Tag

predictive pedestrian protection vw Related Articles

Every VW Golf R and European hot hatch can trace their roots to this mad 2001 VW Beetle

See, talk about VW and you’ll most probably think of sedans (swoopy or otherwise) and maybe some

Special promos for VW cars this weekend, up to RM 4,000 in rebates

The event will also be run on all VW dealerships social media too.Passat Elegance pictured.Offers during

Swipe right on VW Malaysia’s new VDay social media contest!

playing cupid with their “Score a Fling” social media campaign.From now until 29th February, VW

RM 32K for a used VW Jetta, bargain in waiting?

Why buy a brand new Perodua Myvi when you can get a used VW Jetta for around the same money, or less?

VW says no more new combustion engines, EVs only from now

, the strategy targets a market share of more than 50% for full-electric vehicles by 2030.Under the VW

CKD 2021 Mk8 VW Golf GTI for Malaysia - can it still make it for SST-exempted price?

For 7 generations, the VW Golf GTI has been the de-facto hot hatch.

Perlis JPJ Deputy Director arrested for lorry protection syndicate involvement

Perlis state Road Transport Department (JPJ) on Saturday on suspicion of his involvement with a lorry protection

Review: 2020 VW Tiguan Allspace Highline 1.4 - No ADAS but has 7 seats, a better CR-V?

The follows are our VW Tiguan Allspace review.2020 VW Tiguan Allspace Price2020 VW Tiguan Allspace is

Get better protection with Honda's enhanced insurance package

First introduced in 2002, the HiP functions to provide comprehensive protection and coverage to all Honda

The VW ID.4 GTX is the electric, AWD Golf GTI you've been waiting for

Meet the latest all-wheel-drive, electric VW Golf GTI you never thought you wanted. Sorry, wait no.

View More

Spied: VW Golf GTI Mk8 seen in Putrajaya, to be CKD

Remember the VW Golf GTI Mk8 spyshot we ran a month ago?

New Mercedes-Benz C200 Coupe AMG Line with new engine, 204 PS and 300 Nm

Mercedes–Benz emergency call system (E-call), remote vehicle diagnostics, pre-entry climate control, predictive

Ratings: 2020 VW Tiguan Allspace Highline 1.4 – Practical but costly maintenance, RM 3,848 to service?

of 7 seats, competing against the likes of the Honda CR-V and Mazda CX-5.Trade in Users Car Form2020 VW

VW e-Beetle trademarked, iconic model to return as an EV?

Along with the e-Beetle, VW has also reserved e-Samba along with e-Karmann and the e-Kubel.

After VW Golf and Polo, the next GTI in line might be the Tiguan

TiguanVolkswagen Tiguan has been the automakers best-selling model in their line up, and it looks like VW

Starting at RM 390k, Mk8 VW Golf launched in Singapore

Image creditThe eighth-generation of Volkswagens iconic hatchback, the Mk8 VW Golf, makes its official

32 JPJ officers arrested as MACC busts syndicate offering protection for lorry drivers

A syndicate offering protection to errant lorry drivers was busted by the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission

In Brief: VW Vento – Still worth comparing against the Toyota Vios and Honda City?

(2020 VW Vento Price and Specs | Gallery)The Volkswagen Vento is a B-segment sedan that competes against

New 2021 VW Tiguan Allspace facelift debuts - Now with semi-autonomous driving, MIB3

encapsulating these features: Forward Collision Warning (FCW) Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB, with Pedestrian

ASEAN NCAP to assess AEB systems starting Jan 2021, motorcyclist safety included

However, a tougher test in the JNCAP test is Nearside with Obstruction (CPNO) scenario – where a pedestrian

All-new 2020 Honda City gets 5-star ASEAN NCAP – maximum points for side impact protection

available in Thailand.The all-new Honda City scored 32.38 out of the maximum 36 points for adult occupant protection

Facelifted Mk6 VW Polo GTI teased! "Once a GTI, always a GTI."

Hot on the heels of the Mk8 Golf GTI, comes its mini-me, the facelifted Mk6 VW Polo GTI (or, the Mk6.5

The VW Polo started life as an Audi? Say what?

cars.Though it is not stated in any of Volkswagen’s or Audi’s history books, but the decision for VW

Poor JNCAP scores for Daihatsu Rocky/Toyota Raize’s AEB’s pedestrian detection

its identical twin brother the Toyota Raize have been given a maximum 5-star rating for crash safety protection

2021 VW ID.4 pushes Tesla aside to be Europe's best-selling EV

Coming in second place is the VW ID.3 hatchback (5,735 units sold), while the Renault Zoe caps the podium

Spied: 2021 VW Arteon spotted in Pahang - to launch alongside Golf GTI Mk8?

theres a high chance that will remain unchanged with this facelift.Malaysians received the pre-facelift VW

Safer than a Volvo: 2020 Mazda CX-30 smashes Euro NCAP’s record for adult occupant protection

The 2020 Mazda CX-30 has just recorded an almost perfect 99 percent score for Adult Occupant Protection

New vs Old: 2021 VW Tiguan, more than meets the eye?

The second-generation VW Tiguan is a popular SUV here in Malaysia.

Subaru warranty nearly expired? Here's an auto protection for you!

to ensure a higher resale value of their vehicles, TC Subaru Sdn Bhd has announced the Subaru Auto Protection

VW and Bentley say COVID-19 will boost electric cars, VW to invest €33B

resulting from the coronavirus pandemic will accelerate the move to electrification.Christian Dahlheim, VW

predictive pedestrian protection vw Related Car Videos

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw -predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-New 2022 Skoda Fabia Made Its World Debut With Tech Boost | Design & Interior

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-les Passage Piéton C'est Pour Les Audi

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw -predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-Eliassi-Rad T. - Just Machine In Unjust World? - Physics Of Data

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-Headlight | Wikipedia Audio Article

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-Self-driving Car | Wikipedia Audio Article

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-Best Car 2017 - SEAT Ibiza - Best First Cars For New Drivers 2017-2018 [pictures] Phi Hoang Channel.

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-Laser Lamp | Wikipedia Audio Article

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw -predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-NEW Skoda Octavia Combi Full Review 2020 2.0 TDI 110 KW (159 Hp) Test Drive Price Estate English

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-Changing Lanes: The Transformation Of The Automotive Industry As An International Project

  • Predictive Pedestrian Protection Vw-Autonomous Car | Wikipedia Audio Article

predictive pedestrian protection vw Q&A Review

What are some things electric vehicle owners in the U.S. should know?

