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Why were some WW2 era tank engines hugely overpowered by the rotary airplane engines?

Almost all WWII tank engines were derated aero engines or made by companies with aero engine experience. In most cases the same engine was used but derated, without a supercharger and running on lower octane petrol. If you derate an engine you loose top end power but you get lots of torque - aka pulling power to get you out of the mud. So, start with a big engine and work down. The catch is that there is not really a large market for tank engines between wars! And that in the 30’s many countries taxed engines on volume. Even truck engines were not really big enough. So, when people started looking for really big engines, aero engines were the way to go - usually by making use of older engines from a previous generation Rather than give a huge ‘history’ how about some examples British tanks Started off with Liberty engines, ex-WW1 aero engines put back into production by Leyland - who should have know better. The RAF offered later Napier Lion engines at £500 each and these were rejected as ‘too expensive’! So, British tanks were woefully underpowered and unreliable, till someone did the obvious and asked Rolls Royce to give a hand! Rolls Royce’s car division were short of work and looking for ways to help the war effort so they derated the Merlin to produce the Meteor. Many ‘Meteors’ were actually salvaged Merlins. Would you want to fly behind an engine from a crash? Much better to reuse it on the ground in a tank! Rolls-Royce Meteor - Wikipedia American Tanks. Started off with old aircraft radial engines (since most American aero engines of the time were radials) - hence the high silhouette of so many American tanks Big radials are not exactly easy to shoehorn into a tank! M2 light tank - Wikipedia, ,M3 Stuart - Wikipedia,, ,Continental R-670 - Wikipedia Aviation gasoline is very inflammable so they then intelligently switched to a diesel version. Guiberson A-1020 - Wikipedia American business was not slow in realising the opportunities WWII provided and there was a huge demand for tank engines that led to all sorts of interesting designs. Henry Ford was keen to have a share. He got hold of the Merlin blueprints and made a “Ford” version (Ford UK made thousands of Merlins). That is not to be dismissive, Ford were experts at engine design and made a lot of improvements, particularly for mass production. Being Henry, he had mucked too many people about to get any US aircraft engine contracts. So he knocked four cylinders off the design and produced arguably the best tank engine of the war! ,Ford GAA engine - Wikipedia There were some alternatives to aero engines. GM had realised there was business to be had and stuck two Cadillac V8’s, together with their hydromatic automatic drive systems into the ,M3 Stuart - Wikipedia,. Apparently it worked a treat! The Brits were so taken with the M3 they renamed them ‘Honeys’. Not to be left out Chrysler bolted together five straight 6 truck engines into the A57 - but this rather proves the point that starting with a big aero engine is a better idea - unless you like changing 30 plugs! Chrysler A57 multibank - Wikipedia Russian tanks WWII Russian tanks were very influenced by J Walter Christie’s M1931 (as were the Brits!) ,M1931 Christie - Army Tanks J. Walter Christie - Wikipedia, Christie was convinced tanks should be fast over the ground - so he developed a superb suspension system and used the biggest engines he could get - aero engines! The Russians bought Christie’s tanks and ideas, but they had the good sense to realise that the Liberty engine was well past it’s best. Hence the classic photos of Russian BT tanks doing their jumps! So the Russians started to look for an alternative to the Liberty engine. By a very long process they took a French Hispano-Suiza airship engine and produced the V-2 ,Origin of the Russian V2-34 engine Kharkiv model V-2 - Wikipedia A compact V-12 diesel that powered just about every Russian tank you have ever heard of! Another candidate for the best tank engine of WWII German Tanks Maybach did the business. ,Maybach - Wikipedia They started with Zeppelin engines, Maybach VL II - Wikipedia But by the late 30’s were the go-to company for all German tank engines from the ,Panzer II - Wikipedia, to the Tiger ,Tiger II - Wikipedia,. They also did the gear boxes which probably helped their near monopoly Almost boringly methodical - but that’s the Germans for you - get the right solution and stick to it! So, in answer to your question, not ‘,overpowered,’, but almost always ‘,powered,’ by aero engines or from aero engine heritage. As a final comment “Rotary airplane engines” are usually taken to mean a weird sort of engine that looks like a radial - but had the propellor and cylinders rotating around a fixed crankshaft. ,Rotary engine - Wikipedia, Much too dangerous to have in a tank! I assume the original questioner meant radial.

Is war profiteering occurring in Ukraine?

I just came from the Crimea. I did some statistics on cars there. About 20% of cars in the Crimea bear Ukrainian registration plates issued in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Zaporozhye, Marioupol. Out of those cars, about 40% are Range Rover, Toyota Land Cruiser Prada, variety of Porsche, some Jaguar, BMW X7, top models of Mercedes and Mini. About 10% of cars are from Donetsk and Lugansk. These are primarily Mitsubishi, Ford, Mazda, Toyota. Interestingly, East and West guys are getting along and partying together down there. I’d say that works out as a ‘yes’ to the question.

Why were tanks so light/thinly armoured at the start of World War II?

