) Mk XV (“Sneaky”) Minimal cloaking abilities. 16) Mk XVI (“Nightclub”) Advanced Cloaking System 17) Mk XVII (“Heartbreaker”) Oversized chest RT, and powerful Uni beam blasts. 18), ,Mk XVIII, ,(“Casanova”) 19) Mk XIX (“Tiger”) High velocity prototype suit. 20) Mk XX (“Python”) Long distance prototype suit 21) Mk XXI (“Midas”) High altitude prototype suit 22) Mk XXII (“Hot-rod”) Weaponless redesign of War machine armor 23) Mk XXIII (“Shades”) Extremis heat suit. 24) Mk XXIV (“Tank”) Heavy combat defense suit. 25) Mk XXV (“Striker”/ “Thumper”) Heavy construction suit with jackhammer arms 26) Mk XXVI (“Gamma”) Extreme Gamma radiation and heat resistant suit 27) Mk XXVII (“Disco”) Advanced camouflage system 28) Mk XXVIII (“Jack”) Radiation zone suit with NBC (Nuclear-Biological Chemical) resistance systems 29) Mk XXIX (“Fiddler”) Lightweight construction suit 30) Mk XXX (“Blue Steel”) Enhanced Energy suit (Silver Centurion) 31) Mk XXXI (“Piston”) High velocity Energy suit (Silver Centurion) 32) Mk XXXII (“Romeo”) Lightweight Enhanced chest RT suit 33) Mk XXXIII (“Silver Centurion”) Enhanced energy suit Mk II 34) Mk XXXIV (“Southpaw”) Disaster rescue suit (prototype) with retractable left claw 35) Mk XXXV (“Red Snapper”) Advanced disaster rescue suit with dual retractable pneumatic pinchers 36) Mk XXXVI (“Peacemaker”) Riot control suit 37) Mk XXXVII (“Hammerhead”) Deep sea exploration suit. Can withstand heavy pressure, and is equipped with special weapons like an electric field 38) Mk XXXVIII (“Igor”) Heavy lifting suit equipped with Spine lifter and pressure supporters. Capable of lifting entire oil rigs with ease 39) Mk XXXIX (“Gemini”/ “Starboost”) Sub-orbital suit capable of achieving speeds above escape velocity. 40) Mk XL (“Shotgun”) Final hyper velocity suit that can achieve speeds in excess of Mach 5, and can also sustain it over a long period of time 41) Mk XLI (“Bones”) Extreme light-weight suit used for high maneuverability. Another special feature of this suit is that the armor plating of other suits can attach on to this armor 42) Mk XLII (“Extremis” / “Prodigal son”) Autonomous prehensile propulsion prototype suit, famous for featuring in ,Iron man 3 ,and its ability to wrap it self around the user. The suit receives some next generation weaponry, and is also one of the lightest suits. The armor was considerably powerful, despite it being a prototype with lesser, but powerful weapons. Fun fact, this armor is Robert Downey Jr’s fav. 43) Mk XLIII The mark 43 is the perfected version of the mark 42. It has stronger armor pating, and more weapons while maintaining the previous armor’s versatility. It was used at the beginning of ,Avengers: Age of Ultron. ,Although its not clearly mentioned, the armor can also pilot the Mark 44 (hulkbuster) armor. 44) Mk XLIV (“Hulkbuster”) The hulkbuster v1.0 was one the strongest and biggest armor in Tony’s arsenal. It could be called by an A.I known as ,Veronica ,via a satellite in orbit around the Earth. Even if the parts are damaged, they can easily be replaced. The suit also has miniature arc reactors at the knee joints to sustain it. It also has a myriad variety of weapons to subdue the hulk. The suit is believed to have been built by Tony and Bruce together. The armor managed to hold it’s own against the Hulk. (Don’t give that iron-man-beat-hulk BS, it was only because hulk was in the process of reverting back to Banner. Also, PIS) 45) Mk XLV IMO, the mark 45 is the fourth strongest armor created by Tony. The armor plating is one of the thickest among the normal sized suits, and it has the highest number of on- board weaponry (pre-nanotech). It was used the final battle of Sokovia in AOU. Fun fact, the suit is one of the first to have FRIDAY as the on-board A.I. 46) Mk XLVI The mark 46 marks Tony’s first venture into nanotech. If you observe carefully, you’ll notice that the suit’s armor was broken even by Steve Rogers’ repeated punches. Also, see how the armor wraps around Tony in an almost similar form to the Mark 50 suit in the GIF below- 47) Mk XLVII The mark 47 is the near-perfected version of the Mk 46. Although Tony hadn’t mastered nanotech yet in the armor, he did add thicker armor plating to increase the durability. The suit could also be controlled be the user remotely while being thousands of miles away. 48) Mk XLVIII (“Hulkbuster V2.0”) The successor the the first hulkbuster suit, this armor is the third strongest armor built by Tony. It may seem a wee bit pathetic, but its only because Banner was piloting it. Considering the fact that Tony always improved each and every armor compared to their predecessors, I’d say that the new one is better than v2.0. The armor is seen in the battle of Wakanda in ,Infinity war. 49) Mk XLIX (“Rescue”) The rescue armor was piloted by Pepper Potts, and is on par with even the Mark 50 suit. The firepower, especially is extremely high. The repulsor blasts, comined with the autonomous energy displacers one shotted a Chitauri Leviathan, the same one that the Mk 7’s lasers couldn’t even touch back in the first Avengers film. 50) Mk L Where do I start with this armor? It’s soooooooooo damn good. It made Thanos himself bleed when he had 4 Infinity Stones. You can tell yourself that Thanos was just toying with Tony all you want, but let’s face it - it could actually beat Thanos (no armor or infinity stones or blade) with ease. Since it’s made of tiny nanites, the suit can form so many weapons that it would be stupid to actually try and list them 51) Mk LXXXV The final iron man armor is also the strongest armor. Although it was greatly downplayed in ,Endgame, ,I believe its better than the Mk 50 in every way. The shield and blades for example, are now energy based. This means that nanites don’t have to be wasted. Fun fact:- This armor pays homage to the original comics suit. The golden parts, on closer inspection look like muscles. That is how the comics version looked like BONUS:- 1)Iron Legion Drones The Iron Legion drones featured in AOU, but were never mentioned or seen after. They were used for peacekeeping, and didn’t have any weapons. 2) War machine Mk I After Rhodey took the Mk II suit from Tony, he handed it over to the military. They weaponized it with Hammer tech, and the War Machine Mk I was created. It was used by Rhodes to fight alongside Tony against the hacked Hammer bots, and the Whiplash Mk II suit. 3) War machine Mk II The second version of the war machine armor comes with a couple of new bells and whistles, including some new weapons and new rectangular Chest RT. Although it was first seen in AOU, I believe it was built before Iron Man 3 as this is the armor that was repainted as the Iron Patriot. 3) War machine Mk II redesign (Iron Patriot) The Iron Patriot is basically a makeover of the Mk 2 suit by A.I.M Other than the new paint job, there is nothing new. The suit was last seen in ,Iron man 3,, after which the old paint job was used in AOU. 4) War Machine Mk III The Mk 3 was seen in ,Civil War ,, and was loaded with a bunch of new weapons, including a new sonic weapon that was capable of stopping Wanda dead in her tracks. 5) War machine Mk IV The Mk 4 was a HUGE improvement over the previous armors. It took out hundreds of outriders like they were insects. The amount of firepower it had was simply just mind blowing. The armor also has a built-in walking aid for Rhodey, like all the successors do. 6) War machine Mk V The Mk 6 armor was used in EG. The suit is rather very tall, but not as bulky as the the Mk 5. It doesn’t have any new weapons. 7) War machine Mk VI The latest war machine armor is the most powerful one yet. After the Mk 5 was damaged, this suit literally came out of nowhere. Whether it was a plot hole, or the suit is nano-tech, IDK. The durability is insanely high, considering how bulky it is. I have no clue about new weapons, if any as the suit wasn’t seen that much in the final battle. 8) Spider suit (Homecoming) Tony built Peter his second suit, which he used in ,Civil War ,and ,Homecoming. ,It comes with a new A.I assistant known as Karen, and has several modes such as the Instant-kill mode, and has over 576 web shooter configurations, including taser webs, web grenades and rapid fire webs. The suit also has an in built parachute, and a reconnaissance drone. 9) Iron Spider suit Peter’s third suit was the final suit made for him by Tony. It carried over all the features of the homecoming suit, and added a lot too. The armor was a nano-tech armor, similar to the Mark L. This meant increased durability, speed and to a certain extent, regeneration. The suit also came with leg like structures that provided additional grip. 10) Quantum Realm Team suit Note: All the descriptions have been written by me. If there is no description, it means that I have nothing to add. I’ve tried to be as informative as possible, and I’ve also tried to include any suit specific weaponry. Hope you liked the walk through! Feel free to check out my MCU power rankings:- Prajithraj S's answer to Can you rank all the characters in the MCU (not the comics) in order of power? I’d love to hear some constructive criticism as I’m still learning to write quality answers on Quora.

Who would win in a fight, Mecha-Naruto or Metal Sonic?