Ok, here are some tips and tricks for someone contemplating the jump to electric power. Just stuff I have managed to pick up over the 4 years we have had no use for gasoline. Yea, it’s long, I expect to make a faq out of it someday. (Edit to add even more details) Some basics. You should choose a car with a range at least 50% longer than your round trip daily commute. Makes sure you can run some errands, or it’s real cold or hot, and you have the heat or AC on full blast, etc. This isn’t hard to find these days, since the average US driver does 13,000 miles a year, or less than 40 a day, and even the cheap, small battery models have 130 or more mile range. You should have a place for daily charging. For almost all of us, that’s at home in our driveway or garage. For apartment dwellers, or on street parkers, this could be at the office. If you don’t have either option it is possible to get by with public charging, but it is annoying. This should be solved eventually, around here apartment buildings are adding chargers, even including them in the amenities listed on the “now leasing” banner. Some cities, and an entire Canadian province have required all new residential construction to be charger ready, (an open space in the breaker panel, and a wire good for 50 amps pulled to a parking space). For cities, there are some schemes under test that add charging points to streetlights, another that adds it to parking meters. You don’t need a garage to charge in. You can safely plug in the charging cable even in driving rain. You could drop the cord into the puddle you are standing in, and not get shocked. (I wouldn’t, but the system is designed to cope). Basically when you grab the plug, off the hanger, there is only low voltage in the cable. Only after the box determines that the plug is fully seated in an actual car, and that you let go of the latching button, will you hear the clunk that is line voltage getting applied to the cable. I admit that charging when it’s snowing is annoying. When you are finished charging, you may need to dig snow out from around the socket in order to close the flap, and if you drop the plug, the end is deeply recessed, and can pack full of snow. Ok, some details on charging. First, there are chargers built into the car. There is a box hanging on the wall, or built into a kiosk. That actually isn’t a charger, it’s actually the safety system alluded to above. It’s official name is an EVSE They have two jobs, tell the car how big a fuse they are connected to, and to turn on the power when it’s safe to do so. It’s the chargers job to only draw the amount of power the box says to. The chargers built into the car vary in size, and are rated in kw. Typical sizes are 3kw on a few base models, and on plug in hybrids, 6 and 7.2 kw on the mid priced. The standard Tesla has a 10kw charger, there is an option for the model S to have a second one installed. To calculate an approximate from empty charge time, divide the battery capacity by the charger size. So your 30 kWh Leaf with its 6 kw charger, takes 5 hours. My 24 kWh eGolf with its 7.2 kw charger takes 3.4 hours. That P85D Tesla will need 8.5 hours. EVSE come in 3 strengths. Level 1 is an ordinary wall outlet. The cord comes with the car. It can add 5 miles of range for each hour you are plugged in. If you are in Europe, your outlets charge 2.5 times faster than ours. I used to carry an extension cord, I don’t bother any more. Level 2 is a dryer or electric stove amount of power. It will have you charging at speeds between 25 and 40 miles an hour. Most public charging kiosks are at this level. All cars sold will be able to use them. If you have a Tesla, it will come with an adapter. These will refill an empty battery (unless huge) in under 8 hours. If you need or want one for home, they start at $300, the cost of getting power to them will vary depending on what needs to be done, but figure $250 at the low end, with 5–600 more typical. You can even buy an open source board and controller for $100 that will let you make your own. Some places will insist the box be hard wired (especially if you mount it outside), others allow outlets. A few of the cords that come with the car will also work with a stove circuit, or other versions of 220 volt outlets, with adapters. The Tesla cord can do this, and comes with the adapter for stove circuits. The standard plug on level 1 and 2 chargers is the J-1772. All cars can be charged with one. Tesla uses its own plug, but includes an adapter. There are a few Tesla specific level 2 chargers in the wild, Tesla had a program that would supply them to hotels. There isn’t an adapter to use Tesla specific chargers on other cars (that I know of). The J-1772 includes a latch. Some cars can use this to lock the plug in place, requiring you to have the key fob to disconnect. We live down the street from a middle school. I am sure a 5th grader passing by would consider unplugging the car to be a funny and most original prank. (Our driveway is very short, Our chargers cable is bright orange, it’s not subtle). Our car came with a lock. Level 3 is what you will be using to top up on a long trip. They are very. fast, with speeds ranging from a low of 100 mph, to a high over 600 mph. They are a lot more expensive than a level 2, and even the mere 100 mph version is $10,000, and it takes as much power as your whole house. 100 amps, 240 volts. The rest want the sort of voltage and current that you might find at a smaller manufacturing plant. They can be hard on your batteries, as keeping them in balance at those speeds is difficult. Of course there are annoying complications. There are three different plugs for high speed connections, Japanese, the rest of the world, and Tesla. A public charger will usually support both of the public standards, and Tesla chargers are their own world. If you find one at a car dealer, it will only support a single standard, whatever that brand supports. You find them next to interstates, and most have food or at least coffee available. Tesla has a 5 year head start on building their network, and has the fastest chargers for now. On some cars the ability to use a level 3 charger is standard, others make it optional, or dependent on which trim level you purchase. A few models don’t have it, even as an option. If you are even just thinking you might want to take a longer trip someday, and it’s optional, get it. We have only used fast charging a few times, but it made the difference between a routine dinner stop, and a delay. To tell them apart, or tell if your car is equipped to use one, if it is a Tesla, it uses the same plug as their slower chargers. In the case of a Leaf, the Chademo standard uses a completely separate and noticeably larger plug, the socket is next to the normal plug under the door. In the rest of the cars, SAE/CCS is two additional pins just outside of , and at the bottom of the standard J-1772 socket. Most have a cover over the pins when not in use. The best way to find chargers is Plugshare (phone app or web page). It’s crowdsourced, so it shows all chargers no matter who is providing them. It also assigns a rating to them, showing how often you could actually charge, or that you always find them ICEed, (conventional car parked) or a victim of their own popularity and with someone already plugged in. It can filter out chargers that don’t apply to your car, and it has a system for people to offer up their home charger to a passing traveler in need. One thing really in its favor, they include detailed directions on where the thing is located. If your average daily mileage is under 40, you can do pretty well with just overnight wall outlet charging. It will use less than $1 in electricity to do this. We ordered a level 2 charger when we bought our car, but it was more than a year before I installed it. Remember, since you can easily plug in every day, your charging time will reflect how far you drove, not how long it takes from empty. Tip: if you are renting the place, and park in a spot next to the house, look around for an outlet on the outside (the one they plug hedge clippers into) and buy a heavy duty extension cord. When my brother bought his Volt, until he got around to installing an outdoor outlet, they ran an extension cord out a window. In my case, it took me close to a year to get around to wiring and mounting the charger, and the outlet on the front of the house served. Check with your power company. In some places they offer a plan with off peak pricing, so your evening fill up will be half or more off. The car and possibly the charger will have timers that will make it easy to delay charging for when rates are cheap. If you are staying at a campground, the RV hookup will be an electric stove outlet, that will run a level 2. At a farm? Do they have a welder in the barn? The voltages are correct, but the outlet is an older 3 pin sort, rather than the modern stove plug that level 2 chargers use. Adapters aren’t hard to make, and you might be able to buy one at a place that has RV supplies. (For the roll your own sorts, welders use 6–50 plugs and sockets, stoves use 14–50) Wintertime. Batteries don’t work as well when very cold. Some cars will warm the batteries to an optimal temperature if you are plugged into the grid. The other problem is heat. A gas powered car throws away 75% or more of the energy in the fuel, as heat out the tailpipe and radiator. It doesn’t change your gas mileage to divert some of it from the radiator in front, to one inside the cabin. In an EV, 90% of the energy goes toward motion, which doesn’t leave enough to warm the cabin with. So to get a warm cabin you have to spend some of the energy in the battery. There are two ways this happens, using the air conditioning “backwards” as a heat pump, or by using the same sort of resistive heater that you aren’t supposed to have under your desk at the office. The heat pump is the more efficient system. Both do have the advantage that warm air happens quickly, no waiting for an engine to warm up. There is another way, that is great in cool but not frigid weather. You want the heated seats. They will keep you comfortably warm when it’s 40F out, without affecting range. One thing about heating and air conditioning in an EV that will make conventional car owners jealous, the car has timers that can start the heat, air conditioning or the defroster, and if plugged in, they will use grid power for this. You go out in the morning, and the car will be already warm, and the windshield clear. You get back to the car that has spent all day in the August sun, and when you open the door, you aren’t hit with the waves of heat that feel like you are standing in front of a blast furnace. You can sit down, wearing shorts, and the back of your thighs won’t get branded with the upholstery’s stitching pattern. A number of them have the ability to also turn on the heat, etc. from a phone app. When the meeting finally is winding up, you poke the phone, and the car starts whirring all by itself. One other weather related thing: the batteries can freeze. If it gets below -20F -27C, and stays there for days, the batteries can freeze. Supposedly they aren’t harmed by this, as long as you don’t try to charge them. Just move the car into a warmer space, and let them thaw. The manufacturers build a heater into the pack, to prevent this. If connected to outside power, it will keep them safe, till mud season. If it isn’t plugged in, it will use the batteries themselves. Even a small pack will keep them safe for more than a week. So if you live in someplace like frostbite falls, or Barrow, be sure to plug it in when you leave it for a few days. Wall outlets are more than sufficient. Range anxiety and charging times, the usual elephants in the room. You get over it. Most of us charge at home, while we are sleeping. As far as we are concerned the car takes 30 seconds or less a day to charge, 10 seconds to plug in, 20 to unplug and hang the cord up. It’s like charging your phone, you don’t know how long it takes, you just plug it in before bed, and it’s full when you wake up. The real change in outlook happens after a month or so. Imagine there were pixies that came around every night, and topped up your tank. Every day you get in, and the “tank” is always full, you just stop worrying about range or charging. Gone is the arriving late to something, because you forgot to stop the night before, and had to make an unplanned pit stop on the way. (Or your teenaged kid borrowed it last night, and left it a needles width above empty.) And no more making a side trip, and spending 10 minutes in the rain, heat or cold, pumping fuel. If it’s alwas full in the morning, often would you think about your gas gauge? Would you really choose filling up yourself. Now I get range anxiety when I wind up driving a conventional car. Refueling requires a conscious effort, I have to notice that I need some, and figure out where I can get it. (if I am driving a gas car, it means that it is a rental, I got off a plane, and I am in an unfamiliar city). After a while driving electric, you will stop noticing gas stations, and won’t know what a gallon of the stuff costs anymore. The last habit to go, seeing a station, and glancing at the “gas” gauge. We have never sat around waiting for a charge. Even when we made trips further than a full charge would take us. Yes it took a bit of planning, it was long enough ago that high speed chargers were still limited in availability. We just picked a high speed charger at a shopping mall next to the interstate , and had dinner while it charged. It finished charging before we finished eating. Right now the only time you will make use of a high speed charger, is on a trip that today would have you buying gas more than once in one day. You may even not need it for trips where you fill up two days in a row. (You pick a hotel that has level 2 charging available, and the car is full by the time you finish breakfast) One reading of the name of the Japanese high speed standard (Chademo) is vaguely “a cup of tea”. The implication is that you would stop, brew a cup of tea, and drink. The car would be mostly recharged, and you could continue. If you are the sort of driver that packs sandwiches to eat on the way, and tells the kids “if you aren’t back from the bathroom by the time I am done filling the tank, we’re leaving you here”, using an EV will make your trip take longer. For a more typical trip to the in-laws, you pull into the rest area, find an open charger, wave your phone or RFID card at the box bolted to the concrete pad, and plug in. In the time it takes to herd the kids thru the toilet, wait in line for to-go at deathburger, get back to the car, and get them strapped back in, a good charger will have added enough range to drive for 3 hours, or about mean time to meltdown for siblings under 10. If you are being all adult, and actually sit down for a meal that is brought to you and you don’t have to unwrap before eating, you will get the charge complete text before you get the check. Time to finish charging isn’t linear. As the pack gets full, they slow the charging down so the batteries don’t overheat. If it takes X time to charge to 50%, going from 50 to 75% might take that long again. And the last 25% might take 3X to spoon in. What this means is on long trips, is that you start thinking like a transport pilot, you take