Because engines were weak. (Also, Germany didn’t produce oil, and pre-war tanks were limited by the Versailles treaty.) Back then Sd.Kfz 6 (that’s carrying the 88mm gun) started out with only a 90 horsepower engine, initially. In the 21st century, we think this little thing having 130 horsepower is totally normal. But we are talking about almost 100 years ago. 1931 Ford Model A had 40 horsepower. Compared to that, about 100 horsepower of Panzer I (which was developed in 1934) was powerful. 5 ton was a good match for a 100 horsepower engine. 100 horsepower could carry a bit more weight, like the 7-ton Sd.Kfz 251. But not quite enough for Panzer II which was 8 ton. It used a 130–140 horsepower engine. Czech’s tank, which Germans stole and named Panzer 38(t), also had about 125 horsepower. But because this was a 10-ton tank it was slower than Panzer II. (9mph vs 15mph, offroad) With a 230–270 hp engine, they could move Panzer III (which was about 23 tons). Not many people talk about the Russian Kharkiv model V-2. But it was a war winner. This aluminum block engine produced anywhere from 450 hp to 700 hp. Slap this motor on a 13 ton BT-7 tank? It could do 53 mph. It could fly. (no, not literally) Of course, 450–500 horsepower was good enough for the 26-ton T-34 tank too. T-34 came out early in the war, but it was not thinly armored. While the Versailles treaty prohibited Germans from producing tanks, Russia was free to develop anything. Sure, the armor is sloped, which gave a lot of advantage when compared to Panzer IV of the same weight class. But also it could go heavier with T34/85 because Russia has oil fields. Germans can make engines, but they couldn’t make oil (aside from synthetic oil from coal). Perhaps due to lack of oil, they built smaller engines when compared to Russians. Weaker engines limited the armor. And they couldn’t boldly make anything they want either. Germany had to pretend to follow the Versailles treaty. They had to start small. If they started to make big tanks from the start, there was a risk of the French army walking all over Germany even before they built 100 tanks. Germans were alarmed by the heavy loss of Panzer II during the French campaign. But they still won. They figured that invading Russia couldn’t be too hard. So they went to Russia with a bunch of light tanks, many of which were stolen from the Czech. And they found these things in Russia. (KV-2) If you look at it from that perspective, it’s not that Germans were making weak tanks, it’s the Russians who had abundant material and oil to make T34s and monstrous KV-1 tanks. Kv-1 was their version of Tiger in 1939! They just didn’t have any experience with combined warfare yet. On the west, England didn’t produce oil either. So Matilda II only had a 190 horsepower engine when T34 had a 500hp engine. Even though they are about the same in weight. (You can imagine how slow Matilda was.) KV-1 was a massive 45-ton tank. And that was 3 years before Tiger I. So at least, Russia had thick armor from the start. If you have oil, you can build big engines. If you have big engines, you can build heavy tanks.

Isn't Putin just like Stalin, sans purges, genocides, and having Hitler to fight?

Putin like stalin ! ? Purges ? Genocides ? And having Hitler to Fight ? Lol I mean seriously. How can you compare Putin with Stalin I don't believe. May be you are trying to Mixing Stuffs and the Ideologies ( Socialism, Communism , Fascism, Nationalism , Liberalism , Capitalism ) . When these Far - Leftist Liberals or left wing tell you all. I Never Ever heard of Liberal sources from Mainstream Media Tell you ( All Fake News ) Putin Like Stalin ? Doesn't make sense . Is it True when Trump compare himself with Hitler , or Joseph Goebbels like Daily mail or BBC said you Headlines . Or Trump like Henry Ford. Or American Eagle with Nazi symbol . When you listen these stuffs like this seems. Funny Just send them back and don't Follow these Stuffs ( all Trash ) until Trump praises at least Putin , Built Good Diplomatic deals and earn Respect . Still what he left is Legacy and Good memories for Republicans . Dont talk about Russian interference in Us elections 2016 !! Its just " Witch Hunt Hoax . Fake News " . when recently Trump Tweet like this . Sources : Twitter , Daily news , Time , Global news. current Russia is Full of Putinism , Not like Stalinism , Leninism . Still ,Trump elected and won in 2016,. I too voted him when i was a student in Kharkiv and many fellow Russians , ukrainians and my