I don’t know much about Mecha Naruto, but I do know about Naruto. Now I’m not sure if Mecha Naruto is equal stronger or weaker compared to Naruto, but with the knowledge, I have on Naruto I can still make an estimate on who’d win. What I know about Naruto is that he’s destroyed the Moon and that in his official character File ir reads that he has a force so strong inside of him that it can turn planets to ,Ash ,that’s pretty powerful! I know Naruto can also dodge beam of Light and or Lasers putting him at Light Speed Reaction time. Now assuming that this Robot is close or weaker than Naruto’s casual Power (Not Full Power) I would assume he can bust a moon as a fair estimate. Mecha Naruto Stats Attack Potency: Casual Moon Buster Speed: Hypersonic Speeds (Much Faster than Sound) Reaction Speed: FTL Durability: Partial Planet Level Abilities: Chakara, Nine Tails Mode ————————————————————————————————————— Now onto Metal Sonic. Metal Sonic’s best feat by far would be fighting Sonic. In case you were not aware of Sonic’s Power he can casually destroy Solar Systems. Allow me to elaborate, Sonic after each Adventure becomes stronger, like Goku’s Zenkai Boost in a way. Sonic had to transform to fight Perfect Chaos for the first time who was said to destroy planets thousands or so years ago until he was sealed. A few Adventures later and Sonic ,easily, dispatched of Perfect Chaos in his Base Form. Now obviously that would only make Sonic a Planet Buster I know but listen. One of the Canon side game named Sonic Battle had a special character named Emerl. He started off as a weak Robot. That was until he was powered by Chaos Emeralds, Chaos Emerald Shards? (Not sure) anyways he also picked up on most of the characters moves in the game (Shadow, Sonic, Amy, Tails, Cream, etc.) and by the end of the game he unlocked his Full Hidden Power. In this state, he threatened to destroy the Solar System and move on to the next and so on. This implies that Emerl at Full Power is a Solar System Buster, also considering the fact he can move onto the next Star System/Solar System implies he can tank the destruction of a Solar System. Sonic didn’t want to but he had to stop Emerl and destroy him, guess what happened? Sonic destroyed Emerl in under a minute of fighting. This would mean Sonic has Solar System attack potency, not only that it was many Adventures ago so if Sonic gets several times stronger after each Adventure we could assume that he’s a Multi-Solar System Buster at this point of the series. Metal Sonic is less durable then Sonic but can still tank these hits implying he has at least Multi-Solar System Durability and attack potency (Since he’s able to harm Sonic). Next is his speed, Sonic is able to travel many times Faster than Light in his Base Form alone. Sonic used to be slower than his Light Speed Dash in Gameplay but he’s now Faster than it in newer games. Sonic as a kid Time Traveled using his Speed. Now, most people think it was due to the signpost that he could time travel, that would be incorrect. In the game manual IIRC states that Sonic travels through time by utilizing his Interdimensional Speed. Sonic would have to be running at ludicrous speeds to Time Travel (The Sign Posts are just a way to warn the players they’re going time travel, because if you just time-traveled to a random time every time you ran the game would be hectic, think of the signpost as a way to direct the player). Sonic’s also outrun a Black Hole until he ran out of ground to run on, he was then cornered and absorbed by the Black Hole. Sonic was only knocked out by this Black Hole and survived prolonged exposure to it without ,any, harm to his body what so ever. Sonic has multiple Light Speed feats after this but I'm sure you guys already get the point. Now to outrun a Black Hole you would at least need to run several Times Faster than Light seeing as a Black Hole can absorb Light. So let’s lowball Sonic’s speed and say he’s about 4x FTL. Metal Sonic can keep up with Sonic’s speed and by overriding his systems he can move up to 4x Faster then Sonic meaning Metal at Full capacity can run 16x Faster than Light! Then we have his attack potency which must be far stronger than a Black Hole to damage Sonic (Which we pretty much already covered). You could even go as far as to say that Metal has Galaxy Attack potency as Sonic survived an attack (But was knocked unconscious in 1 attack) by Time Eater who’s capable of Universal Destruction through sheer force. But I feel more realistically he’s Multi-Solar System Busting in strength. Metal Sonic can also Copy the opponent he’s fighting abilities. Using his Copy machine he can copy the powers and strength of pretty much anyone he’s fighting. This, of course, takes a while to do and can be prevented if destroyed quickly. Metal Sonic also has Plasma Beams he can emit from his Stomach which is strong enough to plow through reinforced steel and seeing as he’s a Multi-Solar System Buster, likely entire Planets too! Metal Sonic also has Force Fields that hurt whatever touches him instead of the other way around. He only keeps it on for short periods of times as he has to hold still in order to do it. He also has a dangerous electric aura around him so whenever someone flies/runs near him they’re damaged. Metal Sonic Stats: Attack Potency: Multi-Solar System+ Speed: FTL+ Reaction Speed: FTL+ Durability: Multi-Planetary to Solar System Level (Less durable than Sonic) Abilities: Flight, V.Maximum Overdrive, Copy Scan, Power-Replicator, Plasma Blasts, Black Shield, Electric Aura \\Disclamier: I had to nerf Metal Sonic due to my lack of knowledge on Mecha Naruto to make the fight more fair.// Get ready to Rumble! ————————————————————————————————————— Eggman: “HO-HO-HO-HO-HO-HO, My plan is almost complete!” Eggman had a huge grin on his face. “Just one more Emerald and I can power the Eclipse Cannon to destroy all life on this new planet!” Eggman set the 6′th Emerald of the set inside of a compartment especially suited for it. Orbot: “Umm sir we’ve located and retrieved the final Emerald your liege.” Eggman: “Perfect, bring it here now!” Eggman demanded his bot. Orbot: “Yes sir!” Orbot made a hand gesture signaling the robots to enter the room with the 7′th Emerald. Suddenly a crash was heard near the entrance of the ship, It caused all robots near the entrance to be pulled out into the vacuum of space. Eggman: “What was that!?” Orbot: “It seems we have an intruder s-” Eggman: “I know that idiot, does it look like I was born yesterday!?” Orbot: “,DEFINITELY, not sir…” Eggman: “What’s that supposed to mean!?” Orbot: “Nothing sir!” Orbot covered his head with his hands. Eggman checks the live feed of his camera. Eggman: “So, some pipsqueak thinks they can just break and enter my ship huh?” Eggman finds a camera of the threat. “Huh… I’ve never seen this guy before, he must be an inhabitant of the planet I have the Eclipse Cannon pointed at!” Mecha Naruto: “Must find a power source for weapon pointed at Earth…” Mecha Naruto’s voice sounded distorted. Eggman: “You think you can storm in my ship and steal MY, Emeralds that I worked so hard for!?” Orbot: “Actually sir, we did all the work for you…” Eggman: “Orbot can it unless you want me to disable you!” Eggman stomped frustrated. Suddenly another crash was heard outside of Doctor Eggman’s quadrant. Mecha Naruto: “Hand over your power source or I’ll take it by force…” Eggman: “Hah, yeah right like a rusty robot like you could take me!” Eggman smiled. Mecha Naruto: “Guess I’ll take it by force…” Mecha Naruto started running towards Eggman's command room at full speed. Eggman: “Get a load of this!” Eggman tapped a button in front of him releasing hundreds of bots on the dock of the ship. Mecha Naruto: “Eliminate Targets…” Mecha Naruto raised two hands and two Shurikens formed from Chakara formed from his palms. Eggman: “Hmm…?” Eggman twisted his mustache. Mecha Naruto: “Eliminate!” Mecha Naruto lunged one of his hands forward then followed with his second hand quick after launching each shuriken. The shurikens cut through every robot in the way. Eggman: “Grrr…” Eggman became extremely frustrated. Eggman looked near the site of the explosion Mecha Naruto caused to see if he could locate him. Mecha Naruto: “Looking for me?” Naruto was in Eggman’s face. Eggman: “I’m sorry, y-you can have whatever you want…” Eggman looked at the ground hiding a grin. Mecha Naruto: “Hand it over than before it gets really violent…” Mecha Naruto held out his hand. Eggman: “Of course… NOT!” Eggman pushed a red button lying next to him. Mecha Naruto: “Wrong choice.” Mecha Naruto was ready to throw a punch to kill Eggman he stopped after hearing a loud revving up noise. Eggman: “Get him Metal Sonic!” Eggman pointed at Mecha Naruto. Metal Sonic glared with his pulsing red eyes at Mecha Naruto. This all seemed to happen in the blink of an eye. Metal Sonic: “Wipe enemy target off the plane of existence…” Metal Sonic said as he dashed at Mecha Naruto several times Faster than Light. Mecha Naruto: “Wha-!” Naruto was tackled and was grabbed ahold of by a tight grip on both sides of his hips. Metal Sonic dead silent headed towards Earth at Light Speed holding his grip on Naruto. Mecha Naruto: “Enough of this.” Mecha Naruto tried to loosen the grip of Metal Sonic but horribly failed. Metal Sonic was already in Earths Orbit and Metal Sonic’s engine was clearly heard from anyone within a 100-mile radius “VWEEEEEEEEEE”. Entering Earth’s orbit ignited the two, It barely bothered Metal Sonic but Mecha Naruto’s paint was coming undone. Metal Sonic: “. . .” Metal Sonic within reaching the atmosphere winded back his arm and launched Mecha Naruto into the planet at ludicrous speed. Mecha Naruto being hurdled at Earth caused multiple Sonic Booms and Shockwaves. Metal Sonic quickly followed after Mecha Naruto staying on his tail. From the distance, all you could see was someone burning up and a blue dot with a purple stream behind it. Mecha Naruto: “Bzt…” Burning up was doing bad things to Mecha Naruto’s systems. This, however, didn’t stop him from throwing balls of Chakara at Metal Sonic. The attack seemed to connect but suddenly Metal Sonic’s body disappeared, it was an illusion created by Metal Sonic’s speed. Metal Sonic: “. . .” Metal Sonic dashed into Mecha Naruto’s stomach before making contact with Earth which created a massive explosion. A visible mushroom cloud could be seen from across the village. Mecha Naruto: “Bz-zz-t” Mecha Naruto was in bad condition as his metal started melting and deteriorating. Metal Sonic: “Target successfully scanned” Metal Sonic raised his hand and formed a Shuriken made of Chakra. Mecha Naruto: “N-Not possible…” Mecha Naruto was clearly surprised and caught off guard. Metal Sonic disappeared using his speed, he then re-appeared behind Mecha Naruto and fired the Shuriken at Mecha Naruto’s leg which was chopped clean off. Metal Sonic: “Target in critical condition, Eliminate.” Metal Sonic charged up a beam in his chest. Metal Naruto: “No!” Mecha Naruto even with one leg managed to stand up and uppercut Metal Sonic. Metal Sonic: “Z-z-T!” Metal Sonic’s seemingly glitched with searing anger. Mecha Naruto: “Take this!” Mecha Naruto released fire from his mouth. Metal Sonic held out one hand and casually walked through the flames grabbing Mecha Naruto’s face. Metal Sonic: “Mission accomplished.” Metal Sonic twisted his bottom half kicking Mecha Naruto so hard his bottom half flew off. He then fired a Plasma Beam from his chest incinerating the rest of the body. Sonic took off back towards Eggman’s ship. Naruto: “Hey who’s there!? Whoever you are you have to face m-” There was nothing but a purple streak left by, likely from something very fast. K.O. Alright again I apologize for not knowing everything about Mecha Naruto but for the most part, I felt I nailed it, so to make the fight fairer I nerfed Metal Sonic as I felt that was the only way to balance things. Anyways it was clear from the very beginning that Metal Sonic was superior in nearly every way, Strength, Speed, Intellect. Abilities. The only thin Mecha Naruto may have had against Metal Sonic is Martial Arts. Due to Metal Sonic’s overwhelming powers and abilities he takes the win here. I hope you all enjoyed!

Who is your favorite rock keyboardist?