on only enough fuel to get you to your next stop plus a reserve. In EV terms, it means you try to stay on the fast end of the curve, and you don’t stick around for the battery to fully charge. Pick the charger 3/4ths of the way, instead of half way, so you are down to 10%. Then if by leaving with only 60% you will get there with 30 miles range in reserve, you leave then rather than wait as long again for 80%. If you have a Tesla, the navigation system will actually do the calculations for you, saying you need to stop at charger Q for at least 12 minutes to reach your destination. One last comment on range. High speeds on the highway make a more noticeable difference with EV than with a conventional car. Since other losses are low, aerodynamic drags contribution is more prominent. A long way of saying you will get a lot further at 65 than you will at 85. Other random things…. Check your tire pressure. If it’s low, rolling restance takes a disproportionate jump, and I have found that the warning system wants you to be 20% low before it lights up. I have a compressor at home, so I just check them on the first Saturday of the month. (Unless it’s raining or snowing). A tire delays the airs escape, it can’t keep it confined forever. Plus when the temperatures drop, so does the pressure in your tire. Regenerative braking. This is where the car starts to recharge the battery as a way of slowing down. It will happen when you hit the brakes, it’s why the brake pads last so long. On an EV you can also get it to happen by just lifting your foot off the accelerator. On some cars it is the default, on others you have to tell the car you want it. it’s wonderful, it reminds me of engine braking with a manual transmission. I really notice its absence when I get back into an IC car. You can drive in city traffic, just using the accelerator. You only hit the brake pedal when you need to hold on a hill. Parking lots. Pedestrians walk 3 abreast down the middle of the lane, unless they hear an engine behind them. Engine noise, and they go single file at the edge of the lane. We learned this 20 years ago driving hybrids. Just a heads up, so it doesn’t surprise you. Since the horn is overkill in this situation, some cars come with a “growler” fake engine noise that comes on automatically below 10 mph or so, to warn people. At one point it was going to be required, don’t know if it happened. Our car is so equipped, even tho it wasn’t required that year. I find it annoying, I like the silent glide. At least it shuts up when you are stopped. I suppose I wouldn’t mind it so much if I got a choice of sounds. (A poll was taken on the VW EV forum, some of the nominees included Italian V12, Mack truck, big V8, air cooled VW, Harley, turbo 4 cylinder with blowoff noise, and a chainsaw, but the winner was the noise that the Jetsons cartoon flying car made). One solution for cars sans growler, that some proposed was to briefly turn on the air conditioning, as the compressor makes a similar noise to an engine. A wag on the Chevy Volt forum said “my car has a pedestrian warning system, 4 of them, they were made by Goodyear”. Apparently the factory low rolling resistance tires weren’t the quietest. Adressing some of the other “facts” that are routinely brought up by people that haven’t been in the same zip code as an EV. “Your electricity comes from coal, it pollutes more than a gas engine….” A couple of “facts”. with this one.. First, because EV are so energy efficient, the equivalent of over 100 mpg in a gas car, even if you had 100% coal fired electricity, (true in some parts of West Virginia, near the coal fields) it would still result in less pollution than a normal car. The second point, coal is only 30% of US generation, and dropping as fast as the utilities can get their hands on the hardware to convert to combined cycle natural gas, which halves the fuel costs, and carbon footprint. Predictions say that coal firing will essentially end by 2030. Some places like the New England states, it’s already gone. Carbon neutral generation is at 31% nationwide, last I checked, And any new generation built these days will be a renewable source. A lot more solar, especially household arrays, and for utility scale the current cheapest per kWh to construct and operate are wind turbines. (And that includes the generators that burn stuff) So your car is green already, and it gets greener without you doing anything. A gas burner doesn’t get better with time. (And you can make your car very green quickly if you have the ability to buy your power from carbon neutral sources only). “They are all slow”. This one is best dispelled by stuffing them in the passenger seat and demontrating. If a P100D is available, it should take under 3 seconds to convince them, but even more modest examples should suffice. Besides the torque curve everyone mentions, they don’t have a flywheel. It was an old rule of thumb with the drag racing crowd, that taking a pound off the flywheel was like taking a hundred pounds off the car. “The batteries only last 3–5 years, and cost more than the car is worth to replace”. We don’t know yet how long a set of batteries will last, we haven’t been using them long enough to wear many of them out. A car owner doesn’t have that much to worry about, the EPA requires that the batteries be warranted for 8 years/80,000 miles, if you live in a state that adopted CARB rules, the warranty jumps to 10 years/150,000 miles. As they are emissions equipment, they are transferable. Ok, some actual data instead of speculation. Some brands collect data from their cars when they are in for regularly scheduled inspections (there is essentially no regular maintenance on an EV) To get down to 70% of original capacity looks like it will take nearly 20 years. Faster in hot climates, slower in more temperate ones. There are already some cars running around with more than 250,000 miles on their original batteries. Should a pack loose enough capacity to be not useful for transportation, they can be rebuilt, which thanks to volume lowering battery prices, will be fairly cheap to do. Yes the first few years of the Leaf did have a battery life issue, they had air cooled packs, and didn’t use a particularly heat tolerant battery chemistry, the LA crowd did have issues with reduced capacity. After the outcry, Nissan switched to what got nicknamed “lizard” batteries. The companies that water cooled their packs didn’t have a problem. “But toxic batteries in the landfill”. First, most (but not all) aren’t toxic waste. The stuff inside is harmless should it wind up in the trash, and is legal to toss into a landfill. But landing in the trash is just Not going to happen, for a number of reasons. First, they are on a car. We do an excellent job with cars, something like 98% of them get recycled when they are dead. What that means is that if a battery is part of a car, it will not get dumped. The batteries are excellent candidates for recycling, they come in a handy easily isolated container, they are marked as to what chemistry they use, the metals inside are valuable, some as much as $10/lb, and there could be a half a ton of them. But most of them won’t get recycled, instead they will get reused. Space and weight are limited on a car, so you want the batteries at their best. But transportation isn’t the only thing that wants mass quantities of batteries, and some are a bit less fussy. Stationary power banks to pick the most likely. People and utilities use them to even out load on a power system. You have a fine solar array, but your peak demand is at 6 PM, nearly sunset. So you take a bunch of these batteries. You get them cheap because they are reclaimed. So you have to use 25% more of them, they are less than half the price of new, space under the array isn’t being used for anything else, it’s a little big, so what. Yes this is already happening. The junkyard owners learned long ago that there is real money at the end of those fat orange wires. When a car with a traction battery gets dragged into the yard, it is immediately stuck up on a stand, and they drop the battery out first thing. They are by their standards gentle, (wrenches not torches, and they won’t let it fall more than a couple of inches. They might even include a pallet to cushion the landing, and not just the unadorned forklift blades), and they move it to a shelf indoors. The owner knows there is a ready market, and its not just owners of that make. If you damage it, he will be pissed. (If the secret junkyard cabal finds out that a yard owner sold scrap for less than they could have gotten, they will swoop in, switch the office coffee for decaf, the donuts for bran muffins, and replace their pit bull with an equal weight of toy poodles, yorkies, and other tiny yapping breeds) The people buying the packs are doing or updating an EV conversion, rebuilding traction batteries, some live off grid, and are building a storage facility for their solar array, etc. GM has contracted with a third party to buy the batteries that are replaced under the emissions system warranty. The off grid folks are particularly keen customers. Lithium is a whole lot lighter than lead. So a pack of lithium cells while a bit more complicated to build, is a whole lot easier on your back than half the capacity of deep cycle lead acid. Even better you don’t have to make weekly rounds with the distilled water, checking that they aren’t low. The motorhead community has been wrong about battery life before. When we bought a hybrid the same short life was predicted. Well for those we actually can speak from experience. We bought a Prius in 2000. 14.5 years later, it was facing repairs to the internal combustion side of things that had a parts cost greater than the current value. As part of the decision that led to us trading it in, I checked the health of the original, unmolested, traction battery. It was just over 90% of its original capacity, and the cell to cell balance was good. The hybrid, where I know the owner, with the highest mileage was a first US generation Prius with 350,000 miles on it when a teen ran a stop sign and T boned it. There are reports of ones in taxi service with double that on the original pack. I think the reputation for short EV battery life is from the early homebrew lead acid conversions. Use of any sort of cell level battery balancing was unheard of. Charging could best be described as having a bit of a brute force approach. They didn’t limit discharge depth, which unchecked actually leads to some cells getting a reverse charge, when they hit 0 before their neighbors. All combine to leave them with a very weakened battery. If you have a lithium pack, you must have an active battery management system, especially since you the manufacturer are on the hook for 8 years. “But but they catch fire…. We read about that one in the news”. Yea, you don’t here much about regular cars catching fire. That’s because it happens so often, that it isn’t news. Try 171,500 times a year or about every 3 minutes in the US alone. Once a day, the event is fatal. 4 times a day someone is injured enough to need treatment. The fires only get reported if the car belonged to someone prominent, or it happened someplace that it was particularly disruptive, like a tunnel. Conventional cars have many ways that collision or parts failure can set things alight. There are two things that can get a lithium pack to self ignite, mechanical damage, and incompetent battery management. Those hoverboards that got recalled were because they did the battery management wrong. Every cell did have a protection chip, but they used the ones designed for a single cell, and not the ones with the extra circuits to deal with multiple cells in series. Mechanical damage fires start more slowly, than a fuel fire, the batteries smolder and vent smoke for a while before flames happen. You have more time to get away. And the battery fire doesn’t spread anywhere near as fast as you will see with a gas tank leaking it’s contents downhill. Remember, in most gas powered cars, the bottom of the fuel tank is at or at times below the floor pan. Random obstacles on the road can tear them open. Some are even made of rotary molded plastic. While some metal gas tanks are sturdy, a lot of them will collect a substantial dent if an adult were to jump up, and land on them with both feet. I helped a friend that bought a wrecked Leaf for its battery pack, to salvage the cells for some electric motorcycles he had built. The battery comes in a very sturdy can, that is mounted under the floor. Yes if you jumped and hit the center, it would deflect. At an edge or the corner, not so much. They are pretty well protected. Tesla goes one better, armoring the bottom and front edge with a substantial titanium plate. They also fill the space between the cells with a fire extinguishing gel. But cars can set themselves alight in other ways, ones that don’t even require a collision as a trigger. Conventional cars have fuel running 10 feet or more from the tank to the engine, in a steel tube at the bottom of the car. In fuel injected cars, this line is pressurized to 4 bar (50–60 psi) by a pump in the tank. At various places, there are sections of rubber hose connecting things. There is a guy on YouTube that rebuilds salvage vehicles, and records the process. He just finished recovering a Lamborghini that had a cracked fitting lead to a fire when refueling. He just started on a Ferrari where a rubber line rubbed against the worm drive hose clamp securing its neighbor, wore through, and sprayed the engine compartment with 50 psi fuel, and the exhaust manifold made certain that the failure of that cheap bit of hose did terminal amounts of damage. (The channel is Tavarish if you want to check it out) Last one, I promise. “Look at the damage mining the materials for the batteries makes” this is always accompanied by a distant view of a large open pit mine, or a detail view of excavation machines working on the ramp sides typical of open pit mining. This is a clear attempt at disinformation. Neither photo is a lithium mine. The distant view has been identified as a Russian copper mine. No identification on the close view that I have seen, but what they are mining appears to be coal or oil shale. A lithium mine and refinery looks like a bunch of man made shallow ponds, in the middle of an alkaline salt flat. It makes things a lot easier when what you want to extract is water soluble. If you have flown over the southern edge of the bay south of San Francisco, you would have seen some rectangular ponds that are somewhat unusual colors. This is a “mine” for sea salt. They just use sun and wind to evaporate the water, and the salt eventually crystallizes out. If you flew over a lithium mine, the ponds would look similar, but surrounded by the white sand of the desert, instead of the ocean. The primary source for lithium is the Atacama desert high in the Andes mountains. It is one of the most inhospitable places on the planet. Nothing lives there. It hasn’t rained there in recorded history. They used it to test the signs of life instruments used in Martian exploration. Anyhow you “mine” lithium, by rinsing the alkaline sand, leaving cleaner sand and some brine. You pump the brine into the ponds. After a while the lithium will crystallize on the surface, and you skim it off. Further refining is done electrically.