Fellow Indians Voted too and Enjoyed when they cheers and say " To President Trump , We are the Champions of the world Drink Vodka ( i used to Drink coffee, and Not Beer) hahaha. " majority of them i asked to them about ,Conspiracy of Obama, Clinton and Biden ,. They are tell me Factually correct They don't Like Clinton, Nor Biden and Obama. Even Don't like Lgbt stuffs they used to say " its a Psychological disorder and a kind of Gender diaspora ." They Replied: " Clinton and Obama are war mongers just need is Money and Oil . Americans used to say " In GOD we Trust " when GOD means ( ,G,asoline , ,O,il and ,D,rugs ) . We never listen to these Liberals sources. What we try to analyse it searching for Facts either it is True or Not and Search for Reuters. " and me and my fellow Friends now Graduated and Return Back safely in COVID -19 Pandemic" all know very well and interested in Politics and Modern Political Scenario and About ,Globalism and Brexit, too.

Has anyone between us seen the earth from a distance (to see with his own eyes) its shape?

As a direct answer to your question, yes, and here is a list of both sub-orbital (listed first) and orbital (listed further down) astronauts from countries around the world from both the private and public sectors. PS the earth is indeed an imperfect sphere, it should also be noted that there are plenty of experiments, many of which you can conduct your self to prove the shape of the earth. Don’t buy into any flat earth BS. Anyway here is the list. Suborbital space fliers[,edit,] Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[,edit,] The Soviet Union never launched a spaceflight intended as suborbital. The following persons were launched aboard ,Soyuz 18a,, intended as orbital, but which was forced to abort before reaching orbit, after reaching suborbital space. [4] Vasili Lazarev, — ,Soyuz 18a,. Also orbited aboard ,Soyuz 12,. Oleg Makarov, — ,Soyuz 18a,. Also orbited aboard ,Soyuz 12,, ,Soyuz 27,, ,Soyuz 26, and ,Soyuz T-3,. United States[,edit,] The following persons flew or were launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 km, which counts as a space flight by ,FAI, guidelines: Brian Binnie, — ,SpaceShipOne flight 17P Gus Grissom, (1926–1967) — ,Mercury 4,. Also orbited aboard ,Gemini 3,. Mike Melvill,, born in Johannesburg, South Africa — ,SpaceShipOne flight 15P,, ,SpaceShipOne flight 16P Alan Shepard, (1923–1998), first ,American, in space — ,Mercury 3,. Also orbited and flew to the moon aboard ,Apollo 14,. Joseph A. Walker, (1921–1966), USAF X-15 astronaut — ,X-15 Flight 90,, ,X-15 Flight 91 The following persons flew into the upper atmosphere between 80 and 100 km, which counts as space flight by United States guidelines: Michael J. Adams, (1930–1967) — ,X-15 Flight 191 William H. Dana, (1930–2014) — X-15 Flights 174 and 197 Joseph H. Engle, — X-15 Flights 138, 143, and 153. Also orbited. William J. Knight, (1929–2004) — X-15 Flight 190 John B. McKay, (1922–1975) — X-15 Flight 150 Robert A. Rushworth, (1924–1993) — X-15 Flight 87 Joseph A. Walker, (1921–1966) — X-15 Flight 77. Also flew above 100 km. Robert M. White, (1924–2010) — X-15 Flight 62 Orbital space travelers[,edit,] Afghanistan[,edit,] Abdul Ahad Mohmand, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Afghan, in space — ,Soyuz TM-6,/,5 Brazil[,edit,] Marcos Pontes,, first ,Brazilian, in space, first ,lusophone, in space, first professional astronaut officially representing a Southern Hemisphere country in space. — ,Soyuz TMA-8 Bulgaria[,edit,] Aleksandar Panayotov Aleksandrov, (,Intercosmos,) — ,Soyuz TM-5,/,4 Georgi Ivanov, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Bulgarian, in space. — ,Soyuz 33 Canada[,edit,] Roberta Bondar,, first ,Canadian, woman in space. — ,STS-42 Marc Garneau,, first ,Canadian, in space. — ,STS-41-G,, ,STS-77,, ,STS-97 Chris Hadfield,, first ,Canadian, to walk in space. — ,STS-74,, ,STS-100,, ,Soyuz TMA-07M Guy Laliberté,, space tourist — ,Soyuz TMA-16,/,14 Steven MacLean, — ,STS-52,, ,STS-115 Julie Payette, — ,STS-96,, ,STS-127 Robert Thirsk, — ,STS-78,, ,Soyuz TMA-15 Bjarni Tryggvason,, born in Iceland — ,STS-85 Dafydd Williams, — ,STS-90,, ,STS-118 China[,edit,] Chen Dong, — ,Shenzhou 11 Fei Junlong, — ,Shenzhou 6 Jing Haipeng, — ,Shenzhou 7,, ,Shenzhou 9,, ,Shenzhou 11 Liu Boming, — ,Shenzhou 7 Liu Wang, — ,Shenzhou 9 Liu Yang,, first ,Chinese, woman in space — ,Shenzhou 9 Nie Haisheng, — ,Shenzhou 6,, ,Shenzhou 10 Wang Yaping, — ,Shenzhou 10 Yang Liwei,, first ,Chinese, national