Many favorites for many reasons, so here’s a short list of players that influenced me the most in my own life as a rock keyboardist: Ray Manzarek. He was the first keyboard player I saw doing something different from everybody else, playing bass and organ, and it made me- a dorky clarinetist and alto sax player in middle school- want to play keyboards. What I love about Ray is his seamless mix of so many genres and stylistic elements- boogie woogie, baroque, blues, modal jazz, cabaret to name but a few- doesn’t preclude his natural, idiosyncratic touch on the keyboard. No matter what instrument he played, he sounded like Ray, and it gave The Doors a major element of their singularly unique sound. He also was a player that knew the right tool for the job; and while the Vox Continental sound is what most listeners associate him with, he still wove the Doors’ signature sound pioneering the use of the Gibson G-101 (Kalamazoo) organ, the Rhodes piano bass, was one of the first adopters of the Fender Rhodes full-size piano, the tack piano, and his tone on the Hammond organ is also a signature mix of jazz inflection with a rock voice. While a defining quality of the sonic landscape of their music, Ray also knew how to support Robby Krieger’s guitar work and Jim Morrison’s vocal improvisations while simultaneously keeping his bass lines simple and grooving to let John Densmore lock in and float around. Ray was one of the truest linchpins in any classic rock band, and I still glean so much from his example in my work today. Rick Wright. When it comes down to creating sonic landscapes and textures, it begins and ends with Rick Wright and his work with Pink Floyd. After Syd Barrett left Pink Floyd, Rick’s presence as a soloist on the Farfisa organ waned rapidly in favor of David Gilmour’s guitar work and the keyboards became a textural supporting role as Floyd came into their “classic” sound. Rick soon adopted the Hammond organ into his rig along with the Farfisa, eventually opting for the smoother texture of the Hammond around the time ,Dark Side of the Moon, came out. This added a seemingly perpetual depth as a backdrop for the vocals and guitar work and gave rise to the “space rock” sound Pink Floyd became associated with. His piano work is lush, rich and full of the right amount of harmonic simplicity and sophistication, taking inspiration from his jazz roots. It wasn’t until I got older and became more of a gear head that I noticed the funky sound on Money was Rick playing a Wurlitzer through a wah pedal. The synthesized soundscapes that begun on ,Wish You Were Here, was Rick weaving magic with slabs like the ARP String Ensemble, Moog synthesizer and VCS 3 (which first appeared on ,Dark Side). ,Any player who works in ambient music, electronic music, space rock, progressive rock, or any rock keyboardist job that requires more support than lead, Rick Wright is the prime example of how a supporting role can make or break a band. Benmont Tench. Another excellent supporting role in the rock world, but also one of the best keyboard hook men of all time- not to mention a killer soloist himself. But listening to Benmont’s work (not just with Tom Petty), you learn how to support ,dynamically!, Benmont doesn’t stay on the same sound for a whole song and uses his keyboards to carve and sculpt out different sounds to make a more interesting palette. This is particularly true with his Hammond playing. But his hooks are a huge thing that helps establish motion in Tom Petty’s music, which for what it’s worth isn’t defined by a large amount of wailing guitar riffs. The Wurlitzer hook in “Breakdown”, the rhythm piano hook that opens “Don’t Do Me Like That” (bookended with a signature Vox Continental/Leslie combo) and the synth hooks in “You Got Lucky” and “Don’t Come Around Here No More” (among other songs) create a unique way of establishing rhythm and memorable lines. But perhaps the most important part of Benmont’s playing (much like Rick Wright’s) is how he never overplays and knows the right place to put everything. Even today, he’s like the keyboardist’s keyboardist in the rock world- a popular saying is “what would Benmont do?” among other keys men. Garth Hudson. What can I say other than this man is a wizard- even in his 80s his virtuosity hasn’t dimmed. What I love about Garth was he was an innovator and a maverick- but his sense of adventure and inventiveness wasn’t contrived or forced, it was natural and more often than not, practical and out of necessity. Firstly, he was probably the only rock organist trained and qualified enough to wrangle the mighty Lowrey organ in a way that didn’t come off as too hokey or novel. At The Band’s peak of live performing he hooked the (heavily modified) Lowrey (a Lincolnwood for many years before switching to the Symphonic H-25 around the time of the Last Waltz) to three separate Leslie speakers- a pair of 147s for the upper manual and a 103 for the lower string settings). It had all the bite and growl of a Hammond with a lighter, theater organ like sound, and the strings were a unique touch before the advent of synths. He also hooked a wah pedal up to a clavinet for “Up on Cripple Creek” years before that became a standard in the funk world to get the feeling of a jaw harp or bow harp. His sense of texture and leads is something I still have trouble truly describing because it’s so unique, but it’s the natural sense and ability of somebody with a deep sense of chemistry with their band. He brought such an educated sophistication to The Band and put them over the top by tying things together so presciently. And he’s a killer horn player/arranger to boot! Billy Preston. Laurens Hammond didn’t realize it, but he made the organ specifically for Billy Preston to play. He simply owns the B- 3. Billy is so much more than just a rock player since his work began in gospel and R&B, but when rock musicians wanted that soulful touch, Billy was the guy to call- and not just for the Hammond. Billy may well have been the first player to use a Fender Rhodes in rock and roll when he took part in musical history on the Apple Records rooftop with The Beatles in 1969 (the first full-size Rhodes piano came out in 1968). Whether it was piano, Hammond, clav, Rhodes, Wurly, synths, you name it Billy played it with an absolute bevy of legendary rockers- The Beatles, Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, Peter Frampton, The Red Hot Chili Peppers, Elton John, Jet, and Joni Mitchell are the many rockers on Billy’s resumé next to hundreds of soul, gospel and jazz artists. Keith Emerson. Keith was probably one of the first true superstar rock keyboardists that wasn’t also a vocalist. His virtuosity, stage bombast, and his ambitious melding of classical, jazz and rock painted what I consider the quintessential picture of progressive rock. He put the Moog synthesizer on the map and in the forefront, took the classic jazz-tinged Hammond lead tone and made it a futuristic counterpart to searing rock guitar leads from Greg Lake; and while most rock keyboardists sat astutely in the back or to the side while the guitarists and frontmen wowed the crowd, Keith was flipping pianos in the air, stabbing his Hammond with knives, and playing a modular Moog a story high! And all that showiness wasn’t to make up for a lack of dexterity, in fact it was to showcase it. There are so many rock keyboardists that I adore and could consider influences, if not directly. Honorable mentions to Jon Lord and Goldy McJohn for defining heavy metal keyboards, Gregg Allman for his soulful bluesiness and his distinct style on the organ to support two of the best guitarists of all time, Chuck Leavell for his down-home piano and all-around flexibility, Little Richard and Jerry Lee Lewis for showing us that the piano can rock in the first place, Alan Price for giving us the British Invasion sound, Bobby Whitlock for being one of my earliest influences and another amazing supporting player (both on keys and vocals!), and Ikey Owens for his extremely diverse styles and adaptability. Don’t even get me started on jazz players hahaha!

What is the chronology of River Song's timeline?

A Good Man Goes to War - ,Born as Melody Pond in 52nd Cent Day of the Moon - ,Kidnapped from place of birth by Madame Kovarian and raised at orphanage on Earth by Silence as a weapon in 1960s The Impossible Astronaut - ,She gets shot by Amy in the warehouse in 1969 Day of the Moon - ,Regenerates for the first time in alleyway in 1970 Let’s Kill Hitler - ,Travels to Leadworth, growing up and calling herself Mels, makes friends with Amy and Rory to grow up with them in the 1990s to 2000s Let’s Kill Hitler - ,At gunpoint, takes Doctor to 1938 to Kill Hitler. Badass Let’s Kill Hitler - ,Gets shot by Adolf and regenerates into a woman. Who will eventually become River Song. Though she does not know this yet. Let’s Kill Hitler - ,River tries to poison Doctor, like she was trained to, but stuff happens and Doctor shows her who River really is. She realises how much she means to the Doctor and gives up her remaining regenerations to save the Doctor. Let’s Kill Hitler - ,Doctor takes her to best hospital in the Universe with Amy and Rory. Wakes up to find a police box shaped empty diary next to her in the 52nd Cent Let’s Kill Hitler - ,Enrols to study archaeology at Luna University, also gaining a doctorate Closing Time - ,In the 52nd Cent, Madame Kovarian comes back to force River to complete the task she was trained to do. She is put in the space suit The Wedding of River Song - ,On 22nd April 2011, 5:02pm, River refuses to kill the Doctor at Lake Silencio whilst in the space suit. The Wedding of River Song - ,Creates a timey-wimey alternate reality of Silurians, humans and dinosaurs living side by side, along with Winston Churchill as the Holy Roman Emperor at the Buckingham Senate with a personal mammoth, of course. London with trains in the air, car balloons, sun spots, War of the Roses ongoing, Charles Dickens writing ghost stories and the time constantly at 2 minutes past 5 in the evening. The Wedding of River Song - ,River marries a Teselecta version of the Doctor on a pyramid rooftop on 22nd April 2011 at 2 minutes past 5 in the evening. They Kiss! The timelines are put right and River kills the “Doctor” (Teselecta) at lake Silencio. First Night, Last Night and the Wedding of River Song - ,These are separate mini episodes, not easily available. But, River is imprisoned at Stormcage in the 52nd Cent for killing the Doctor. He immediately breaks her free for a date on Calderon, however, River being River, her two older versions of herself gate crash the party in the TARDIS. Various - ,They have many other dates, a picnic at Asgard, Easter Island trips, Bone Meadows, Jim the Fish, a euphonium, a biplane, Marilyn and a Queen of England. She also has a birthday party during the 1814 London Frost Fair and Stevie Wonder sings. A Good Man Goes to War - ,Back on the day that Melody is stolen on Demon’s Run, after she is stolen, River appears and reveals to her mum and dad, ,she ,is Melody. The Impossible Astronaut - ,A TARDIS blue envelope with dates and map coordinates arrive from the Doctor in her cell, summoning her and Amy, Rory and Canton to witness her (in the astronaut suit) killing the Doctor. (From her current perspective, she has already shot the Doctor on the beach). The Impossible Astronaut/Day of the Moon - ,Assists the Doctor in helping to defeat the Silent invasion of Earth in 1969. Day of the Moon - ,Back to prison for a bit, but not before a snog with the Doctor. From his perspective, that’s the first time she has kissed him. From her’s? She won’t kiss him ever again (-ish) The Pandorica Opens - ,Receives phones call from Winston about the Vincent’s painting and warns her of the TARDIS explosion. The Pandorica Opens - ,Steals the painting from Starship UK in the 33rd Cent. The Pandorica Opens - ,Leaves a message for the Doctor to get his attention on Planet One, oldest planet in the Universe: Hello Sweetie, along with space-time coordinates. Then poses as Cleopatra to wait for him. The Pandorica Opens - ,Opens the Pandorica in 102AD The Pandorica Opens - ,Is trapped in a time loop by the TARDIS to save her from the explosion as she happens to be inside it when it explodes. The Big Bang - ,Doctor rescues her from the time loop and she then shoots his fez and goes on to make a Dalek beg for mercy. In 1996. The Big Bang - ,Helps the Doctor to sacrifice himself to close the cracks in the Universe. The Big Bang - ,Witnesses the wedding reception of Amy and Rory’s wedding and leaves to go back to Stormcage. Time of Angels/Flesh and Stone - ,Recruited by the Church to investigate the Byzantium ship and the cargo that eventually makes it crash. Time of Angels/Flesh and Stone - ,Summons the Doctor to help defeat the Weeping Angel, the cargo that made it crash. On Alfava Metraxis. Nails the mission and back to Stormcage. Here, she becomes a professor of archaeology. In the 51st Cent. The Angels Take Manhattan - ,1938 New York to investigate yet another weeping angel invasion. Sets up the Melody Malone Detective Agency, but gets trapped there due to temporal disturbances caused by the angels. The Angels Take Manhattan - ,Her parents die by the touch of an angel in a graveyard, but escapes with her husband. The Angels Take Manhattan - ,From her experiences, she writes a novel based on the events and gets Amy in the past to publish it. Leads the Doctor to travel back in time in the first place. The Husbands of River Song - ,By an odd coincidence, the 12th Doctor and River meet. As this is his first face of a new cycle, River has no idea who this Doctor is and throughout the episode, they go on shenanigans. At the end, we learn that they crash on Darillium. Which the Doctor knows is the last time they can properly be together, He even gives her a new Sonic Screwdriver. Which also has a hidden function, See Later… Silence in the Library - ,In the 51st cent, she is hired to lead an expedition to the Library, an invasion of the Vashta Nerada, with the 10th Doctor. She is shocked to see how young he is to her. For him, it is their first chronological meeting. For her, it’s almost the last. She proves her loyalty and trust to the Doctor, by whispering his name in his ear. Forest of the Dead - ,River is about to die, but the Doctor saves her to the Library with the Sonic that he gave her in his future. As the Doctor had over a thousand years to think of a way to save her, the sonic he gave her has a function to save her to the Library forever. Before she “dies”, however, River says: “The last time I saw you – the real you, the future you, I mean – you turned up on my doorstep with a new haircut and a suit. You took me to Darillium to see the Singing Towers. What a night that was. The towers sang and you cried. You wouldn't tell me why, but I suppose you knew it was time. My time. Time to come to the Library. You even gave me your screwdriver. That should have been a clue.” The real him she refers to, is the 12th incarnation, whom she spent 24 years with on Darillium. Name of the Doctor - ,Their final meeting. So far… The data ghost left by the 10th Doctor in the library, is mentally linked with Clara as Vastra opens a dream communication and invites her to talk and ask for help and information. River keeps the link open to observe events and helps to open the Doctor’s tomb by speaking his name, he finally acknowledges her… As we learn from the following heartbreaking clip, the Doctor is constantly aware of her, but chooses not to interact for fear of the pain it would cause him. They say goodbye, a proper goodbye this time. “See you around, Professor River Song…” For the last and final time. Ever. (Lets hope not haha, we need 13 and RIVER) So there you have it, the full chronology of River and the Doctor, from her point of view. wooo. This took me a very long time.