What should a person considering buying an electric car know, such as limitations, maintenance, charging on long trips, etc.?

Ok, here are some tips and tricks for someone contemplating the jump to electric power. Just stuff I have managed to pick up over the 4 years we have had no use for gasoline. Yea, it’s long, I expect to make a faq out of it someday. Some basics. You should choose a car with a range at least 50% longer than your round trip daily commute. Makes sure you can run some errands, or it’s real cold or hot, and you have the heat or AC on full blast, etc. This isn’t hard to find these days, since the average US driver does 13,000 miles a year, or less than 40 a day, and even the cheap, small battery models have 130 or more mile range. You should have a place for daily charging. For almost all of us, that’s at home in our driveway or garage. For apartment dwellers, or on street parkers, this could be at the office. If you don’t have either option it is possible to get by with public charging, but it is annoying. You may not be a good fit for an EV unless you can change this. This problem should be solved eventually, around here apartment buildings are adding chargers, even including them in the amenities listed on the “now leasing” banner. There are some schemes being tested for those with on street parking only. Right now, you have the gas car mindset. You go someplace special and have to wait around while it gets pumped in. So you want to do that as infrequently and quickly as possible. You run the tank till the light comes on, and fill it up completely then. But with EV it is a different way. You don’t wait till you are low, and charge to full (unless you are dependent on public chargers). Instead you charge when you get the opportunity, and are busy with some other task. Most of us charge at home while sleeping. We are only charging the miles we drove that day. As a result as far as we are concerned, charging takes under 30 seconds, 10 to plug in at the end of the day, and 20 to unplug and put the cord away. And every morning, the “tank” is full. So we really can’t say how long it takes to charge fully from empty, it’s something we never do. You don’t need a garage to charge in. You can safely plug in the charging cable even in driving rain. You could drop the cord into the puddle you are standing in, and not get shocked. (I wouldn’t, but the system is designed to cope). Basically when you grab the plug, off the hanger, there is only low voltage in the cable. Only after the box determines that the plug is fully seated in an actual car, and that you let go of the latching button, will you hear the clunk that is line voltage getting applied to the cable. Some cities, and an entire Canadian province have required all new residential construction to be charger ready, (an open space in the breaker panel, and a wire good for 50 amps pulled to a parking space). For cities, there are some schemes under test that add charging points to streetlights, another that adds it to parking meters. I admit that charging when it’s snowing is annoying. When you are finished charging, you may need to dig snow out from around the socket in order to close the flap, and if you drop the plug, the end is deeply recessed, and can pack full of snow. Ok, some details on charging. First, there are chargers built into the car. There is a box hanging on the wall, or built into a kiosk. That actually isn’t a charger, it’s actually the safety system alluded to above. It’s official name is an EVSE They have two jobs, tell the car how big a fuse they are connected to, and to turn on the power when it’s safe to do so. It’s the built in chargers job to only draw the amount of power the box says to. The chargers built into the car vary in size, and are rated in kw. Typical sizes are 3kw on a few base models, and on plug in hybrids, 6 and 7.2 kw on the mid priced. The standard Tesla has a 10kw charger, there is an option for the model S to have a second one installed. To calculate an approximate from empty charge time, divide the battery capacity by the charger size. So your 30 kWh Leaf with its 6 kw charger, takes 5 hours. My 24 kWh eGolf with its 7.2 kw charger takes 3.4 hours. That P85D Tesla will need 8.5 hours. EVSE come in 3 strengths. Level 1 is an ordinary wall outlet. The cord comes with the car. It can add 5 miles of range for each hour you are plugged in. If you are in Europe, your outlets charge 2.5 times faster than ours. I used to carry an extension cord, I don’t bother any more. Level 2 is a dryer or electric stove amount of power. It will have you charging at speeds between 25 and 40 miles an hour. Most public charging kiosks are at this level. All cars sold will be able to use them. If you have a Tesla, it will come with an adapter. These will refill an empty battery (unless huge) in under 8 hours. If you need or want one for home, they start at $300, the cost of getting power to them will vary depending on what needs to be done, but figure $250 at the low end, with 5–600 more typical. You can even buy an open source board and controller for $100 that will let you make your own. Some places will insist the box be hard wired (especially if you mount it outside), others allow outlets. A few of the cords that come with the car will also work with a stove circuit, or other versions of 220 volt outlets, with adapters. The Tesla cord can do this, and comes with the adapter for stove circuits. The standard plug on level 1 and 2 chargers is the J-1772. All cars can be charged with one. Tesla uses its own plug, but includes an adapter. There are a few Tesla specific level 2 chargers in the wild, Tesla had a program that would supply them to hotels. There is an adapter that will let you use such chargers with other brands, look for a “Tesla Tail”. (It only works on the destination chargers, not the “supercharger” system.). The J-1772 includes a latch. Some cars can use this to lock the plug in place, requiring you to have the key fob to disconnect. We live down the street from a middle school. I am sure a 5th grader passing by would consider unplugging the car to be a funny and most original prank. (Our driveway is very short, Our chargers cable is bright orange, it’s not subtle). Our car came with a lock. Level 3 is what you will be using to top up on a long trip. This is a very powerful source of DC, that takes the place of your charger. They are very. fast, with speeds ranging from a low of 100 mph, to a high over 1,000 mph. They are a lot more expensive than a level 2, and even the mere 100 mph version is $10,000, and it takes as much power as your whole house. 100 amps, 240 volts. The rest want the sort of voltage and current that you might find at a smaller manufacturing plant. They can be hard on your batteries, as keeping them in balance at those speeds is difficult. Of course there are annoying complications. There are three different plugs for high speed connections, Japanese, the rest of the world, and Tesla. A public charger will usually support both of the public standards, and Tesla chargers are their own world. If you find one at a car dealer, it likely will only support the single standard that their brand supports. You find them next to interstates, and most have food or at least coffee available. Tesla has a 5 year head start on building their network, and has the fastest chargers for now. (This is the “Supercharger” system you hear about.) On some cars the ability to use a level 3 charger is standard, others make it optional, or dependent on which trim level you purchase. A few models don’t have it, even as an option. If you are even just thinking you might want to take a longer trip someday, and it’s optional, get it. We have only used fast charging a few times, but it made the difference between a routine dinner stop, and a delay. To tell them apart, or tell if your car is equipped to use one, if it is a Tesla, the car is compatible, and it uses the same plug as their slower chargers. In the case of a Leaf, the Chademo standard uses a completely separate and noticeably larger plug, the socket is next to the normal plug under the door. In the rest of the cars, SAE/CCS is two additional pins just outside of , and at the bottom of the standard J-1772 socket. Most have a cover over the pins when not in use. Adapters between the high speed standards aren’t generally available. Tesla does provide adapters for its cars to use the public standards as an extra cost accessory. The best way to find chargers is Plugshare (phone app or web page). It’s crowdsourced, so it shows all chargers no matter who is providing them. It also assigns a rating to them, showing how often you could actually charge, or that you always find them ICEed, (conventional car parked) or a victim of their own popularity and with someone already plugged in. It can filter out chargers that don’t apply to your car, and it has a system for people to offer up their home charger to a passing traveler in need. One thing really in its favor, they include detailed directions, often including pictures to help you find it in the maze that is the typical multi level garage. (For example the entry for one of the airport chargers says “its on the second level, turn right 3 times.”) If your average daily mileage is under 40, you can do pretty well with just overnight wall outlet charging. It will use less than $1 in electricity to do this. We ordered a level 2 charger when we bought our car, but it was more than a year before I installed it. Remember, since you can easily plug in every day, your charging time will reflect how far you drove, not how long it takes from empty. Tip: if you are renting the place, and park in a spot next to the house, look around for an outlet on the outside (the one they plug hedge clippers into) and buy a heavy duty extension cord. When my brother bought his Volt, until he got around to installing an outdoor outlet, they ran an extension cord out a window. In my case, it took me close to a year to get around to wiring and mounting the charger, and the outlet on the front of the house served. Check with your power company. In some places they offer a plan with off peak pricing, so your evening fill up will be half or more off. The car and possibly the charger will have timers that will make it easy to delay charging for when rates are cheap. If you are staying at a campground, the RV hookup will be an electric stove outlet, that will run a level 2. At a farm? Do they have a welder in the barn? The voltages are correct, but the outlet is an older 3 pin sort, rather than the modern stove plug that level 2 chargers use. Adapters aren’t hard to make, and you might be able to buy one at a place that has RV supplies. (For the roll your own sorts, welders use 6–50 plugs and sockets, stoves use 14–50) Wintertime. Batteries don’t work as well when very cold. Some cars will warm the batteries to an optimal temperature if you are plugged into the grid. The other problem is cabin heat. A gas powered car throws away 75% or more of the energy in the fuel, as heat out the tailpipe and radiator. It doesn’t change your gas mileage to divert some of it from the radiator in front, to one inside the cabin. In an EV, 90% of the energy goes toward motion, which doesn’t leave enough to warm the cabin with. So to get a warm cabin you have to spend some of the energy in the battery. There