in space — ,Shenzhou 5 Zhai Zhigang,, first ,Chinese, national to walk in space — ,Shenzhou 7 Zhang Xiaoguan, — ,Shenzhou 10 Cuba[,edit,] Arnaldo Tamayo Méndez, (,Intercosmos,), the first ,Cuban, and the first person from a country in the ,Western Hemisphere, other than the U.S. to travel to space. He was also the first ,Hispanophone, and first person of ,African, ancestry in space. — ,Soyuz 38 Czechoslovakia[,edit,] Vladimír Remek, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Czech, and first non-Soviet ,European, in space. — ,Soyuz 28 European Space Agency, members[,edit,] See also: ,European Astronaut Corps Some of these astronauts participated in national space programme activity unrelated to their home country's contemporary or subsequent membership of the European Space Agency. Austria[,edit,] Franz Viehböck,, first ,Austrian, in space. — ,Soyuz TM-13,/,12 Belgium[,edit,] Frank De Winne,, EAC — ,Soyuz TMA-1,/,TM-34,, ,Soyuz TMA-15 Dirk Frimout,, first ,Belgian, in space. — ,STS-45 Denmark[,edit,] Andreas Mogensen,, first ,Dane, in space. — ,Soyuz TMA-18M,/,16M France[,edit,] Patrick Baudry,, second Frenchman in space, born in Douala, Cameroon — ,STS-51-G Jean-Loup Chrétien,, ,CNES, (,Intercosmos,), first ,French, person in space and first non-Soviet ,European, to walk in space — ,Soyuz T-6,, ,Soyuz TM-7,/,6,, ,STS-86 Jean-François Clervoy,, EAC — ,STS-66,, ,STS-84,, ,STS-103 Léopold Eyharts,, EAC — ,Soyuz TM-27,/,26,, ,STS-122,/,123 Jean-Jacques Favier,, born in Kehl, Germany — ,STS-78 Claudie André-Deshays Haigneré,, EAC, first ,Frenchwoman, in space (Mir, 1996) — ,Soyuz TM-24,/,23,, ,Soyuz TM-33,/,32 Jean-Pierre Haigneré,, EAC — ,Soyuz TM-17,/,16,, ,Soyuz TM-29 Philippe Perrin,, EAC, born in Meknes, Morocco — ,STS-111 Michel Tognini,, EAC — ,Soyuz TM-15,/,14,, ,STS-93 Thomas Pesquet, — ,Soyuz MS-03 Germany[,edit,] Reinhold Ewald,, EAC — ,Soyuz TM-25,/,24 Klaus-Dietrich Flade, — ,Soyuz TM-14,/,13 Reinhard Furrer,, born in Wörgl, Austria (1940–1995) — ,STS-61-A, (flew for ,West Germany,) Alexander Gerst, — ,Soyuz TMA-13M Sigmund Jähn, (,Intercosmos,), first ,German, in space — ,Soyuz 31,/,29, (flew for ,East Germany,) Ulf Merbold,, EAC — ,STS-9,, ,STS-42,, ,Soyuz TM-20,/,19, (flew for both ,West Germany, and united Germany) Ernst Messerschmid, — ,STS-61-A, (flew for ,West Germany,) Thomas Reiter,, EAC, first ,German, to walk in space and first ,ESA, astronaut to stay on the ,ISS,. — ,Soyuz TM-22,, ,STS-121,/,116 Hans Schlegel,, EAC — ,STS-55,, ,STS-122 Gerhard Thiele,, EAC — ,STS-99 Ulrich Walter, — ,STS-55 Italy[,edit,] Maurizio Cheli,, EAC — ,STS-75 Samantha Cristoforetti,, EAC, first ,Italian, woman in space — ,Soyuz TMA-15M Umberto Guidoni,, EAC — ,STS-75,, ,STS-100 Franco Malerba,, first ,Italian, in space. — ,STS-46 Paolo A. Nespoli,, EAC — ,STS-120,, ,Soyuz TMA-20 Luca Parmitano,, EAC, first ,Italian, to walk in space.,[5], — ,Soyuz TMA-09M Roberto Vittori,, EAC — ,Soyuz TM-34,/,33,, ,Soyuz TMA-6,/,5,, ,STS-134 Netherlands[,edit,] André Kuipers,, EAC — ,Soyuz TMA-4,/,3,, ,Soyuz TMA-03M Wubbo Ockels,, EAC, first ,Dutchman, in space. — ,STS-61-A Poland[,edit,] Mirosław Hermaszewski, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Pole, in space. — ,Soyuz 30 Romania[,edit,] Dumitru Prunariu, (,Intercosmos,), first Romanian in space. — ,Soyuz 40 Spain[,edit,] Pedro Duque,, EAC, first ,Spaniard, in space. — ,STS-95,, ,Soyuz TMA-3,/,2 Sweden[,edit,] Christer Fuglesang,, EAC, first ,Swede, in space. — ,STS-116,, ,STS-128 Switzerland[,edit,] Claude Nicollier,, EAC, first ,Swiss, in space. — ,STS-46,, ,STS-61,, ,STS-75,, ,STS-103 United Kingdom[,edit,] Helen Sharman,, ,Project Juno,, first ,Briton, in space. — ,Soyuz TM-12,/,11 Tim Peake,, EAC, first professional ,British, astronaut in space. — ,Soyuz TMA-19M Additionally, ,Michael Foale,, born in England to a British father and American mother and a ,dual citizen, of the United Kingdom and the United States, and was raised and educated in England; however, he is a member of NASA's Astronaut Corps and flew as an American. [6] Gregory H. Johnson, has foreign (US) citizenship, having been born in the UK to American parents, while ,Piers Sellers,, ,Nicholas Patrick,, ,Richard Garriott, and ,Mark Shuttleworth, have dual nationalities. Hungary[,edit,] Bertalan Farkas, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Hungarian, in space. — ,Soyuz 36,/,35 India[,edit,] Rakesh Sharma, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Indian, national in space. — ,Soyuz T-11,/,10 