What superpower comes with the most problems?

Well, seeing as my credential says “occasional superhero” I will try to field this question. All superpowers have sucky moments. Flying It messes up your hair and makes your clothes rumpled. That’s why superheroes wear those tights. Fly too high and you pass out from lack of oxygen, fly too low and broadside a mountain, which will suck if you aren’t invulnerable. Bugs get in your teeth, and airplanes can be a problem. Invulnerability Yeah, it’s great when bullets bounce off you, but they ricochet, somewhere. ,What if that bullet hits an innocent bystander? You’ll be tearing off doorknobs, breaking floorboards when you walk, and sex is over for you. If you are a girl, you won’t feel anything, and if you are a guy and you make a girl pregnant, the kid could do a self-induced caesarean. Cold breath or touch Yeah, you’ll be the life of the party keeping the beer cold, but you’ll never have a hot cup of coffee or a warm bowl of soup again. Heat vision or touch Once again, you’ll be the hit of the party when it comes time to fire up the grill. But you’ll never have a cold brewski again. And if you fart, the lawn chair gets a hole in the seat. Super strength Just like invulnerability, you’ll be tearing things up. Everyone will always expect you to do all the heavy lifting. And just because you can lift the weight doesn’t mean that it won’t be unwieldy. And what if you forget how heavy something is and hand it to your normal friend? Shrinking ability Yeah, you can get into tight places. But while smaller, it takes you longer to get somewhere as your strides are smaller. Increasing in size Better hope your density increases with your mass. Otherwise you’ll get light headed and pass out, or have problems with blood flow. Mind reading Sounds cool until you realize there are some sick individuals out there. And if you think you’ll be able to tell what your lady wants? Forget about it. They don’t know what they want half the time anyway! Weather control So you made it rain on Farmer Brown’s dry field. Good for you. Now there’s a drought somewhere else, and the neighbor down the creek is flooded. Super speed Wind burn. Melting shoes. Sonic booms. Pass. Shape shifting It could get old when your significant other wants you to be Jason Momoa or Gal Gadot all the time. And what if your wife wants you to be ScarJo? If you are a shapeshifting female, could you handle blue balls and male pattern baldness? If you are a man, could you handle periods and cramps? Power blasts If you don’t pay attention, you could knock a hole in your wall, or fling yourself into a tree. Too much power, and the kid next door is killed. Too little and you scorch the paint on your car. X-ray vision Not everybody is a supermodel or on the Swedish bikini team. Gander at an Overeaters Anonymous meeting, and you’ll want to scrub your eyes with Brillo pads! But the one with the biggest problem? Coming back from the dead When you die, your bowels and bladder release. Do you really want to wake up covered in urine and poo?

What would a person with autism tell me, so that I could be a more understanding friend?