are two ways this happens, using the air conditioning “backwards” as a heat pump, or by using the same sort of resistive heater that you aren’t supposed to have under your desk at the office. The heat pump is the more efficient system. Both do have the advantage that warm air happens quickly, no waiting for an engine to warm up. There is another way, that is great in cool but not frigid weather. You want the heated seats. They will keep you comfortably warm when it’s 40F out, without affecting range. One thing about heating and air conditioning in an EV that will make conventional car owners jealous, the car has timers that can start the heat, air conditioning or the defroster, and if plugged in, they will use grid power for this. You go out in the morning, and the car will be already warm, and the windshield clear. You get back to the car that has spent all day in the August sun, and when you open the door, you aren’t hit with the waves of heat that feel like you are standing in front of a blast furnace. You can sit down, wearing shorts, and the back of your thighs won’t get branded with the upholstery’s stitching pattern. A number of them have the ability to also turn on the heat, etc. from a phone app. When the meeting finally is winding up, you poke the phone, and the car starts whirring all by itself. One other weather related thing: the batteries can freeze. If it gets below -20F -27C, and stays there for days, the batteries can freeze. Supposedly they aren’t harmed by this, as long as you don’t try to charge them. Just move the car into a warmer space, and let them thaw. The manufacturers build a heater into the pack, to prevent this. If connected to outside power, it will keep them safe, till mud season. If it isn’t plugged in, it will use the batteries themselves. Even a small pack will keep them safe for more than a week. So if you live in someplace like frostbite falls, or Barrow, be sure to plug it in when you leave it for a few days. Wall outlets are more than sufficient. Range anxiety and charging times, the usual elephants in the room. You get over it. Most of us charge at home, while we are sleeping. As far as we are concerned the car takes 30 seconds or less a day to charge, 10 seconds to plug in, 20 to unplug and hang the cord up. It’s like charging your phone, you don’t know how long it takes, you just plug it in before bed, and it’s full when you wake up. The real change in outlook happens after a month or so. Imagine there were pixies that came around every night, and topped up your tank. Every day you get in, and the “tank” is always full, you just stop worrying about range or charging. Gone is the arriving late to something, because you forgot to stop the night before, and had to make an unplanned pit stop on the way. (Or your teenaged kid borrowed it last night, and left it a needles width above empty.) And no more making a side trip, and spending 10 minutes in the rain, heat or cold, pumping fuel. If it’s alwas full in the morning, often would you think about your gas gauge? Would you really choose filling up yourself. Now I get range anxiety when I wind up driving a conventional car. Refueling requires a conscious effort, I have to notice that I need some, and figure out where I can get it. (if I am driving a gas car, it means that it is a rental, I got off a plane, and I am in an unfamiliar city). After a while driving electric, you will stop noticing gas stations, and won’t know what a gallon of the stuff costs anymore. The last habit to go, seeing a station, and glancing at the “gas” gauge. We have never sat around waiting for a charge. Even when we made trips further than a full charge would take us. Yes it took a bit of planning, it was long enough ago that high speed chargers were still limited in availability. We just picked a high speed charger at a shopping mall next to the interstate , and had dinner while it charged. It finished charging before we finished eating. Right now the only time you will make use of a high speed charger, is on a trip that today would have you buying gas more than once in one day. You may even not need it for trips where you fill up two days in a row. (You pick a hotel that has level 2 charging available, and the car is full by the time you finish breakfast) One reading of the name of the Japanese high speed standard (Chademo) is vaguely “a cup of tea”. The implication is that you would stop, brew a cup of tea, and drink. The car would be mostly recharged, and you could continue. If you are the sort of driver that packs sandwiches to eat on the way, and tells the kids “if you aren’t back from the bathroom by the time I am done filling the tank, we’re leaving you here”, using an EV will make your trip take longer. For a more typical trip to the in-laws, you pull into the rest area, find an open charger, wave your phone or RFID card at the box bolted to the concrete pad, and plug in. In the time it takes to herd the kids thru the toilet, wait in line for to-go at deathburger, get back to the car, and get them strapped back in, a good charger will have added enough range to drive for 3 hours, or about mean time to meltdown for siblings under 10. If you are being all adult, and actually sit down for a meal that is brought to you and you don’t have to unwrap before eating, you will get the charge complete text before you get the check. Time to finish charging isn’t linear. As the pack gets full, they slow the charging down so the batteries don’t overheat. If it takes X time to charge to 50%, going from 50 to 75% might take that long again. And the last 25% might take 3X to spoon in. What this means is on long trips, is that you start thinking like a transport pilot, you take on only enough fuel to get you to your next stop plus a reserve. In EV terms, it means you try to stay on the fast end of the curve, and you don’t stick around for the battery to fully charge. Pick the charger 3/4ths of the way, instead of half way, so you are down to 10%. Then if by leaving with only 60% you will get there with 30 miles range in reserve, you leave then rather than wait as long again for 80%. If you have a Tesla, the navigation system will actually do the calculations for you, saying you need to stop at charger Q for at least 12 minutes to reach your destination. One last comment on range. High speeds on the highway make a more noticeable difference with EV than with a conventional car. Since other losses are low, aerodynamic drags contribution is more prominent. A long way of saying you will get a lot further at 65 than you will at 85. Other random things…. Maintenance, service, etc. Here is some real good news. They need next to none. On our car, the scheduled service is every other year, and is just a bunch of safety inspections (brakes, suspension, etc. your state inspection is likely more involved). The only scheduled service is every 6 years, when they want you to change the coolant and the cabin air filter. A conventional car has an engine with hundreds of moving parts, many of them reciprocating. There are high temperatures and pressures, well over 100 bar, and temperatures hot enough that parts glow red. It depends on a pressure fed oil system, that it contaminates with combustion byproducts, so you need to change it frequently. It needs a transmission, friction and possibly fluid couplings, and a bunch of ancillary systems. By contrast, an EV motor has one moving part, it rotates in sealed ball bearings. It is basically the same sort of 3 phase induction motor that you find in industrial machinery everywhere, where they are expected to run 3 shifts a day for decades with minimal attention. The conventional starter motor is more complex. There is no transmission required, and there are no friction or fluid connections involved. Here are a bunch of things that you won’t have to think about. No oil changes, no air, oil, or fuel filters to change. No spark plugs, timing belts, or serpentine belt. You won’t ever need a new muffler, catalytic converter, fuel pump, starter, alternator, ignition coil, crank position sensor, etc. Check your tire pressure. If it’s low, rolling restance takes a disproportionate jump, and I have found that the warning system wants you to be 20% low before it lights up. I have a compressor at home, so I just check them on the first Saturday of the month. (Unless it’s raining or snowing). A tire delays the airs escape, it can’t keep it confined forever. Plus when the temperatures drop, so does the pressure in your tire. Regenerative braking. This is where the car starts to recharge the battery as a way of slowing down. It will happen when you hit the brakes, it’s why the brake pads last so long. On an EV you can also get it to happen by just lifting your foot off the accelerator. On some cars it is the default, on others you have to tell the car you want it. it’s wonderful, it reminds me of engine braking with a manual transmission. I really notice its absence when I get back into an IC car. You can drive in city traffic, just using the accelerator. You only hit the brake pedal when you need to hold on a hill. Parking lots. Pedestrians walk 3 abreast down the middle of the lane, unless they hear an engine behind them. Engine noise, and they go single file at the edge of the lane. We learned this 20 years ago driving hybrids. Just a heads up, so it doesn’t surprise you. Since the horn is overkill in this situation, some cars come with a “growler” fake engine noise that comes on automatically below 10 mph or so, to warn people. At one point it was going to be required, don’t know if it happened. Our car is so equipped, even tho it wasn’t required that year. I find it annoying, I like the silent glide. At least it shuts up when you are stopped. I suppose I wouldn’t mind it so much if I got a choice of sounds. (A poll was taken on the VW EV forum, some of the nominees included Italian V12, Mack truck, big V8, air cooled VW, Harley, turbo 4 cylinder with blowoff noise, and a chainsaw, but the winner was the noise that the Jetsons cartoon flying car made). One solution for cars sans growler, that some proposed was to briefly turn on the air conditioning, as the compressor makes a similar noise to an engine. A wag on the Chevy Volt forum said “my car has a pedestrian warning system, 4 of them, they were made by Goodyear”. Apparently the factory low rolling resistance tires weren’t the quietest. Adressing some of the other “facts” that are routinely brought up by people that haven’t been in the same zip code as an EV. “Your electricity comes from coal, it pollutes more than a gas engine….” A couple of “facts”. with this one.. First, because EV are so energy efficient, the equivalent of over 100 mpg in a gas car, even if you had 100% coal fired electricity, (true in some parts of West Virginia, near the coal fields) it would still result in less pollution than a normal car. The second point, coal is only 28% of US generation, and dropping as fast as the utilities can get their hands on the hardware to convert to combined cycle natural gas, which halves the fuel costs, and carbon footprint. Predictions say that coal firing will essentially end by 2030. Some places like the New England states, it’s already gone. Carbon neutral generation is at 33% nationwide, last I checked, And any new generation built these days will be a renewable source. A lot more solar, especially