Israel[,edit,] Ilan Ramon, (1954–2003), first ,Israeli, in space, died on the ,Columbia,. — ,STS-107 Japan[,edit,] Toyohiro Akiyama,, first Japanese man in space. — ,Soyuz TM-11,/,10 Takao Doi,, first Japanese man to walk in space. — ,STS-87,, ,STS-123 Akihiko Hoshide, — ,STS-124,, ,Soyuz TMA-05M Mamoru Mohri, — ,STS-47,, ,STS-99 Chiaki Mukai,, first Japanese woman in space. — ,STS-65,, ,STS-95 Soichi Noguchi, — ,STS-114,, ,Soyuz TMA-17 Takuya Onishi, — ,Soyuz MS-01 Koichi Wakata, — ,STS-72,, ,STS-92,, ,STS-119,/,127,, ,Soyuz TMA-11M Naoko Yamazaki, — ,STS-131 Kimiya Yui, — ,Soyuz TMA-17M Satoshi Furukawa, — ,Soyuz TMA-02M Kazakhstan[,edit,] Aidyn Aimbetov, — ,Soyuz TMA-18M Note: Kazakh cosmonauts ,Toktar Aubakirov, and ,Talgat Musabayev, flew under the Soviet and Russian flags. Malaysia[,edit,] Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor,, first ,Malaysian, in space — ,Soyuz TMA-11,/,10 Mexico[,edit,] Rodolfo Neri Vela,, first ,Mexican, in space. — ,STS-61-B Mongolia[,edit,] Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Mongolian, in space. — ,Soyuz 39 Russia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [,edit,] The ,Soviet space program, came under the control of the ,Russian Federation, in December 1991; the new program, now called the ,Russian Federal Space Agency,, retained continuity of equipment and personnel with the Soviet program. While all Soviet and ,RKA, cosmonauts were born within the borders of the U.S.S.R., many were born outside the boundaries of Russia, and may be claimed by other Soviet successor states as nationals of those states. These cosmonauts are marked with an asterisk * and their place of birth is shown in an appended list. All, however, claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights. A[,edit,] Viktor Mikhaylovich Afanasyev, — ,Soyuz TM-11,, ,Soyuz TM-18,, ,Soyuz TM-29,, ,Soyuz TM-33,/,32 Vladimir Aksyonov, — ,Soyuz 22,, ,Soyuz T-2 Aleksandr Pavlovich Aleksandrov, — ,Soyuz T-9,, ,Soyuz TM-3 Anatoly Artsebarsky,* — ,Soyuz TM-12 Yuri Artyukhin, (1930–1998) — ,Soyuz 14 Oleg Atkov, — ,Soyuz T-10,/,11 Toktar Aubakirov,* — ,Soyuz TM-13,/,12 Sergei Avdeyev, — ,Soyuz TM-15,, ,Soyuz TM-22 B[,edit,] Aleksandr Balandin, — ,Soyuz TM-9 Yuri Baturin,, first Russian politician in space. — ,Soyuz TM-28,/,27,, ,Soyuz TM-32,/,31 Pavel Belyayev, (1925–1970) — ,Voskhod 2 Georgi Beregovoi,* (1921–1995) — ,Soyuz 3 Anatoly Berezovoy, (1942-2014) — ,Soyuz T-5,/,7 Andrei Borisenko, — ,Soyuz TMA-21,, ,Soyuz MS-02 Nikolai Budarin, — ,STS-71,/,Soyuz TM-21,, ,Soyuz TM-27,, ,STS-113,/,Soyuz TMA-1 Valery Bykovsky, — ,Vostok 5,, ,Soyuz 22,, ,Soyuz 31,/,29 D[,edit,] Vladimir N. Dezhurov, — ,Soyuz TM-21,/,STS-71 Georgi Dobrovolski,* (1928–1971), died on reentry. — ,Soyuz 11 Lev Dyomin, (1926–1998) — ,Soyuz 15 Vladimir Dzhanibekov,* — ,Soyuz 27,/,26,, ,Soyuz 39,, ,Soyuz T-12,, ,Soyuz T-13 F[,edit,] Konstantin Feoktistov, (1926–2009) — ,Voskhod 1 Anatoly Filipchenko, — ,Soyuz 7,, ,Soyuz 16 G[,edit,] Yuri Gagarin, (1934–1968), first person in space. — ,Vostok 1 Yuri Gidzenko,* — ,Soyuz TM-22,, ,Soyuz TM-31,/,STS-102,, ,Soyuz TM-34,/,Soyuz TM-33 Yuri Glazkov, (1939–2008) — ,Soyuz 24 Viktor Gorbatko, — ,Soyuz 7,, ,Soyuz 24,, ,Soyuz 37,/,36 Georgi Grechko, — ,Soyuz 17,, ,Soyuz 26,/,27,, ,Soyuz T-14,/,13 Aleksei Gubarev, — ,Soyuz 17,, ,Soyuz 28 I[,edit,] Aleksandr Ivanchenkov, — ,Soyuz 29,/,31 Anatoli Ivanishin, — ,Soyuz TMA-22,, ,Soyuz MS-01 K[,edit,] Aleksandr Kaleri,* — ,Soyuz TM-14,, ,Soyuz TM-24,, ,Soyuz TM-30,, ,Soyuz TMA-3,, ,Soyuz TMA-01M Yevgeny Khrunov, (1933–2000) — ,Soyuz 5,/,4 Leonid Kizim,* (1941–2010) — ,Soyuz T-3,, ,Soyuz T-10,/,11,, ,Soyuz T-15 Pyotr Klimuk,* — ,Soyuz 13,, ,Soyuz 18,, ,Soyuz 30 Vladimir Komarov, (1927–1967), died during reentry of first Soyuz spacecraft. — ,Voskhod 1,, ,Soyuz 1 Yelena V. Kondakova, — ,Soyuz TM-20,/,STS-84 Dmitri Kondratyev, — ,Soyuz TMA-20 Oleg Kononenko,* — ,Soyuz TMA-12,, ,Soyuz TMA-03M,, ,Soyuz TMA-17M Mikhail Korniyenko, — ,Soyuz TMA-18,, ,Soyuz TMA-16M Valery Korzun, — ,Soyuz TM-24,, ,STS-111,/,113 Oleg Kotov,* — ,Soyuz TMA-10,, ,Soyuz TMA-17,, ,Soyuz TMA-10M Vladimir Kovalyonok,* — ,Soyuz 25,, ,Soyuz 29,/,31,, ,Soyuz T-4 Konstantin Kozeyev, — ,Soyuz TM-33,/,32 Sergei Krikalev,, six space flights and, as of 2006, holds record for longest total time in space: 803 days, 9 hours and 39 minutes. — ,Soyuz TM-7,, ,Soyuz TM-12,/,Soyuz TM-13,, ,STS-60,, ,STS-88,, ,Soyuz TM-31,/,STS-102,, ,Soyuz TMA-6 Valeri Kubasov, — ,Soyuz 6,, ,Soyuz 19,, ,Soyuz 36,/,35 L[,edit,] Aleksandr