understand that ,our social capacity might be different than yours,. We need more time to recharge our batteries and to have our social time more structured to avoid overstimulation at all costs. Oftentimes to keep functioning at the level we are at we have to have breaks. Nonstop anything will do us in. if we Cannot Do The Thing™ ,(usually some social commitment),, it does not mean necessarily that we dislike you., Our batteries may have just run out of juice or we have to set boundaries to keep our batteries from running out of juice. This also applies to anything sensory overloading. Like if you prepared a special meal and my brain can't make sense of the textures and I start gagging, I already feel bad about the tremendous work you put into it, and I appreciate the effort, and by no means is an autistic person trying to be a jerk about it, it could just be my brain can't brain it and either I have to find a way around it by switching something up or come up with alternate food. Somethings Executive Functioning Anything is hard., I put things in my calendar, I try to plan ahead. My house is a wreck and I have tremendous trouble with task initiation of any kind. One website that seems to help with throwing out suggestions of things I can do at the moment is a website like ,Goal Fish,. I try to use it more, but I know sharing the link will be useful. See if you ,know what signs of our sensory overload distress looks like, and know how to ,help us navigate out, of a situation/environment that is causing that distress. My allistic (non-autistic) husband has learned what mine look like. Oftentimes I don't melt down, I get irritable, start chopping up my speech, shut my eyes, and then I shut down. If it is absolutely Bad™ I have folded myself up like a meat origami with my hands over my head/ears. That's like the point of no return though. Ask your autistic person what works best for them. Do they need to straight out navigate out? Do they need you to sit next to them in the floor when they overload? Do they want their back rubbed? This matters. What works for me might not work for someone else. Also, Since the invention of things like here one earbuds (sucks they went out of business) and high fidelity earbuds (thanks ,vibes,) this monstrosity of overloading in public is becoming less common. Sometimes I deploy strategies to avoid getting overstimulated or overwhelmed,. I stack my times (how long does it take to eat breakfast + shower + all else) to see how long I need to plan ahead to leave cushion for my executive functioning. I don’t function well when I am in a hurry and tend to forget things. I leave plenty ahead of time (oftentimes an hour ahead of when I need to arrive because I live on the other side of town from a lot of stuff too), because driving is also pretty taxing for me. I also check google on different locations to find out not just when some place is open, but to especially see what the peak times/hours of business are (and how long it takes a person generally in a place) so I can avoid those times when a public place is super-busy (this helps if you live in a city tremendously). I mean, you may not be able to avoid the asshole whose phone keeps going off with a “turn down for what!!” ringtone while waiting at the DMV (ask me how I know), and sometimes 3 people are in waiting rooms listening to videos without earbuds otherwise (UGH) but it’s come in extreme handy otherwise. Back when husband didn’t have a 1st shift job oftentimes we would see the weekday matinee screening of a movie when we went to the movie theater to avoid the crowd. If I have to tolerate the grocery store I stick my vibes in at the very least. But grocery shopping is my least favorite thing on earth (aside from dishes) so oftentimes I send husband to the store for me (some stores nowadays even have pickup and delivery too). Other times I use my communication necklace I got from ,spacerobot studio, on Etsy (it has shrinkydink panes with varying levels of battery icons, a green for full and welcoming of interaction, yellow for apprehensive/risking overloading, and red for overloaded/shut down/I’m done basically) and I flip the panes to the appropriate battery level of what I can currently tolerate. One time husband noticed I was on yellow without me even saying anything and turned the tv volume down. I didn’t even have to say anything. Wow. Start seeing patterns in ,knowing what will cause a sensory overload, in this person or listen to them conveying what tends to be an issue for them. Like, some noises like machinery I can mostly tolerate (even predictable sounds usually, usually the more tame, even and predictable something is, the better—other people might be different), but one shrill kid in Walmart shrieking in the 5th octave (1 octave to 2 octaves above middle C, where every siren, screaming child, and microwave oven chime exists) can wholly incapacitate me into a melting blob of uselessness. I swear I hear that octave louder then 99% of humanity, and I say this as a high soprano who grew up playing violin. We don't always process the world around us the same way you do,. Just because you can't hear the jabs of shrill bright sounds breaking through the wall of unpleasant sonic mud, that is also covering up anything remotely auditorly useful doesn't mean that it doesn't exist in our sound processing. There is a term I will teach you here. It is called ,"sound discrimination.", That is the ability to pick out distinct sounds apart from a backdrop of noise. I can do it with music (because music is processed differently in the brain than speech is), but the ability to do that with speech is difficult with autistic people. So whispering to me when overstimulated is equally as useless as yelling at me in a busy environment. Now you know. a lot of our social difficulties are because of sensory processing issues, in a busy environment in addition to just ,not thinking like NT (neurotypical) people do,. By the time I translate whatever from NTism into autistic understanding, I have already missed the ship for the next whatever. Real conversation goes by too fast for a lot of this processing to happen in real time. Sometimes I even look back in hindsight at realizing all of the social cues I missed. The bigger the group I am conversing with, the worse it gets, too (I might communicate ok if I am with one other person, but I am absolutely useless in a group of 8 people conversing in a wheel format). This issue will definitely get more compounded with people who have communication difficulties especially people with coordination conditions or people who are nonspeaking. But even seemingly more trained/so-called passing autistics can overload and momentarily lose the ability to verbalize things. The more strongly I feel about things, is inversely correlated with my ability to put it in words too (I don’t even think in words to begin with), and especially if I am melting down or shutting down my ability to verbalize anything shuts down entirely. Sometimes, we just need to stim., Everyone stims or fidgets in some way usually. It can be a sign of distress, but it isn’t always the case, sometimes I do it to convey joy (I have a particular hand flap akin to jazz hands for this exact purpose), or even focus on what I am doing (which is 99% of the time since I also have adhd). It’s time to normalize it since fidget spinners are stacked at nearly every checkout counter. And they aren’t the only fidgets in existence. I have the cube, several versions of the tangle (it’s my favorite), a rubber caterpillar (also a favorite), a water snake, I do have two spinners, one of those geometric shape twisty things, a klix, a whats it, that jeliuku thing (I know I butchered the spelling), a jacob’s ladder, multiple chewy jewelry things (the dulcimer pendant sold at ,stimtastic, is my favorite), some spinner rings, a zipper bracelet, and many more. I bought some of these off of amazon, some from stimtastic, I got in on the fidget cube before it was sold in stores, even some fidgets I found at target. I have basically two large repurposed cigar boxes my neighbor gave me full of fidgets. There is nothing wrong with stimming unless it is causing issues for other people (like giving them sensory issues, for instance, is something I came across— some things, like the what’s it and the cube and the klix tend to be noisier). And in that case, it’s better to direct them to a less problematic stim than to de-stim them altogether. Yes, we can be understimulated/sensory-seeking., It’s more common in those of us adhd folk. (I know it’s counterintuitive but some people need ,more, sensory input. some people like biting things to get input, or climbing or jumping on a trampoline or doing something intense). But it can happen for other autistic folk who aren’t adhd too. Or we can be sensory aversive in some ways, and sensory seeking in other ways. I’m pretty sensory aversive in sounds, but I’m sensory seeking with taste. To me, all the problematic textures in food show up worse when the food is bland (sorry to my dad, he loves his food bland). It’s like my brain makes less sense of something if it’s not distracted by a powerful flavor. In fact, when I was a 4 year old, I climbed up and tasted different seasonings in the spice cabinet just for novel flavor-seeking. For some autistic people it’s just the opposite. I once did a poll on a Facebook group of 7,000 autistics on which foods were sensory aversive, and while mushy vegetables came out on top (so predictable! F U forever, nasty creamed corn!), it was evenly split whether a food’s overwhelming flavor, or overwhelming blandness made a sensory issue worse or better. Even weirder is on somedays I can be sensory seeking with touch input and other days I just don’t want to be touched and everything feels like literal human bumper cars. It all varies from person to person or day to day. Sometimes, we may not be aware of what we are doing, what is happening, how we are feeling, or why were are feeling a certain way., Some autistics have trait called alexithymia (sp?) where they don’t know how they are feeling. they legit cannot identify how they are feeling. It’s common in about 80% of autistics from what I remember. I don’t have it, but strangely my allistic (non autistic) husband does. Sometimes we lack bodily awareness, like we fail to pick up on our bodies cues. Or we might not be able to conceptualize how we occupy a space. and for a lot of us (particular the adhd variety autistic), we have zero concept on parsing the passage of time (Radical Neurodivergence Speaking calls this trait “Time Agnosia”). Has it been 3 hours, or 3 minutes? Depending on how much fun I am having they both can feel the same (uninteresting things drag on forever while interesting things are over in a blip even if you were doing them all day long). With this sometimes there might be an unmet need that we forget about meeting. Like if we are having too much fun and forget to eat food or drink enough water. Mostly if something is off, I go to a website called “,You Feel Like Shit,” and it can usually suss out what might be wrong. Context is EVERYTHING,. Sometimes I need more context to make sense of something. My husband struggles with this and I have to keep reminding him. If he doesn’t say something clearly enough or he doesn’t frame whatever he’s communicating in enough context, if I mishear something about a “cat climbing up a ladder” I erroneously visualize ridiculous things like a ladder made entirely of cats stacked on top of each other (sometimes my brain’s visualizations are a scream of a time because they are so hilarious with how wrong they are, and other times it just gets in the way of understanding and I just get frustrated). And while I know a ladder entirely made of cats likely isn’t what he is communicating (the probability is very extremely low), I still didn’t have enough clues to concoct the correct picture. I think the context also depends on what kind of autistic person they are too. I am a very visual autistic person who thinks in patterns and details but I know some that are entirely literary too. It also doesn’t help that with an added layer of adhd that sometimes my attention span shows up late to the party and I missed the first 20 words of what people said to me which then can also paint hilarious incomplete pictures with zero context. Sometimes people harm us with good intentions, and not all autism charities are good. ,That highly touted therapy for autistic kids? it’s expensive, terrible, and results in ptsd. It’s basically the autistic version of gay conversion therapy. Invented by the same dude, even. The mega-merchandised orgs covered in tragedy parent-driven narratives and garish primary color puzzle pieces? Avoid. Avoid like the plague. (even though some applications of puzzle piece merchandise is downright absurd to the point that it’s comical, almost every autistic I meet loathes the infantilizing puzzle piece symbolism and it wasn’t even chosen by us, it was chosen by parents of National Autism Society in the UK in the 1960’s— because we’re not puzzling to ourselves and telling us we’re missing pieces and incomplete? forget it). Even if that org is autism speaks, they don’t get a free pass. ,Especially, if it’s autism speaks. Autism Speaks needs to start Autism Listening, as one autistic person so aptly put it. They’re like the Susan g Komen of autism charities, spending very little on support for autistic people and lots on fundraising for a so-called “finding the cure” (code word for eugenics basically) while not giving a shit to make things better for autistic adults that already exist. They want to concern troll finally that autistic adults exist (after years trying to erase us touting their “tsunami/epidemic of autistic kids reaching adulthood”), and then wonder why there are a lack of services and support for autistic adults. Like, you can’t have it both ways. the infantilization is so prevalent it’s not even funny. Their reason for the blue color in their light bulbs and puzzle pieces is to reflect autism being “more prevalent” in males, but with many female autistics being missed entirely and looked over when it comes to diagnosis, it just unintentionally supports a sexist viewpoint against female autistics as well as touting the flaw of a gender binary. Their whole narrative is very negative and just having one autistic they can hold up as a token doesn’t negate their extensive 12 year history of infantilizing and shouting over autistic adults with doom, gloom, and what I call Autism Bewareness™ (the fear-mongering flavor of “awareness” that the month of April is so well known for). Or trying to steal our work, ,that experience was interesting too. sometimes we aren’t ,just, autistic., A lot of us come with different developmental or even mental conditions bundled into our neurologic makeup. I also have adhd (extremely common co-morbid to autism, according to one source maybe 25% of autistics also have adhd, but who knows). Sometimes I will have issues where both conditions intersect in truly bizarre ways. Like ever being distracted and being overloaded by those same distractions that you can’t just block out, all at the very exact same time? being an adhd autistic will do exactly that! and so much more! It’s like my brain is screaming with distraction to “pay attention to ,ALL, of the things!” while the other half of my brain is wincing at the overload of stimuli as it hits the processing bottleneck while it is going “why the hell did you make me do that?” It’s like I have no filter, all funnel. My executive functioning is pretty much nonexistent too since both conditions have impaired executive functioning attached to them. Dysgraphia doesn’t tend to intersect with autism much (aside from pain from handwriting contributing to overload). The mental conditions I have, other than a family genetic history of having them, were developed secondary. Pretty much my struggles with depression, anxiety, and ptsd are directly rooted in being unsupported, not accepted, and downright traumatized via bullying (the peer variety and the authority variety of bullying both). Mostly, just listen to autistic people., There are a number of autistic-authored books and blogs out there. Books like ,Loud Hands, is a great place to start. Try to seek out places online that center the narrative of autism on autistic people instead of parents or “experts” talking over us (,We Are Like Your Child,, ,Radical Neurodivergence Speaking,, ,Unstrange Mind,, ,Musings of an Aspie,, ,Thinking Persons Guide To Autism,, ,Judy Endow, and ,Amy Sequenzia,’s blogs and so on). This is important. There are some important distinctions to note. Especially when knowing how a lot of people identify. A lot of the community (as with like the deaf community) prefers identity first language (autistic) over person first language (person with autism). I know that’s not what is taught in medical and psyche school, but they never listen to us anyway no matter what. It doesn’t matter if we blog, publish books, write nice letters, or even scream, they never listen to us. Another distinction is a lot of autistic people believe disability in a social model of disability framework (it is society that disables us because it is not set up for us*) instead of the pathology paradigm (which regards us as less than, dehumanized, broken wannabe neurotypicals that failed and need behaviorism to “fix” but actually break us). *if society was set up by autistic people, I can guarantee nothing would be over 60 decibels if we could help it, everything would be soundproofed and there would be no towel racks or paper towel dispensers mounted above a certain height to never have water dripping down your wrists/arms. Among other things but that’s what I can think of right now. Mostly just ask your autistic person what they need and be prepared to listen. That’s mostly what we need. I edited it again but will add anything if I think of it. Let me know if you have any other questions.

Who is the greatest rock guitarist of all time?

The answers so far seem to point to innovative and popular guitar players. But, the question was best rock guitarists. I'm gonna answer with my 5 favorite best rock guitarists and the actual technical best rock guitarists. Many of the best rock guitarists are unsung session musicians and gunslinger-for-hire guitarists most have never heard of before. My Top Five Best Rock Guitarists List By Skill Steve Lukather — Probably the best technical player on the planet past and present. His tone is as chameleon as his chops. He tends to add a level of precision to records that no one else can. Tim Pierce — He's almost as technically perfect as Steve Lukather. He's appeared on many genres of rock albums. His tone is so clean at times, I wonder if he's found a secret no one else has. Jimmy Page — Simply, his sloppy is better than everyone else's perfection. He plays with soul and heart. Each note belongs. Cornell Dupree — He played on Aretha’s Respect. That's all I need to say. Glen Cambell — One of the fastest and most accurate players of all time. An original member of The Wrecking Crew. He was amazing before having a successful solo career. My Top Five Favorite Best Rock Gutarists List Jimi Hendrix — The single most innovative sound in music came from his hands. He blended genres of old into art of the “highest" form. The music he heard in his head was as advanced as the techniques he pioneered and improved to be able to make it. Single most influential rock guitarist of all-time hands down. Jimmy Page — Took Delta Blues to the masses via heavy metal before that was a thing. He was the driving force behind their power. Jon Bonham was the boom that announced their intent, Page was the ferryman. He steered the boat. Brian May — Queen Guitarist. Genuis arrangements. Played just as many or few notes as the song needed. He was not flashy, but could have been. He held down the lead while letting Mercury shine. David Gilmour — Pink Floyd. Nothing else. Just Pink Floyd. He is responsible for that ethereal sound of muted importance. His playing didn't always shine brighter than the lyrics. That's what makes him a great. Restraint is as important as a balls to the wall twenty minute solo. Careful with that axe, Dave. Tom Morello/Jack White — They both are modern day forces of nature. I can't choose my favorite. They're so different, yet they both pushed rock in new directions and influenced a new era of musician. One common theme they share is raw passion for their craft. It shows. They paint a sonic canvass that none have touched in the last 20 years. I'm giving the edge to Tom. He was first. Jack is so much broader of a painter. Tom is Pollock, beautiful noise. Jack is Warhol, Pop Rock reflected into a higher form. My Honorable Mentions List For Best Rock Guitarists Kurt Cobain — Stop shaking your head. He wasn't the most technical, but his timing and minimalistic approach allowed an entire generation to pick up a guitar and learn a song that mattered. Unplugged In New York was a masterpiece. Going solo on Pennyroyal Tea, a two chord song for the most part, he showed us what a sad man with a slightly out of tune guitar could make us feel. Pure power, his voice was as much a part of his guitar playing as his fret hand. Each informing the other in a Beatles meets Leadbelly meets the Ramones mashup of pure emotion and screw all attitude while begging for our approval. It's still haunting 24 plus years later. Roger Miller — He wrote Oo-De-Lally and King Of The Road. Yeah, most have probably never heard these songs. Some have and never listened to the melodies he created. He was such an iconic voice. Listen again, but pay attention to his guitar playing this time. He had a way of playing and countering the melody that was perfect for the song. Cat Stevens — If you're a guitar player, go learn one of his songs. Wild World is popular. It's also melodic and dances along in a subtle, yet dang that was hard to play way. I never appreciated his skill until I learned a few of his songs. Hands down, the hardest to play and sing song I've ever learned is Wild World. There's so much happening in that song with the guitar to create harmony, it's tough to nail for even an advanced player. Eddie Van Halen — Just an innovative and creative guitarist that pushed every boundary a guitar has. He used a drill to play. He used a piano too. Very talented musician in every way. He made his own sound. The brown sound is famous among guitarists. I bought a Peavey 5150 the day it came out for $1150 as a broke high school student. I needed his sound. There was no better tone in all of music than during his heyday. It just sounded so muddy, and clean, like bells made of smooth glass in a blender. A bit too flashy and technical for my tastes. But, his tone alone is legendary. Robert Johnson — His blues licks still make up the backbone of Rock. He was a bluesman. But, there was nothing like his sound. Some say he got it from the Devil, some say he stole it from other lesser known guitarists. One fact is undisputed, he influenced everyone after him. Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page, Jimi Hendrix, and many more owe their careers to him. I personally heard his influenced disciples before I heard him, so it lost the magic they must have felt. But, I get it. I see what they saw. Pure emotion and pain pouring out into licks the Devil wrote himself. Had to, it's still haunting almost a ninety years later. I know my lists echo other's and totally goes left field for an intro. This is merely my opinion. Ten years ago, you'd have gotten different answers I'm sure. I didn't even mention a player from Muscle Shoals or Motown. You'd be surprised to learn how much of the Motown sound was made by three country boys from Alabama. I didn't mention Tommi Iommi or Randy Rhoades. There were so many brilliant guitarists to chose from. I merely went with the parameters of the question. I selected the best rock guitarists based on how their playing makes me feel. Music is so subjective as is all art. This debate could rage for ages. We have a wealth of music to chose from and I'll never complain. Rock on!