household arrays, and for utility scale the current cheapest per kWh to construct and operate are wind turbines. (And that includes the generators that burn stuff) So your car is green already, and it gets greener without you doing anything. A gas burner doesn’t get better with time. (And you can make your car very green quickly if you have the ability to buy your power from carbon neutral sources only). “They are all slow”. This one is best dispelled by stuffing them in the passenger seat and demontrating. If a P100D is available, it should take under 3 seconds to convince them, but even more modest examples should suffice. Besides the torque curve everyone mentions, they don’t have a flywheel. It was an old rule of thumb with the drag racing crowd, that taking a pound off the flywheel was like taking a hundred pounds off the car. I have let various car nuts try our car (and it’s not one of the fastest ones). When you urge them to “go ahead, hit it”, a look of wonder spreads across their face. “The batteries only last 3–5 years, and cost more than the car is worth to replace”. We don’t know yet how long a set of batteries will last, we haven’t been using them long enough to wear many of them out. A car owner doesn’t have that much to worry about, the EPA requires that the batteries be warranted for 8 years/80,000 miles, if you live in a state that adopted CARB rules, the warranty jumps to 10 years/150,000 miles. As they are emissions equipment, they are transferable. Ok, some actual data instead of speculation. Some brands collect data from their cars when they are in for regularly scheduled inspections (there is essentially no regular maintenance on an EV) To get down to 70% of original capacity looks like it will take nearly 20 years. Faster in hot climates, slower in more temperate ones. There are already some cars running around with more than 250,000 miles on their original batteries. Should a pack loose enough capacity to be not useful for transportation, they can be rebuilt, which thanks to volume lowering battery prices, will be fairly cheap to do. Yes the first few years of the Leaf did have a battery life issue, they had air cooled packs, and didn’t use a particularly heat tolerant battery chemistry, the LA crowd did have issues with reduced capacity. After the outcry, Nissan switched to what got nicknamed “lizard” batteries. The companies that water cooled their packs didn’t have a problem. “But toxic batteries in the landfill”. First, most (but not all) aren’t toxic waste. The stuff inside is harmless should it wind up in the trash, and is legal to toss into a landfill. But landing in the trash is just Not going to happen, for a number of reasons. First, they are on a car. We do an excellent job with cars, something like 98% of them get recycled when they are dead. What that means is that if a battery is part of a car, it will not get dumped. The batteries are excellent candidates for recycling, they come in a handy easily isolated container, they are marked as to what chemistry they use, the metals inside are valuable, some as much as $10/lb, and there could be a half a ton of them. But most of them won’t get recycled, instead they will get reused. Space and weight are limited on a car, so you want the batteries at their best. But transportation isn’t the only thing that wants mass quantities of batteries, and some are a bit less fussy. Stationary power banks to pick the most likely. People and utilities use them to even out load on a power system. You have a fine solar array, but your peak demand is at 6 PM, nearly sunset. So you take a bunch of these batteries. You get them cheap because they are reclaimed. So you have to use 25% more of them, they are less than half the price of new, space under the array isn’t being used for anything else, it’s a little big, so what. Yes this is already happening. The junkyard owners learned long ago that there is real money at the end of those fat orange wires. When a car with a traction battery gets dragged into the yard, it is immediately stuck up on a stand, and they drop the battery out first thing. They are by their standards gentle, (wrenches not torches, and they won’t let it fall more than a couple of inches. They might even include a pallet to cushion the landing, and not just the unadorned forklift blades), and they move it to a shelf indoors. The owner knows there is a ready market, and its not just owners of that make. If you damage it, he will be pissed. (If the secret junkyard cabal finds out that a yard owner sold scrap for less than they could have gotten, they will swoop in, switch the office coffee for decaf, the donuts for bran muffins, and replace their pit bull with an equal weight of toy poodles, yorkies, and other tiny yapping breeds) The people buying the packs are doing or updating an EV conversion, rebuilding traction batteries, some live off grid, and are building a storage facility for their solar array, etc. GM has contracted with a third party to buy the batteries that are replaced under the emissions system warranty. The off grid folks are particularly keen customers. Lithium is a whole lot lighter than lead. So a pack of lithium cells while a bit more complicated to build, is a whole lot easier on your back than half the capacity of deep cycle lead acid. Even better you don’t have to make weekly rounds with the distilled water, checking that they aren’t low. The motorhead community has been wrong about battery life before. When we bought a hybrid the same short life was predicted. Well for those we actually can speak from experience. We bought a Prius in 2000. 14.5 years later, it was facing repairs to the internal combustion side of things that had a parts cost greater than the current value. As part of the decision that led to us trading it in, I checked the health of the original, unmolested, traction battery. It was just over 90% of its original capacity, and the cell to cell balance was good. The hybrid, where I know the owner, with the highest mileage was a first US generation Prius with 350,000 miles on it when a teen ran a stop sign and T boned it. There are reports of ones in taxi service with double that on the original pack. I think the reputation for short EV battery life is from the early homebrew lead acid conversions. Use of any sort of cell level battery balancing was unheard of. Charging could best be described as having a bit of a brute force approach. They didn’t limit discharge depth, which unchecked actually leads to some cells getting a reverse charge, when they hit 0 before their neighbors. All combine to leave them with a very weakened battery. If you have a lithium pack, you must have an active battery management system, especially since you the manufacturer are on the hook for 8 years. “But but they catch fire…. We read about that one in the news”. Yea, you don’t here much about regular cars catching fire. That’s because it happens so often, that it isn’t news. Try 171,500 times a year or about every 3 minutes in the US alone. Once a day, the event is fatal. 4 times a day someone is injured enough to need treatment. The fires only get reported if the car belonged to someone prominent, or it happened someplace that it was particularly disruptive, like a tunnel. Conventional cars have many ways that collision or parts failure can set things alight. There are two things that can get a lithium pack to self ignite, mechanical damage, and incompetent battery management. Those hoverboards that got recalled were because they did the battery management wrong. Every cell did have a protection chip, but they used the ones designed for a single cell, and not the ones with the extra circuits to deal with multiple cells in series. Mechanical damage fires start more slowly, than a fuel fire, the batteries smolder and vent smoke for a while before flames happen. You have more time to get away. And the battery fire doesn’t spread anywhere near as fast as you will see with a gas tank leaking it’s contents downhill. Remember, in most gas powered cars, the bottom of the fuel tank is at or at times below the floor pan. Random obstacles on the road can tear them open. Some are even made of rotary molded plastic. While some metal gas tanks are sturdy, a lot of them will collect a substantial dent if an adult were to jump up, and land on them with both feet. I helped a friend that bought a wrecked Leaf for its battery pack, to salvage the cells for some electric motorcycles he had built. The battery comes in a very sturdy can, that is mounted under the floor. Yes if you jumped and hit the center, it would deflect. At an edge or the corner, not so much. They are pretty well protected. Tesla goes one better, armoring the bottom and front edge with a substantial titanium plate. They also fill the space between the cells with a fire extinguishing gel. But cars can set themselves alight in other ways, ones that don’t even require a collision as a trigger. Conventional cars have fuel running 10 feet or more from the tank to the engine, in a steel tube at the bottom of the car. In fuel injected cars, this line is pressurized to 4 bar (50–60 psi) by a pump in the tank. At various places, there are sections of rubber hose connecting things. There is a guy on YouTube that rebuilds salvage vehicles, and records the process. He just finished recovering a Lamborghini that had a cracked fitting lead to a fire when refueling. He just started on a Ferrari where a rubber line rubbed against the worm drive hose clamp securing its neighbor, wore through, and sprayed the engine compartment with 50 psi fuel, and the exhaust manifold made certain that the failure of that cheap bit of hose did terminal amounts of damage. (The channel is Tavarish if you want to check it out) Last one, I promise. “Look at the damage mining the materials for the batteries makes” this is always accompanied by a distant view of a large open pit mine, or a detail view of excavation machines working on the ramp sides typical of open pit mining. This is a clear attempt at disinformation. Neither photo is a lithium mine. The distant view has been identified as a Russian copper mine. No identification on the close view that I have seen, but what they are mining appears to be coal or oil shale. A lithium mine and refinery looks like a bunch of man made shallow ponds, in the middle of an alkaline salt flat. It makes things a lot easier when what you want to extract is water soluble. If you have flown over the southern edge of the bay south of San Francisco, you would have seen some rectangular ponds that are somewhat unusual colors. This is a “mine” for sea salt. They just use sun and wind to evaporate the water, and the salt eventually crystallizes out. If you flew over a lithium mine, the ponds would look similar, but surrounded by the white sand of the desert, instead of the ocean. The primary source for lithium is the Atacama desert high in the Andes mountains. It is one of the most inhospitable places on the planet. Nothing lives there. It hasn’t rained there in recorded history. They used it to test the signs of life instruments used in Martian exploration. Anyhow you “mine” lithium, by rinsing the alkaline sand, leaving cleaner sand and some brine. You pump the brine into the ponds. After a while the lithium will crystallize on the surface, and you skim it off. Further refining is done electrically.