Laveykin, — ,Soyuz TM-2 Vasili Lazarev, (1928–1990) — ,Soyuz 12,, ,Soyuz 18a Aleksandr Lazutkin, — ,Soyuz TM-25 Valentin Lebedev, — ,Soyuz 13,, ,Soyuz T-5,/,7 Aleksei Leonov,, first person to "walk in space" (to make an EVA). — ,Voskhod 2,, ,Soyuz 19 Anatoli Levchenko,* (1941–1988) — ,Soyuz TM-4,/,3 Yuri Lonchakov,* — ,STS-100,, ,Soyuz TMA-1,/,TM-34,, ,Soyuz TMA-13 Vladimir Lyakhov,* — ,Soyuz 32,/,34,, ,Soyuz T-9,, ,Soyuz TM-6,/,5 M[,edit,] Oleg Makarov, (1933–2003) — ,Soyuz 12,, ,Soyuz 18a,, ,Soyuz 27,/,26,, ,Soyuz T-3 Yuri Malenchenko,* — ,Soyuz TM-19,, ,STS-106,, ,Soyuz TMA-2,, ,Soyuz TMA-11,, ,Soyuz TMA-05M,, ,Soyuz TMA-19M Yury Malyshev, (1941–1999) — ,Soyuz T-2,, ,Soyuz T-11,/,10 Gennadi Manakov, — ,Soyuz TM-10,, ,Soyuz TM-16 Musa Manarov,* — ,Soyuz TM-4,/,6,, ,Soyuz TM-11 Boris Morukov, (1950—2015) — ,STS-106 Talgat Musabayev,* — ,Soyuz TM-19,, ,Soyuz TM-27,, ,Soyuz TM-32,/,31 N[,edit,] Andriyan Nikolayev, (1929–2004), first astronaut of Chuvash descent — ,Vostok 3,, ,Soyuz 9 Oleg Novitski,* — ,Soyuz TMA-06M O[,edit,] Yuri Onufrienko,* — ,Soyuz TM-23,, ,STS-108,/,111 Aleksei Ovchinin, — ,Soyuz TMA-20M P[,edit,] Gennady Padalka, — ,Soyuz TM-28,, ,Soyuz TMA-4,, ,Soyuz TMA-14,, ,Soyuz TMA-04M,, ,Soyuz TMA-16M Viktor Patsayev,* (1933–1971), died in reentry. — ,Soyuz 11 Aleksandr Poleshchuk, — ,Soyuz TM-16 Valeri Polyakov,, holds record for single longest spaceflight, 437 days — ,Soyuz TM-6,/,7,, ,Soyuz TM-18,/,20 Leonid Popov,* — ,Soyuz 35,/,37,, ,Soyuz 40,, ,Soyuz T-7,/,5 Pavel Popovich,* (1930–2009) — ,Vostok 4,, ,Soyuz 14 R[,edit,] Sergei Revin, — ,Soyuz TMA-04M Roman Romanenko, — ,Soyuz TMA-15,, ,Soyuz TMA-07M Yuri Romanenko, — ,Soyuz 26,/,27,, ,Soyuz 38,, ,Soyuz TM-2,/,3 Valery Rozhdestvensky, — ,Soyuz 23 Nikolai Rukavishnikov, (1932–2002) — ,Soyuz 10,, ,Soyuz 16,, ,Soyuz 33 Sergei Ryazanski, — ,Soyuz TMA-10M Valery Ryumin, — ,Soyuz 25,, ,Soyuz 32,/,34,, ,Soyuz 35,/,37,, ,STS-91 Sergei Ryzhikov, — ,Soyuz MS-02 S[,edit,] Aleksandr Samokutyayev, — ,Soyuz TMA-21,, ,Soyuz TMA-14M Gennadi Sarafanov, (1942–2005) — ,Soyuz 15 Viktor Savinykh, — ,Soyuz T-4,, ,Soyuz T-13,/,14 Svetlana Savitskaya,, first woman to walk in space. — ,Soyuz T-7,/,5,, ,Soyuz T-12 Aleksandr Serebrov, (1944-2013) — ,Soyuz T-7,/,5,, ,Soyuz T-8,, ,Soyuz TM-8,, ,Soyuz TM-17 Yelena Serova, — ,Soyuz TMA-14M Vitali Sevastyanov, (1935–2010) — ,Soyuz 9,, ,Soyuz 18 Yuri Shargin,, first Russian military ,cosmonaut, — ,Soyuz TMA-5,/,4 Salizhan Sharipov,* — ,STS-89,, ,Soyuz TMA-5 Vladimir Shatalov,* — ,Soyuz 4,, ,Soyuz 8,, ,Soyuz 10 Anton Shkaplerov, — ,Soyuz TMA-22,, ,Soyuz TMA-15M Georgi Shonin,* (1935–1997) — ,Soyuz 6 Oleg Skripochka, — ,Soyuz TMA-01M,, ,Soyuz TMA-20M Aleksandr Skvortsov, — ,Soyuz TMA-18 Anatoly Solovyev,* — ,Soyuz TM-5,/,4,, ,Soyuz TM-9,, ,Soyuz TM-15,, ,STS-71,/,Soyuz TM-21,, ,Soyuz TM-26 Vladimir Solovyov, — ,Soyuz T-10,/,11,, ,Soyuz T-15 Gennadi Strekalov, (1940–2004) — ,Soyuz T-3,, ,Soyuz T-8,, ,Soyuz T-11,/,10,, ,Soyuz TM-10,, ,Soyuz TM-21,/,STS-71 Maksim Surayev, — ,Soyuz TMA-16,, ,Soyuz TMA-13M T[,edit,] Yevgeni Tarelkin, — ,Soyuz TMA-06M Valentina Tereshkova,, first woman in space. — ,Vostok 6 Gherman Titov, (1935–2000), the second person to make a space flight and the first to stay up for a day. — ,Vostok 2 Vladimir Titov, — ,Soyuz T-8,, ,Soyuz TM-4,/,6,, ,STS-63,, ,STS-86 Valeri Tokarev, — ,STS-96,, ,Soyuz TMA-7 Sergei Treshchov, — ,STS-111,/,113 Vasili Tsibliyev,* — ,Soyuz TM-17,, ,Soyuz TM-25 Mikhail Tyurin, — ,STS-105,/,108,, ,Soyuz TMA-9,, ,Soyuz TMA-11M U[,edit,] Yuri Usachov, — ,Soyuz TM-18,, ,Soyuz TM-23,, ,STS-101,, ,STS-102,/,STS-105 V[,edit,] Vladimir Vasyutin,* (1952–2002) — ,Soyuz T-14 Aleksandr Viktorenko,* — ,Soyuz TM-3,/,2,, ,Soyuz TM-8,, ,Soyuz TM-14,, ,Soyuz TM-20 Pavel Vinogradov, — ,Soyuz TM-26,, ,Soyuz TMA-8 Igor Volk,* — ,Soyuz T-12 Alexander Volkov,* — ,Soyuz T-14,, ,Soyuz TM-7,, ,Soyuz TM-13,, ,Soyuz TM-13 Sergei Aleksandrovich Volkov,* — ,Soyuz TMA-12,, ,Soyuz TMA-02M,, ,Soyuz TMA-18M Vladislav Volkov, (1935–1971), died on reentry. — ,Soyuz 7,, ,Soyuz 11 Boris Volynov, — ,Soyuz 5,, ,Soyuz 21 Y[,edit,] Boris Yegorov, (1937–1994) — ,Voskhod 1 Aleksei Yeliseyev, — ,Soyuz 5,/,4,, ,Soyuz 8,, ,Soyuz 10 Fyodor Yurchikhin,* — ,STS-112,, ,Soyuz TMA-10,, ,Soyuz TMA-19,, ,Soyuz TMA-09M Z[,edit,] Sergei Zalyotin, — ,Soyuz TM-30,, ,Soyuz TMA-1,/,TM-34 Vitali Zholobov,* — ,Soyuz 21 Vyacheslav Zudov, — ,Soyuz 23 Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia[,edit,] All of the locations below were part of the former U.S.S.R. at the time of the cosmonauts' birth. Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / Azerbaijan [,edit,] Musa Manarov,, born in Baku, Azerbaijan Byelorussian S.S.R. / Belarus [,edit,] Pyotr Klimuk,, born in Komarovka, Belarus. First Belarus-born man in space Vladimir Kovalyonok,, born in Beloye, Belarus Oleg Novitski,, born in Chervyen’, Belarus Georgian S.S.R. / Georgia [,edit,] Fyodor Yurchikhin,, born in Batumi, Georgia Kazakh S.S.R. / Kazakhstan [,edit,] Toktar Aubakirov,, born in Karaganda, Kazakhstan. First ethnic ,Kazakh, in space. Yuri Lonchakov,, born in Balkhash, Kazakhstan Talgat Musabayev,, born in Kargaly, Kazakhstan, later a Kazakh citizen,[7],[8] Viktor Patsayev,, born in Aktyubinsk, Kazakhstan Vladimir Shatalov,, born in Petropavlovsk, Kazakhstan, first person born in Kazakhstan in space Aleksandr Viktorenko,, born in Olginka, Kazakhstan Kirghiz S.S.R. / Kyrgyzstan [,edit,] Salizhan Sharipov,, born in Uzgen, Kyrgyzstan Latvian S.S.R. / Latvia [,edit,] Aleksandr Kaleri,, born in Jūrmala, Latvia Anatoly Solovyev,, born in Riga, Latvia Turkmen S.S.R. / Turkmenistan [,edit,] Oleg Kononenko,, born in Chardzhou, Turkmenistan Ukrainian S.S.R. / Ukraine [,edit,] Anatoly Artsebarsky,, born in Prosyanaya, Ukraine Georgi Beregovoi,, born in Federovka, Ukraine Georgiy Dobrovolskiy,, born in Odessa, Ukraine Yuri Gidzenko,, born in Elanets, Ukraine Leonid Kizim,, born in Krasny Liman, Ukraine Oleg Kotov,, born in Simferopol, Ukraine Anatoli Levchenko,, born in Krasnokutsk, Ukraine Vladimir Lyakhov,, born in Antratsyt, Ukraine Yuri Malenchenko,, born in Svitlovodsk, Ukraine Yuri Onufriyenko,, born in Ryasne, Ukraine Leonid Popov,, born in Oleksandriia, Ukraine Pavel Popovich,, born in Uzyn, Ukraine. First Ukraine-born man in space. Georgi Shonin,, born in Rovenky, Ukraine Vasili Tsibliyev,, born in Orekhovka, Ukraine Vladimir Vasyutin,, born in Kharkiv, Ukraine Igor Volk,, born in Zmiiv, Ukraine Aleksandr Volkov,, born in Horlivka, Ukraine Sergei Aleksandrovich Volkov,, born in Chuhuiv, Ukraine Vitali Zholobov,, born in Zburjevka, Ukraine Uzbek S.S.R. / Uzbekistan [,edit,] Vladimir Dzhanibekov,, born in Iskandar, Uzbekistan Saudi Arabia[,edit,] Sultan Salman Al Saud,, first Saudi in space. — ,STS-51-G Slovakia[,edit,] Ivan Bella,, first ,Slovak, in space. — ,Soyuz TM-29,/,28 South Africa[,edit,] Mark Shuttleworth,, second ",space tourist," and first ,South African, in space. — ,Soyuz TM-34,/,33 South Korea[,edit,] Yi So-yeon,, Spaceflight participant, first ,South Korean, in space — ,Soyuz TMA-12,/,11 Syria[,edit,] Muhammed Faris, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Syrian, in space. — ,Soyuz TM-3,/,2 Ukraine[,edit,] Leonid Kadenyuk,, first ,Ukrainian, in space since independence. — ,STS-87 United States[,edit,] * Asterisked space travelers were born outside the United States Non-NASA space travelers[,edit,] Anousheh Ansari,*, fourth space tourist and first female space tourist — ,Soyuz TMA-9,/,8 Richard Garriott,*, space tourist — ,Soyuz TMA-13,/,12 Gregory Olsen,, third space tourist — ,Soyuz TMA-7,/,6 Charles Simonyi,*, fifth space tourist — ,Soyuz TMA-10,/,9,, ,Soyuz TMA-14,/,13 Dennis Tito,, first space tourist — ,Soyuz TM-32,/,31 NASA astronauts[,edit,] ^ still on active service A[,edit,] Joseph M. Acaba,^ — ,STS-119,, ,Soyuz TMA-04M Loren Acton, — ,STS-51-F James C. Adamson, — ,STS-28,, ,STS-43 Thomas Akers, — ,STS-41,, ,STS-49,, ,STS-61,, ,STS-79 Buzz Aldrin,, the second person to walk on the Moon — ,Gemini 12,, ,Apollo 11 Andrew M. Allen, — ,STS-46,, ,STS-62,, ,STS-75 Joseph P. Allen, — ,STS-5,, ,STS-51-A Scott Altman,^ — ,STS-90,, ,STS-106,, ,STS-109,, ,STS-125 William Anders,* — ,Apollo 8 Clayton Anderson,^ — ,STS-117,/,120,, ,STS-131 Michael P. Anderson, (1959–2003), died on the ,Columbia, — ,STS-89,, ,STS-107 Dominic A. Antonelli,^ — ,STS-119,, ,STS-132 Jerome Apt, — ,STS-37,, ,STS-47,, ,STS-59,, ,STS-79 Lee Archambault,^ — ,STS-117,, ,STS-119 Neil Armstrong, (1930–2012), first person to walk on the Moon — ,Gemini 8,, ,Apollo 11 Richard R. Arnold,^ — ,STS-119 Jeffrey Ashby, — ,STS-93,, ,STS-100,, ,STS-112 B[,edit,] James P. Bagian,, first person of ,Armenian, descent to have been in space,[9], — ,STS-29,, ,STS-40 Ellen S. Baker, — ,STS-34,, ,STS-50,, ,STS-71 Michael A. Baker, — ,STS-43,, ,STS-52,, ,STS-68,, ,STS-81 Michael R. Barratt,^ — ,Soyuz TMA-14,, ,STS-133 Daniel T. Barry, — ,STS-72,, ,STS-96,, ,STS-105 John-David F. Bartoe, — ,STS-51-F Alan Bean, — ,Apollo 12,, ,Skylab 3 Robert L. Behnken,^ — ,STS-123,, ,STS-130 John