How do you write a retro soul song?

On paper, a classic soul song would not look much different from a modern pop song. For this reason Disco was born from Soul. It comes down to arrangement and presentation more than writing. Or rather, you must write with arrangement and presentation in mind. Soul is most importantly a highly expressive style. Almost equally important, it is meant for dancing. This second point leads to a critical feature of the genre: songs are intended for either slow dancing or fast dancing, and the arrangement changes heavily based on this purpose. So as a result, we find pronounced differences between upbeat and downbeat songs. Generally the more powerful the emotional content, the slower the tempo. Sometimes the tempo is slowed so much it demands we stop dancing and listen. Bill Withers does this on Ain’t No Sunshine. So while it is acceptable to write a soul song not intended for dancing, it is unacceptable to deliver anything less that 110% in the presentation, particularly when it comes to the vocal. Arrangement There may have been attempts to create instrumental soul music, but in general, the center of your song will be the lead vocal. Every other element exists to reinforce the vocal, both in musical-space and in time. These are the elements: Beat,: the pulse of the song; the necessary element for dancing; usually the drums ,Rhythm,: everything that reinforces the beat, including bass guitar, rhythm guitar and keyboard, percussion, even some backing vocals ,Pad,: fills in the empty space with sustained sound. Traditionally this was done by strings, but in modern times keyboards are more common. Organ is perhaps the most popular soul pad, but many different synthesizers are also used. If you are going for retro, strings will certainly give you that feel. ,Lead,: This is your vocal, but at times the singer might pull back and let an instrument take the lead, which I will discuss later. We do not want multiple simultaneous lead lines unless they are harmonizing tightly with each other. ,Fill,: Because lead lines are phrased, they often come to an end before the end of the musical measure, and sometimes leave bars of silence afterward for dramatic effect. The fill follows the end of the lead phrase as a sort of call-and-response that joins the end of the line to the beginning of the next. Fills may be purely melodic, commonly played on horns when available (but any instrument may fill), or purely rhythmic as with the all-popular drum fill. In soul, usually the whole band does the fill together, without the lead singer. Tempo We tend to think of soul music as moderate, retaining enough bounce to keep people dancing while holding back in time enough for long expressive phrasing. Too slow a feel and the lines blur with the blues. Too fast and it might become disco. 100 bpm is a good starting point. For reference, When a Man Loves a Woman by Percy Sledge is 98 bpm. Above 100, we have upbeat songs such as Respect by Aretha Franklin (114 bpm) all the way up to extremes like I Got You by James Brown (140 bpm). A common technique for downbeat is to give the song a half-time feel. For example, Procul Harem’s Whiter Shade of Pale clocks in at 116 bpm, but feels like 58 giving it slowdance potential despite being faster than Respect. In Ain’t No Sunshine, Withers makes the already slow 80 bpm feel like 40. It is a common trick to break down an upbeat song in the bridge to half-time in order to give space for the singer to be particularly emotive. Beat Soul music is Gospel at its heart, but simplified, with a controlled rhythm intended to inspire casual dancing. The point is to keep everyone stepping and clapping. But where gospel drummers love to break down the beat in bouts of frenzied virtuosity (just as church goers are known to convulse in religious ecstacy), soul drummers tend to lock into the rhythm section rather than leading it out front. So fills are minimal and kept tight with the band, and simple rhythms with a strong backbeat are the rule. Exceptions usually follow ideosyncracies in the vocal line, or may be engineered in order to give the song a rhythmic hook. Disco is characterized by four-on-the-floor kick pattern and hihat on the upbeat. Motown beats often ride the snare with quarter notes. Good music-creation programs come with beat libraries that can be sorted by genre. I suggest listening for differences in beats between funk, soul, neo-soul, R&B, blues to understand the subtleties of genre. It all comes down to how you intend to make the people dance. Bass Inspired basslines define soul music, drawing heavy influence from jazz. Slow soul basslines usually use whole note walking patterns, more often descending than ascending, and are not afraid to land on harmony notes to create tension and release in the chord progression. Fast soul basslines are more varied, usually building patterns that run between the root notes of chord changes. The most iconic basslines find melodic ways to link chord changes. Soul being dance music at its heart, the minimum responsibility of the bass is to lock in with the kick drum to create the pulse of the song, and bridge the beat to the rhythm of the band by also locking in with the fills. Jermaine Jackson’s legendary riff on I Want You Back brings all these concepts together. Guitar Guitar solos are rare in Soul but not unheard of. More often organ or synth will handle lead lines as their tones are softer and more pleasant. When presence is desired, a horn section blows any guitar away. So perhaps the electric guitar is too middle-of-the-road to be a primary lead instrument in a style that is characterized by strong polarity between slow/soft and fast/loud. For slow soul, a nylon string guitar is within the aesthetic to provide lead. Otherwise, guitar is part of the rhythm section. Electric guitar in upbeat songs borrows from funk and in downbeat songs borrows from the blues. Acoustic guitar is used in upbeat songs to enhance the hihat with the percussive sound of strumming. In downbeat songs it can be used as the main rhythm instrument or to provide colour with fill lines. Otis Redding successfully used it as the main rhythm instrument in an upbeat song, Dock of the Bay. That precedent opens many doors of possibility, but also blurs the lines between soul and folk. Keys Choice of keyboard gives us a great range of sonic textures to choose from that do much to define the feel and even sub-genre of the song. Soul can be successfully attained with just a piano and a voice, as Paul McCartney is able to do at the outset of Let It Be. Many great retro soul songs have piano as the main rhythm instrument. We are almost as likely to hear the warm percussive sounds of a Fender Rhodes or a Wurlitzer. Equally important is the Hammond B3 Organ with swirrling Leslie speaker cabinet, another key element from soul’s gospel heritage. The Hammond is perhaps the most common pad instrument, holding long lush tones through the verses that add a layer of depth and feeling upon which the vocals can sit. Finally we have the 70’s synthesizers that helped transform soul into disco. There are many models used for many purposes. This is a deep topic that you can research easily on Google. My favorite is the detuned warble of the Prophet-V, often used in short bursts to the same effect as a horn section. You can clearly hear it in The Whisper’s And The Beat Goes On, or Michael Jackson’s P.Y.T. It is also common to use a synth for the bassline. The Minimoog among others is popular. If you want a retro feel, however, better keep your choice of keyboard to pre-70’s technology. Horns Horn sections add next-level excitement to music, and Soul being a genre of apex expression, the horn section is one of the most powerful tools at your disposal. When deciding to write in a horn section, if you intend to ever play live, remember that this involves coordinating and paying three or more extra musicians just to add one non-essential sound. But though soul music does not require horns, used effectively, they may elevate your song to supreme heights. Horns are used mainly as fill elements, occasionally as lead elements, and to great effect as pad elements. They fill in the mix with warm midrange and airy upper frequencies that are commonly lacking, and add a fullness that cannot be attained in any other way. This can be exaggerated by writing in harmonies between the different horn pieces. Percussion Almost as important as the drummer is the percussionist who adds depth and movement to the beat with subtle polyrhythms. Congas and bongos commonly accompany the drums, as do shakers or maracas. Chimes add a touch of magic to a slowdance song. Handclaps hit upon the very heart of what Soul is about: engaging the audience on a visceral level. The possibilities are limitless and can be overwhelming. This is the one aspect of the writing process that warrants outside help. If you do not have a vast knowledge of world rhythms, I would recommend bringing in a schooled percussion player to help design the subtle rhythmic movement of the song. Often this is the piece of magic that puts a unique fingerprint on your song. Watch Goddard’s Sympathy for the Devil. The Stones struggle to find an arrangement until finally they bring in that conga player and instantly the whole thing falls into place. The Stones may not be a soul band, but that is a soul song they wrote. In the movie, you see the exact moment it is transformed into soul, with the addition of the congas, or perhaps more accurately, by bringing in a musician who was not a pasty white Brit. Vocals You will be singing about love. What else is there in our soul but love? Sometimes it is love lost. Sometimes it is love found. Sometimes it is love for the Earth. Sometimes it is love for ourself. Sometimes it is love of dancing. The point is you must sing with passion, and we are passionate about what we love. Your biggest choice again comes down to upbeat or downbeat. Downbeat lyrics are either negative, such as lost love, personal woes, or existential crises; or positive, suggesting relaxation, flow and bliss, often describing love-making or painting a chill vibe. Upbeat lyrics are usually libidinal, about dancing, about mingling, about celebrating, about appreciating, about sex. Really it comes down to you and what you have in your heart that needs to come out. Writing style is confessional and tends toward the language of speech rather than poetry. It is down to Earth and aims to connect with the listener. Back vocals are a must. They range from subtle oohs and aahs to rhythmic doo-wops and she-bops all the way to a whole line of lead singers all in the same suits, harmonizing with each other (and from where was birthed the Boy Band). It is usually still made clear who the lead singer is, as he is the one tasked with personally connecting with the audience. There is much power in the focus on an individual, the highlighting of the egoic self within us all, that gets lost in a democracy between singers. What works in casual Barbershop or retro R&B is less effective in deeply emotional Soul, imho. Finally we come to the lead vocal performance. You’ve got to testify. If you hold anything back, it is no longer Soul. People are looking for that ,catharsis,. They want you to get down on your knees for their sins. Nowhere is the gospel heart of soul so present as with the lead singer, who is none other than a preacher reaching out to the congregation. If you keep this in mind, you will write a potentially great soul song. To take it from paper and give it life, however, requires a lot of passion. It takes great heart to make Soul.

How do we design a rocket nozzle?