Which car should I buy, VW Polo, Hyundai i20 or should I wait for Skoda Scala?

Škoda Scala. NCAP Crash Test Ratings: 5 Stars (★★★★★) (Disclaimer: I was in love with Scala as soon as I saw these first three pics.) This rear back reminds me of Volvo V40. Mesmerizing! Kerb Weight: 1138kg. Engine: 1.0 or 1.5 TSI Petrol; 1.6 TDI Diesel; 1.0 G-TEC is Petrol & CNG. Virtual Cockpit 5 different layouts. Two modes with Sport and Normal. Airbags - 9 9 Airbags, Isofix and Top tether, Crew protect assist, ESC, ABS. Full LED Headlights & Tail lights Front Assist with predictive pedestrian protection & Side Assist Park Assist, Rear Traffic Alert & Park Distance Control with Manoeuvre Assist Adaptive Cruise Control, Lane Assist & Drive Alert Auto Light Assist & Multi-Collision Brake Every Smartphone Ready Phone Box, SmartLink, Andoid Auto, Apple CarPlay, Mirror Link, Two front USB type C connectors, Voice control. Premium Interior 3D Navigation with Gesture Controls. Skoda Connect Alarm activation, fuel prices, free parking spaces, information on traffic, e call, details of every trip. Practicality Holders for 1.5-litre bottles in the front doors Cooled glove compartment Jumbo box High-vis-vest storage in every door Skoda Sound System - 10 Speakers & 405W Phone Box with inductive charging Multimedia holder KESSY ,(Keyless Entry Start and exit SYstem) Electrically adjustable driver’s seat Electric tailgate Electrically retractable tow bar Clever Boot Adjustable false boot floor Double-sided boot liner Boot nets Hooks in the boot Fold-Out Boot Mat Rooftop Bicycle Holder Smart Holder Dog Safety Belt Copper Designed Foot Mats The only problem you will face it buying in 2019 is that it will ,launch ,in ,2020,. My Advice:, I would advice you to wait for this car to come and then invest your money in a better company. I would do that. I don’t know if this is coincidence or not, but this year Volvo discontinued V40 and it can certainly replace it at a very less cost. It is one of those cars with “,Best of Every World,”.