There is an excellent true story about a group of boys in Coalwood, a no-hope, dying mining town in West Virginia who form a “rocket club” and named it the Big Creek Missile Agency and start building rockets, and eventually win the first prize at the State Science fair. Rocket Boys, is much more than the story of six boys who wanted to build a better rocket. It’s the story of a young man looking for more from his life than what his dying community will be able to provide. “Rocket Boys, while a true story, reads like a well-written novel. It deals with a wide range of issues, including the bittersweet experience of coming of age. It also provides an intimate look at a dying town where people still allowed kids to dream and helped them make those dreams become reality.” —Rocky Mountain News We decided to test two of our best mixtures inside devices we hoped resembled rockets. There was some one-inch-wide aluminum tubing under the back porch that Dad had brought home from the mine to make a stand for Mom’s bird feeders. I appropriated it with a clear conscience since it looked as if he were never going to get around to it. I hacksawed off two one-foot lengths. Quentin called the lengths our “casements.” We hammered in a short length of broom handle at one open end and then poured in our powder mixes, crimping the other end with pliers to form a constriction the Life magazine diagram called the rocket “nozzle.” The result was obviously crude, but it was for testing purposes only. We attached triangular cardboard fins with model-airplane glue. We knew the fins would probably burn off, but they would at least give our rockets something to sit on. “We need to see how the powder acts under pressure,” Quentin said. “Whatever the result, we’ll have a basis for modification.” …………………………………. Instinctively, we knew that the nozzle (the opening at the rocket’s bottom), like the neck in the balloon, needed to be smaller than the casement. But how much smaller, and how the nozzle worked, and how to build one, we had no idea. All we could do was guess. “How about we weld a washer or something at the bottom of the casement to be our nozzle?” I proposed to Quentin at lunch one day. Quentin pondered that while chewing on the cookies Mom had sent him in my lunch bag. “Yes. I think that might work. But who would do the welding?” I knew of three welders in Coalwood. There was, a machinist-welder who worked alone up at the tipple shop during the hoot-owl shift. His name was Mr. Isaac Bykovski. Mr. Bykovski’s daughter, Esther, had been in my class until she was diagnosed with cerebral palsy and had to go away to a special school. My mom said Mr. and Mrs. Bykovski were always asking about me, how I was doing in school and so on. I told Mr. Bykovski I was building a rocket and needed a washer or something welded to the bottom of a tube. “And you want me to do it?” he asked. “Will you?” I held my breath. “I have some aluminum tubing I could use. But welding on a washer—that is difficult. Soldering it would be easier.” “That would be fine,” I said. As long as my washer was well attached, soldering sounded good to me, although I wasn’t exactly certain what soldering was. He looked at me sharply. “I am not supposed to do work in this shop unless your father tells me to. Does he know you are up here?” I shook my head. “No, sir.” I had kind of an instinct about Mr. Bykovski. It was best to tell the absolute truth with him, no shading. “He’s against me building rockets, but Mom thinks it’s okay. I need help, Mr. Bykovski. You’re my only hope.” He considered me for a moment, his face grim. I know I must have looked pitiful, because that’s the way I felt. “Do you know how to solder?” he said at length. “No, sir.” “Then I will teach you. Your dad should not have a problem with that. Come on. You can work while I work. How long should your tube be?” He then gave me a quick lesson in soldering. It seemed simple enough. It proved harder than it looked. I gobbed on the melted liquid, but I made a mess of it, the solder dripping down the tubing and the washer not on straight. After an hour, Mr. Bykovski came over to see how I was doing. “It is not bad for your first time,” he lied. “I will finish it up for you during my break. Come back tomorrow night and I will have it ready.” The next night I again went up my secret path and found my rocket waiting for me in a cardboard box outside the gate. The solder was a perfect circle around a perfectly aligned washer at the base, and he had also soldered a metal cap to the top of the tube and glued on a wooden bullet-shaped nose cone. It was the most beautiful rocket I’d ever seen. I used electrical tape to attach cardboard fins to the casement and then borrowed Mom’s fingernail polish to paint a name on the side. I named it ,Auk I,, after the great auk, an extinct bird that couldn’t fly. I loaded Auk I with the black-powder/postage-stamp-glue slurry mix, inserted a pencil through the nozzle, and then left the rocket to dry under the hot-water heater. The pencil was to form a hole in the powder, increasing its surface area, according to Quentin’s idea. Sherman led us up Water Tank Mountain to the old slack dump. We were at least two hundred yards above the mine. I could just make out the top of the tipple above a stand of trees. O’Dell sat the rocket on its base and then used a rock to hold it steady. We all found hiding places behind big boulders around the clearing. O’Dell took a match from Roy Lee. “A rocket won’t fly unless somebody lights the fuse!” he declared. Sherman settled in behind a rock. O’Dell lit the fuse and ran and fell down beside me. We grinned at one another. The fuse sizzled up inside, and ,Auk I, leapt into the air in a shower of sparks. Six feet off the slack, it made a poot sound and then fell back in a cloud of gray smoke and landed heavily, breaking off its nose cone. There it lay until the powder quit burning. Quentin got to it first, getting down on his hands and knees and peering at the rocket’s base. “The solder melted,” he announced, wrinkling his nose at the sulfurous stench. “It was flying, but the solder melted.” When it cooled, I picked up the aluminum tube. It stunk, but it had flown. It had gotten only six feet off the ground., But it had flown! …………………………. Quentin read each procedure aloud from Miss Riley’s book, his bony finger running along from equation to equation. The book described the phenomenon that dictated rocket-nozzle design, and Quentin and I talked about it until we were certain we understood it. When rocket propellant burned, it first produced a river of gas that flowed into the convergent section of the nozzle. If the river continued through the throat at less than sonic speed—that is to say, less than the speed of sound—it became compacted in the divergent section, bound in turmoil, and inefficient. But if the gas river reached the speed of sound at the throat (“The key to nozzle design, Sonny!”), then the gas flow in the divergent section would go supersonic, a very good thing. The series of equations we needed to work described the parameters of thrust coefficient, nozzle-throat area, combustion-chamber cross-sectional areas, and velocity of the gases predicted for any particular propellant. The book also called for us to make decisions we’d never made before: How high and fast was our rocket to go, and how heavy was our payload going to be? We understood that the questions were related. ……………………. ON Sunday night, I once more went under the fence to see Mr. Bykovski, carrying Auk I with me. He examined it. “Rockets get too hot for solder, looks like. It’s going to take a weld after all.” He pushed his helmet back on his head, a cogitative move. “It is a hard thing to weld aluminum. Steel would be better.” He went over to his racks of materials, selected a steel tube, and cut off fourteen inches of it with a hacksaw. He handed it to me and I hefted it. “Feels heavy,” I said dubiously. “Yes, but steel is strong, Sonny,” he said. “An aluminum tube, to be as strong, requires a very thick wall. With steel, the wall of the tube can be thinner. I recommend it to you. I have been thinking, also, about the washer. That is not a good metal. I think we must cut off a thin piece of steel-bar stock, drill a hole in it, and weld it to the base. This next one will fly, I think. I will have it ready by this Wednesday.” I decided to push my luck. “Mr. Bykovski, could you make me two?” He made me three. On the following Saturday, ,Auks II, III,, and ,IV, were ready, built exactly as he had described. Once more we went up to the clearing behind the mine. “A rocket won’t fly unless somebody lights the fuse!” O’Dell said, explaining since he’d said it when our first rocket flew, he thought maybe it was a good-luck thing to keep saying it. Flames burst from ,Auk II,. It sat for a moment, spewing smoke and sparks and rocking on its fins. Then it jumped ten feet into the air, turned and zipped into the woods behind us, ricocheted off an oak tree, rebounded back to the slack, twisted around once, twanged into the boulder Quentin and I were hiding behind, jerked twenty feet into the air, coughed once, and dropped like a dead bird. O’Dell ran to ,Auk II, and began a wild little dance over it. “It flew! It flew!” he sang. Our rocket had flown! We ached to see what the next one would do. This time, Roy Lee lit the fuse and tripped, cursing. He barely made it to a boulder before the rocket blasted off, twirled around once, twanged off a maple tree, bounced off the ground near us, and then thudded into the side of the mountain above us, nearly burying itself into the dirt. While the rest of us joined O’Dell in another celebratory dance, Quentin dug out ,Auk III,. “I’m telling you we’d better not launch again until we figure out how to make these things go straight,” he said. Roy Lee gleefully set ,Auk IV, up. “We came up here to fly these rockets, and that’s what we’re going to do.” Without further ado, he lit the fuse. Caught unawares, the rest of us had to scramble to get behind our rocks before the fuse reached the powder. With a whoosh, Auk IV climbed smoothly into the air and headed down the mountain. I raised a cheer that turned into a strangled yelp when I realized the rocket was heading for the mine. …………………………………… AT THE OTHER cape, the one in Florida, business was booming. The Air Force was launching ballistic missiles every week. Most of them blew up, spectacularly, but a few wobbled downrange. On February 5, 1958, the hapless Vanguard team tried again for orbit and failed, although this time their rocket managed to at least clear the gantry before it blew up. On March 17, they gave it another shot, and this time orbited a 3.24-pound satellite nicknamed Grapefruit. Dr. von Braun launched another thirty-one-poundExplorer into orbit on March 26. It seemed the United States was on the move. Then, in May, the Soviet Union orbited Sputnik III, weighing in at a whopping 2,925 pounds. Dr. von Braun wasn’t giving up, not by a long shot. According to a newspaper report, he was building a huge monster rocket called the Saturn. In the spring of 1958, Congress and the Eisenhower Administration set up the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in an attempt to put some order into the space program. I read where Dr. von Braun said he might leave the Army and join NASA. If he did, I knew the new agency was my ultimate goal as well. ………………………………………. “This is a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar,” Miss Riley said. “What we’re going to see now is a demonstration of rapid oxidation. Quentin, tell us the difference between slow and rapid oxidation.” Of course, Quentin knew our homework cold. “When oxygen combines with an element over an extended period of time, the result is slow oxidation, rust being a good example of it,” he said confidently. “But when oxygen combines with something rapidly, energy is released in the form of light and heat.” “Thank you, Quentin. This mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar will demonstrate rapid oxidation.” Miss Riley struck a match and dropped it onto the little pyramid of powder. Instantly, a hot greenish flame erupted with a loud hiss. The BCMA looked at one another. We didn’t have to say what we were all thinking. ,Rocket fuel. After class, I went up to Miss Riley’s desk and pointed at the little sack of potassium chlorate. “Can I have what was left over?” I asked. I told her about the BCMA, just in case she hadn’t heard about it. “We’ve built a range—Cape Coalwood—and we’re starting to get some altitude. But we need a better fuel.” “Have you thought any more about entering the science fair? I’m still in charge of the committee.” “I don’t think we’re ready,” I said honestly. “We’re still trying to figure things out. It would help if we had a book.” “A book.” She cocked her head, thinking. “No. I can’t say I’ve ever seen a book on how to build a rocket. I’ll look around though.” “Would you? That would be great. In the meantime …” I pointed at the sack. She shook her head. “Sorry, it’s all I’ve got. Anyway, potassium chlorate is unstable under heat and pressure. It’s too dangerous for rocket fuel. What do your parents think about the BCMA?” “My mother said just don’t blow myself up.” She laughed and then seemed to ponder me as if I were some sort of puzzle. “Why do you build rockets?” She was easy to talk to, almost like a friend. “I guess I just want to be a part of it—going into space,” I told her. “Every time they launch something down at Cape Canaveral, it’s like … I just want to help out somehow. But I can’t. If I build my own rockets—” I stopped, not certain I was making sense. She helped out. “If you build your own, you’re part of it. I can see that. Do you understand?” She kept smiling at me, and I felt at that moment like I was the most important person to her in the world. “Let me give you some advice,” she said. “Don’t blow yourself up. I think I want to keep you in my class. Okay?” “Okay! I mean, yes, ma’am.” Quentin was waiting for me in the hall. “What did she say?” he asked. “She won’t let us have the potassium chlorate. She said it was too dangerous.” He clapped me on the shoulder. “That’s okay. Potassium nitrate has much the same property and exactly the same number of oxygen atoms as potassium chlorate. Mix saltpeter and sugar and we should get the same reaction we just saw.” Quentin put down his briefcase and hauled out his chemistry text. He found the equation. “Potassium nitrate. ,KNO_3,. The same as potassium chlorate except it has a potassium atom instead of a chlorine one.” He put a piece of paper against a locker and scribbled down the formula. “I think if we mix it with sugar and add heat we’ll get three parts oxygen and two parts carbon dioxide along with some other byproducts. In other words, lots of good expanding gases. It should be an excellent propellant.” Quentin looked to be right. “I’ll test it tonight,” I promised. Back home, I headed for the basement after a brief raid on Mom’s kitchen cupboard. I took a tablespoon of sugar and the same of saltpeter, stirred them in a coffee cup with a wooden spoon, opened the door to our coal-fired hot-water heater, and tossed it in. I was gratified by the eruption of hot flame, just like Miss Riley’s experiment, except mine was pink rather than green. The sound and intensity and time of the burn seemed to exceed the best of my black-powder combinations. I whipped up some more mixtures, experimenting with the percentages. Suddenly our chimney erupted with smoke and sparks like a small volcano. Both Mom and Mrs. Sharitzcame running down the basement steps just as I threw in another cup of mixture. I showed both of them what I was doing, how I mixed the propellant, how I stood back when I threw a little of it in the heater. I demonstrated, and Mrs. Shartiz whooped excitedly at the flash of pink sparks. “How pretty!” The following Saturday the BCMA gathered and went down to the Cape for a test. This launch wasn’t advertised, because we had no idea how our new propellant of saltpeter and sugar would work. Auk IX took off with a satisfying hiss, but it quickly died and fell with a plop not more than a hundred feet from the pad. We recovered it and carried it back to the blockhouse to consider it. When I tapped it, a little debris fell out. Most of the propellant had burned. Sherman sniffed at it. “It smells like candy,” he said. “Rocket candy!” O’Dell chimed, and so coined our new term for the propellant. “It seems to produce an ample exhaust, but it burns too rapidly,” Quentin said. “A loose mix in the casement may not be adequate. What we need to do is somehow pack more of it inside.” “I can try wetting it with the postage-stamp glue in the next batch,” I proposed. “Sugar’s awfully soluble,” Quentin said, biting his thin lip. “It may retain the moisture for a very long time. You may try it, Sonny, but the proof will be here on the range, of course.” “Of course,” I said back, pleased that our discussion sounded so scientific and professional. ……………… This was also our first launch with an electrical-ignition system. I touched a wire to a car battery (an old one O’Dell got for free from a War junkyard), andAuk XII shot off the pad and leaned down-range. Quentin ran outside the bunker and fumbled with a new invention he called a “theodolite.” Auk XII’,s exhaust trail was still a fast stream when the rocket faltered and began to fall. It continued to smoke vigorously even after it struck the slack. While our audience cheered, we ran after our rocket and watched the last of its sputtering rocket candy burn up. I immediately saw the reason our rocket had lost its thrust. “The nozzle’s gone,” I told the others. “It must have blown out.” We looked closer. The weld was intact. The center of the nozzle was simply eaten away. Quentin came stepping up to us. “Three hundred and forty-eight,” he said, finishing his count by bringing both his feet together at the final step. “I’m figuring about two point seven-five feet per step. That would be”—he made a quick mental calculation—“nine hundred and fifty-seven feet.” Jake’s trig book was under his arm. He ran his finger down the functions in the back. “Let’s see, the tangent of forty degrees is about point eight-four. Call it point eight. Multiply that by nine hundred and sixty …” We waited anxiously while Quentin worked it out in his head. It didn’t take long. “Seven hundred and sixty feet!” Auk XIII, jumped from the pad in a similar blurred frenzy to its predecessor. Rocket candy was definitely hot stuff. The rocket leaned over, puffed a big cloud of smoke, and sped off into the sky. When it fell back, it disappeared into a dense thicket of trees. We heard it hit branches as it fell, a big oak tree waving its golden leaves at us as if signaling, Come and get it. Rocket over here. O’Dell knocked over Quentin’s theodolite in his excitement, so we didn’t get an altitude estimate, but it was obvious it hadn’t gone as high as Auk XII. When we found the rocket, the nozzle was completely worn through. “Maybe it just can’t take the heat,” Billy said. I studied the nozzle. “You know what? It looks to me like it’s corroded,” I said. “Rapid oxidation!” Quentin said, snapping his fingers. “Sonny, my boy, how quick you are! Of course! I should have seen it myself! Just like in Miss Riley’s class. Heat combined with a steady flow of excessive oxygen—it makes sense. What we need, gentlemen, is a material capable of withstanding heat and oxidation.” …………………………….. “And how are your rockets doing these days?” Mr. Bykovsky, the mine machinist, asked. I was ready. “We got one up to nearly eight hundred feet. Next time, we’ll bust a thousand, I know it!” “That is very good! And your machine-shop work? Have you been practicing?” “A little. But I think we need some more lessons.” I explained that Quentin and I believed we had a solution to the, erosion in our nozzles,, but it would require machine work beyond our capabilities. “I will speak to Leon Ferro,” he said. “He could turn out such work in short order.” “Would you really talk to him? I wouldn’t want to get you in any more trouble.” Mr. Bykovski shrugged my concern away. “Leon will want to trade. Will you be prepared?” “Better than I was the last time,” I said. THE next week, Quentin caught the school bus to Coalwood and we went to the big machine shop. Mr. Ferro waved us into his office. “Yeah, Ike told me you were coming,” he said, rearing back and putting his boots up on his desk. “Let’s hear what you’re after.” What we were after, I said, was some kind of steel for our nozzles that could withstand heat, pressure, and oxidation. “The steel we’ve been using burns up.” “Sounds like it also needs to be thicker,” Mr. Ferro said. He had taken a pencil and, for no apparent reason, was balancing it on his upper lip. He rocked his head, working to keep the pencil from slipping off. “Yessir,” I said, mesmerized by his trick. “We think at least an inch thick. We need a hole drilled through its center too.” “SAE 1020 bar stock ought to do you fine,” Mr. Ferro said, taking the pencil and tapping it against his temple before sticking it behind his ear. He looked up at the ceiling. “It has a high melting point and good tensile strength too. Expensive stuff though. Take some time to drill and shape. C’mon.” Quentin and I followed him through the shop, his machinists busy at their drill presses and milling machines and lathes. When we caught their eye, they stopped long enough to grin and wave at us. “Rocket boys,” they mouthed to one another over the drone of their machines. Mr. Ferro stopped at a workbench and picked up a tap and threading tool. “I’d recommend inserting machine screws around the diameter of your thing to hold it in place. What did you call it?” “A nozzle.” “We need a mechanism for sealing off the upper aperture too,” Quentin said. Mr. Ferro looked at me. “We need a top plug,” I translated. He nodded and took the pencil from behind his ear and pulled out a sheet of paper from the bench. Some of his men wandered over, peering over our shoulders. They were all grinning. “we gonna get into rocket-building, boss?” Mr. Ferro handed me the pencil. “Draw me what you need.” I drew parallel lines to represent the casement and then showed the plug at the top and the nozzle at the bottom with a hole—about a third of the diameter—drilled through it. Mr. Ferro perused my effort. “Sonny, if you want work done in this shop, you’re going to have to give me an engineering drawing. I’ll need not only this side view, but also a top view and a detail on the plug and the nozzle. Think you can do that if I give you an example to follow?” “Yessir, I can,” I said. At the machine shop, Mr. Ferro presented us the finished product of our newest design, Auk XIV. Quentin hefted it while the machinists who built it circled around. “I fear the ratio of the mass of propellant added compared to the mass of the empty rocket will be too small,” he said. “I have deduced that there is a relationship between these two masses that must be within certain parameters.” “He says it’s too heavy,” I told the machinists. I took the rocket from Quentin. It was heavy, and there wasn’t much room for the propellant after the nozzle and top plug were bolted in place. The fins and nose cone would add more to the weight. I doubted even rocket candy could get this dense little rocket off the ground. “What needs to be done is to increase the volume of the cylinder with only a small amount of additional mass,” Quentin stated. “It needs to be longer,” I translated again. A machinist—Clinton Caton was his name—raised his hand. “I’ll do it, boss,” he said. Mr. Ferro nodded agreement. “It’s all yours, Clinton.” Mr. Caton, as it turned out, was a man of vision. Without any advice from me, he lengthened the rocket to two and a half feet, a monster. To fill it took a pot and a half of rocket candy. While the candy was still soft, I pushed a glass rod into it—borrowed from Miss Riley’s lab supplies—forming a spindle hole. The following weekend, our rocket rocked in the stiff, frigid wind that swept over Cape Coalwood, enough so I was afraid it might be blown over. Sherman and Billy dragged out a six-foot steel rod O’Dell had found discarded behind the machine shop and jammed it into the slack beside the pad. We used a wrap of wire to make a loop at the top and bottom of the rocket and then slid it down the rod. Mr. Ferro’s machinists crowded around, braving the bitter wind. After we got Jake, Mr. Dubonnet, and the machinists safe in the blockhouse or hiding behind their cars, Auk XIV erupted from the pad, spinning once around the rod before hurtling into the sky. Quentin threw himself out of the blockhouse with his theodolite and started tracking. Sherman limped outside, scribbling notes on the flight. It angled slightly over in the direction of what we called Rocket Mountain and kept climbing. It was our best rocket yet. When it was just a dot against the blue sky, it stopped and came hurtling down, disappearing behind the highest ridge on Rocket Mountain. We took off, scrambling up through the woods. Billy was in the lead. He was not only a good runner, but had a great nose for burnt rocket candy. A whole hour later, tired, our knees bloody from battering them against the rocks we had to climb, we found Auk XIV. It had landed nose-first full bore against the only rock outcropping within a hundred yards. Its casement was bent and its nose cone turned to sawdust. At least the nozzle was intact. There was erosion and pitting within, but it had held up. Quentin finally gasped up beside us; even Sherman could move faster through the woods than he could. He paused, his hands on his knees, trying to get his breath. Then he thumbed through Jake’s trigonometry book. “Three thousand feet,” he concluded. Three thousand feet! “I think we’d better give those boys a call down at Cape Canaveral,” Roy Lee said. “We could teach them a thing or two.” As ,Michael, says, there is no avoiding some fluid mechanics while designing your nozzle, which is called a ,De-Laval nozzle ,in engineering terms. It’s designed to convert slow-moving, high-pressure gases into a stream of low-pressure, high-velocity gases. If the gases reach sonic velocity at the throat, they will go supersonic in the diverging part of the nozzle, producing maximum thrust. https://www.amazon.com/Rocket-Boys-Coalwood-Homer-Hickam/dp/0849663245/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1511848225&sr=1-2&keywords=rocket+boys Converging Diverging Nozzle 10. 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3,……..We have Ignition!

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