What is so unique about Tesla Model 3?

The most impressive electric car this side of a Porsche Taycan. Fresh design, a sense of humor, and backed up by Superchargers Overview What is it? The Tesla Model 3 is an American four-door saloon car with rear- or -four-wheel drive, seating for five people at a pinch, and a touchscreen inside. Sure, it’s all-electric, but it hardly sounds like A Verified Big Deal, does it? But the Tesla Model 3 is one of the most important big deals of the 21st Century so far. This is Tesla’s long-awaited affordable entry-level car, designed to take on the best-selling likes of the BMW 3 Series, Audi A4, and Mercedes C-Class, not to mention their slow-off-the-mark electric cousins. And thanks to Tesla’s viral, household name status and the ambition of the car’s features, the Model 3 has become a phenomenon. It sits below the Model S saloon in the range, and in Standard Range Plus guise, is priced from £40,490. That gets you rear-wheel drive, and a claimed 278 miles of range between visits to a public Supercharger, or your home wall box. Above that in the ‘3’ pecking order lie two all-wheel-drive versions: the Long Range (good for up to 360 miles), and the Performance, which sacrifices a few miles of range but will outrun a Lamborghini Huracán up to the national speed limit. Something for everyone, then… These model lines are correct at the time of writing (January 2021) but Tesla has a habit of creating and killing off trim levels willy-nilly – here today, gone tomorrow. And the price has long since crept away from the mid-£30k target once-vaunted. Not that it stopped the Model 3 from becoming Britain’s best-selling electric car in 2020. As per all Teslas – and most electric cars – the Model 3 is powered by a slab of lithium-ion batteries mounted on the car’s floor, where they’re best protected from a crash and helpfully low to keep the center of gravity in check. That means you get a second boot (frunk or froot, choose your front-biased cargo bay term) in the nose, which is handy for stowing mucky charging cables. Chances are you’ll have heard fragments of what makes Teslas so interesting floating around the internet. Giant touchscreens, funny Easter egg content like games and built-in Netflix, and something about them being able to drive themselves while you take a nap or watch ,Tiger King,. Let’s get on with saluting Tesla for the truth in that, and dispelling the myths the Californian brand’s cult-like following would have you believe. Driving What is it like on the road? Yes, you do have to do this bit yourself. All UK-spec Model 3s come with ‘Autopilot’ built-in as standard, declares Tesla’s website, and you’ll have visions of setting the nav for Saint-Tropez, bedding down for the night, and waking up on the riviera. Not yet, by a long stretch. Autopilot is merely an umbrella term for adaptive cruise control, blind-spot monitoring, lane-following assistant, and pedestrian-avoidance steering. All terribly useful and well-integrated, but nothing you can’t find in a BMW 3 Series and co. To get the full suite of Tesla cleverness, you’ll need to spend £6,800 on the Full Self-Driving Package, which purports to control the car entirely on the motorway (though no longer without your hands on the steering wheel) to automatically find and enter or exit parking spaces, and even summon the car to your location if, say, you want to avoid getting caught in the rain when leaving the shops. Welcome to The Future. Splendid idea, but in execution, not quite there. The Model 3’s automatic lane-changes on the motorway vary from hesitant and haphazard, causing other drivers to be wary of the Tesla rather drunkenly dawdling nearby. Similarly, the Summon feature is a great party trick but better suited to sprawling American parking lots than your average provincial high street. We’ll bet you end up just taking over and doing it the old-fashioned way, using the supercomputer between your ears. Having saved you a few quid on the tech, next, let’s do the same with speed. Trust us, you really don’t need the 450bhp-strong Performance. The £56,490 dual-motor range-topper is supercar fast and that’s one heck of a punchline, but the acceleration is so vivid it’s verging on uncomfortable for passengers. We’ve got into the habit of turning down the acceleration from ‘Sport’ to ‘Chill’ mode, which sort of defeats the point. Imagine how rapid it feels to make us lot at Top Gear say we’d make do with the slower one. Aspirin, anyone? Even the entry-level Standard Range Plus will go from 0-60 in 5.3 seconds, silkily speeding away in silence from the Porsche Cayman who’s still changing gear and building up his revs. It’s effortlessly, instantly rapid. The other reason you might not want quite so much poke is that, despite Tesla’s best efforts, this isn’t a true sports saloon. Sure, the CoG is snake-low and there’s plenty of grips, but the remote, synthetic steering feels like it’s come off an early Xbox rig and the brakes are mushy. The Performance can be coaxed into powerslides, but you can sense the sheer mass heaving around in direction changes and the Model 3 feels out of sorts when pushed as hard as the Crème aus Cremes of German performance metal. As a seven-tenths car with effortless pace though, it’s sensational. Shall we talk range? Teslas tend to excel here, and the Model 3 keeps up the tradition. In a recent winter test of the 2021-spec Model 3 Standard range, we were headed for 210 miles on a charge, with a power consumption of 4.7 miles per kWh knocking the VW ID3 and Nissan Leaf’s 2.7 mpkWh into a cocked hat. Teslas are pretty range-anxiety proof, due to the proliferation of the Supercharger network, its speed of charging, and how efficiently the car uses its battery reserves. A new heat pump from the Model Y has eaten into front boot space in the latest models, but it means even less guilt from cranking up the heater in cold weather. Of course, you can save yourself the bother by pre-conditioning the car via the touchscreen calendar, or your smartphone, which can also act as the car’s key. The low-speed ride is leagues better than it used to be in, say, an early Model S, and the rolling refinement is predictably serene. But handling and speed – that’s all a bit 20th Century, compared to Tesla’s true forte: the interior tech. On the inside Layout, finish, and space Staying true to the Model S’s maxi-minimalist interior design, the Model 3 is just as stark. The dash is nothing but a slab of wood, a full-width air vent, and a 15.4-inch touchscreen, landscape orientated, rather than the larger portrait screen in the S. From where you sit, on a slightly narrow but otherwise comfortable chair, the screen appears to hover in mid-air. Scour the cabin and the only physical buttons you’ll find are two unmarked scroll wheels on the steering wheel (left blank so Tesla can change their functions if needs be via software updates), regular for the electric windows, a button for the hazard lights above your head and a button on the grab handle to open each door, although there’s a physical lever below that in case the electrics catch a cold. Space in the back seats is fine for anyone up to six-foot-tall, a bit cramped beyond that, but it’s worth it for the endless view out through the full-length sunroof that wraps right around and behind your head. It’s because of that infinity roof that the 3 isn’t a hatchback, so you have to make do with a notchback boot, although split-folding rear seats mean you can fit longer objects in, too. Fallen on hard times? Drop the back seats and double blow-up mattress slots in perfectly – some companies make bespoke ones that pack up neatly in the boot. Overall, the build quality and materials are a step behind the established premium European players, but by keeping things super-simple, it’s never really an issue. Acres of plastic switchgear and multiple screens and sockets would have only highlighted Tesla's shortcomings. Multiple test cars we’ve tried have suffered from bugbears like sticking windows and misaligned trim, so check a Model 3 carefully before you accept delivery. As it is, everything is dominated by that central screen. Seriously – you even have to find a sub-sub menu to adjust the steering column reach and rake. The general idea is that the quarter closest to the driver is dedicated to information and controls you might need while driving, including a visual representation of your autopilot situation and shortcuts to the trip computer, charge status, etc. Oh, and your current speed. The Model 3 would do well to include a head-up display for such vitals. The rest is dominated by a map or whatever you want to overlay, such as your radio or music streaming, climate control settings, and phone status. Alternatively, you can dive into the settings menu (best to do this when stationary) and have fun tweaking your steering weight, how much re-gen braking you want, and if you’d like the turn signal to make a fart sound. Really. Although the basic driving controls couldn’t be simpler, this isn’t a car you fully understand in the first five minutes. Like a new smartphone, you need to commit some time to learn the shortcuts, locating the settings you might need, and engraining them in your brain. That said, the touchscreen operation itself is fabulous. The graphics are industry-leading for sharpness, the reaction times are iPad-like and the menus aren’t complicated stacks of multi-layered mayhem. Got everything set just so? Good. Now you can have fun exploring some of Tesla’s ‘Easter eggs’ – modes that are there for no reason other than to make you and your passengers laugh. Modes like the Mars button that turns the map into the surface of the Red Planet, or the Santa setting (only available with Autopilot engaged) which turns your car into a sleigh, the road into a rainbow and other road users into reindeer, or the vast array of old arcade games you can play with the steering wheel scroll buttons in gridlock. You will either find this stuff fun or excruciatingly annoying. Especially when you discover the racing games, which employ the car’s actual steering wheel and pedals, will do your tires no good whatsoever as they’re dry-steered about while you aim for a new high-score. Still, when was the last time you played in-built Mario Kart in an Audi? Exactly. Welcome to a new way to do interiors, where how you have fun when you’re waiting for a charge is just as important as the boring old business of regular transport. Owning Running costs and reliability If you’re happy just to lease it, the cheapest Model 3’s payments dip to £450 a month, from around £600 on a PCP. This is the iPhone of cars after all. In 2024 you’ll be due an upgrade. And in the meantime, Tesla is at pains to point out you’ll save tens of pounds per mile in tax, fuel, and maintenance versus a conventional petrol-powered rival, though that case will weaken as more EV contenders come on stream, with the likes of the BMW i4 and Ford Mustang Mach-E due on the scene imminently. The latter is more of a crossover of course, but if you need more space in your Tesla, there’s the higher Model Y now joining the family. Whereas Superchargers used to be free with the Model S and Model X, you have to pay as you go with the 3, although there’s an allowance of around five to six free Supercharges per year. You’ll spot the red and white charging stations at most motorway services now: as of March 2020, Tesla has created 16,100 Superchargers at over 1,800 locations worldwide. These include 908 stations in the U.S, 98 in Canada, 16 in Mexico, 520 in Europe, and 400 in Asia, with more promised to link in the gaps between major highways and byways. Plug the car into your three-pin wall socket at home and the juice crawls along, adding about five miles of range for every hour. Get a home wall box and you could charge at up to 16.5kW depending on your home connection – that’s 51 miles for every hour plugged in. More realistic for most UK homes is around 7kW, or 22 miles per hour of charging. Beware upgrading to 19-inch rims – they’ll pinch range due to added rolling resistance – and we’d shun the white interior scheme. Even if you’re only keeping your Tesla for a handful of years, the upholstery will be looking tired if you have children, pets, or wear denim. As standard, there are a plethora of features, from heated electric seats to built-in karaoke internet browsing with Netflix and YouTube apps, a tinted glass roof, electric folding, and adjustable door mirrors, and for 2021, wireless phone charging. Pity that Tesla chose to angle the charging bays directly at the driver, where they’re most distracting – but by the look of that touchscreen, Tesla’s hardly worried about screens being overbearing, is it? Happily, the waiting list is now down from over a year to less than a month. That’s the boon of only offering a handful of colors and only two cabin color schemes. The Model 3 doesn’t need a wild spec to stand out, yet. Verdict Final thoughts and pick of the range Everything Tesla has done up to this point has built towards the Model 3... and it's been worth it Posed against po-faced competitors, Teslas are invariably the quick ones, the efficient ones, the fun ones with Fart Mode, and the lucky ones least dependent on a haphazard charging ecosystem. Even a basic version with a single rearward motor and only Chill/Sport acceleration settings develops 235bhp and punches to 60mph faster than a £55k Jaguar F-Type. While the angry frog styling won’t be to all tastes, the interior is a real love/hate arrangement and the driving dynamics aren’t all that memorable once you’ve stopped swallowing your tongue every time you nail the throttle, it’s easy to see why the Model 3 has become a global standard-setter for EVs. This is the future we were promised – a car with sentience, a sense of humor, and a fresh take on the old norms. After trying this, your old repmobile will feel positively Brunellian. The Model 3 was Top Gear’s 2019 saloon of the year, beating the old guard and maintaining its lead of the new EV pretenders. It’s been in production since mid-2017, but even heading into middle age, nothing on the market has yet managed to beat the Model 3 on all fronts. While not without flaws, it is quite simply one of the most interesting, compelling cars in the world right now.

HOME