E. Blaha, — ,STS-29,, ,STS-33,, ,STS-43,, ,STS-58,, ,STS-79,/,81 Michael J. Bloomfield, — ,STS-86,, ,STS-97,, ,STS-110 Guion Bluford,, first ,African-American, in space — ,STS-8,, ,STS-61-A,, ,STS-39,, ,STS-53 Karol J. Bobko,, first graduate of the ,United States Air Force Academy, to become an astronaut — ,STS-6,, ,STS-51-D,, ,STS-51-J Eric A. Boe,^ — ,STS-126,, ,STS-133 Charles Bolden, — ,STS-61-C,, ,STS-31,, ,STS-45,, ,STS-60 Frank Borman,, commanded the first spaceflight to orbit the Moon — ,Gemini 7,, ,Apollo 8 Stephen G. Bowen,^ — ,STS-126,, ,STS-132,, ,STS-133 Ken Bowersox, — ,STS-50,, ,STS-61,, ,STS-73,, ,STS-82,, ,STS-113,/,Soyuz TMA-1 Charles E. Brady, Jr., (1951–2006) — ,STS-78 Vance D. Brand, — ,Apollo-Soyuz Test Project,, ,STS-5,, ,STS-41-B,, ,STS-35 Daniel Brandenstein, — ,STS-8,, ,STS-51-G,, ,STS-32,, ,STS-49 Randolph Bresnik,^ — ,STS-129 Roy D. Bridges, Jr., — ,STS-51-F Curtis Brown, — ,STS-47,, ,STS-66,, ,STS-77,, ,STS-85,, ,STS-95,, ,STS-103 David McDowell Brown, (1956–2003), died on the ,Columbia, — ,STS-107 Mark N. Brown, — ,STS-28,, ,STS-48 James Buchli, — ,STS-51-C,, ,STS-61-A,, ,STS-29,, ,STS-48 Jay C. Buckey, — ,STS-90 Daniel C. Burbank,^ — ,STS-106,, ,STS-115,, ,Soyuz TMA-22 Daniel W. Bursch, — ,STS-51,, ,STS-68,, ,STS-77,, ,STS-108,, ,STS-111 C[,edit,] Robert D. Cabana, — ,STS-41,, ,STS-53,, ,STS-65,, ,STS-88 Charles Camarda, — ,STS-114 Kenneth D. Cameron, — ,STS-37,, ,STS-56,, ,STS-74 Duane G. Carey, — ,STS-109 Scott Carpenter, (1925-2013) — ,Mercury 7 Gerald P. Carr, — ,Skylab 4 Sonny Carter, (1947–1991) — ,STS-33 John Casper, — ,STS-36,, ,STS-54,, ,STS-62,, ,STS-77 Christopher Cassidy, — ,STS-127 Robert J. Cenker, — ,STS-61-C Gene Cernan, (1934-2017) — ,Gemini 9A,, ,Apollo 10,, ,Apollo 17 Gregory Chamitoff,* — ,STS-124,/,126,, ,STS-134 Franklin Chang-Diaz,* — ,STS-61-C,, ,STS-34,, ,STS-46,, ,STS-60,, ,STS-75,, ,STS-91,, ,STS-111 Kalpana Chawla,* (1961–2003), died on the ,Columbia, — ,STS-87,, ,STS-107 Leroy Chiao, — ,STS-65,, ,STS-72,, ,STS-92,, ,Soyuz TMA-5 Kevin P. Chilton, — ,STS-49,, ,STS-59,, ,STS-76 Laurel Clark, (1961–2003), died on the ,Columbia, — ,STS-107 Mary L. Cleave, — ,STS-61-B,, ,STS-30 Michael R. Clifford, — ,STS-53,, ,STS-59,, ,STS-76 Michael Coats, — ,STS-41-D,, ,STS-29,, ,STS-39 Kenneth Cockrell, — ,STS-56,, ,STS-69,, ,STS-80,, ,STS-98,, ,STS-111 Catherine Coleman, — ,STS-73,, ,STS-93,, ,Soyuz TMA-20 Eileen Collins, — ,STS-63,, ,STS-84,, ,STS-93,, ,STS-114 Michael Collins,* — ,Gemini 10,, ,Apollo 11 Pete Conrad, (1930-1999) — ,Gemini 5,, ,Gemini 11,, ,Apollo 12,, ,Skylab 2 Gordon Cooper, (1927–2004), the first American to fly in space for a day and first person to go into orbit twice — ,Mercury 9,, ,Gemini 5 Richard O. Covey, — ,STS-51-I,, ,STS-26,, ,STS-38,, ,STS-61 Timothy Creamer, — ,Soyuz TMA-17 John Oliver Creighton, — ,STS-51-G,, ,STS-36,, ,STS-48 Robert Crippen,, flew on first ,Space Shuttle, mission — ,STS-1,, ,STS-7,, ,STS-41-C,, ,STS-41-G Roger K. Crouch, — ,STS-83,, ,STS-94 Frank L. Culbertson, Jr., — ,STS-38,, ,STS-51,, ,STS-105,/,108 Walter Cunningham, — ,Apollo 7 Robert Curbeam, — ,STS-85,, ,STS-98,, ,STS-116 Nancy Currie, — ,STS-57,, ,STS-70,, ,STS-88,, ,STS-109 D[,edit,] Jan Davis, — ,STS-47,, ,STS-60,, ,STS-85 Lawrence J. DeLucas, — ,STS-50 B. Alvin Drew, — ,STS-118,, ,STS-133 Brian Duffy, — ,STS-45,, ,STS-57,, ,STS-72,, ,STS-92 Charles Moss Duke, Jr., — ,Apollo 16 Bonnie J. Dunbar, — ,STS-61-A,, ,STS-32,, ,STS-50,, ,STS-71,, ,STS-89 Samuel T. Durrance, — ,STS-35,, ,STS-67 James Dutton, — ,STS-131 Tracy Caldwell Dyson, — ,STS-118,, ,Soyuz TMA-18 E[,edit,] Joe F. Edwards, Jr., — ,STS-89 Donn F. Eisele, (1930–1987) — ,Apollo 7 Anthony W. England, — ,STS-51-F Joseph Henry Engle, — ,STS-2,, ,STS-51-I Ronald Evans, (1933–1990) — ,Apollo 17 F[,edit,] John M. Fabian, — ,STS-7,, ,STS-51-G Christopher Ferguson, — ,STS-115,, ,STS-126,, ,STS-135 Martin J. Fettman, — ,STS-58 Andrew J. Feustel, — ,STS-125,, ,STS-134 Michael Fincke, — ,Soyuz TMA-4,, ,Soyuz TMA-13,, ,STS-134 Anna Lee Fisher, — ,STS-51-A William Frederick Fisher, — ,STS-51-I Michael Foale,* — ,STS-45,, ,STS-56,, ,STS-63,, ,STS-84,/,86,, ,STS-103,, ,Soyuz TMA-3 Kevin A. Ford, — ,STS-128,, ,Soyuz TMA-06M Michael Foreman, — ,STS-123,, ,STS-129 Patrick G. Forrester, — ,STS-105,, ,STS-117,, ,STS-128 Michael E. Fossum, — ,STS-121,, ,STS-124,, ,Soyuz TMA-02M Stephen Frick, — ,STS-110,, ,STS-122 C. Gordon Fullerton, (1936-2013) — ,STS-3,, ,STS-51-F G[,edit,] F. Drew Gaffney, — ,STS-40 Ronald J. Garan, Jr., — ,STS-124,, ,Soyuz TMA-21 Dale Gardner, — ,STS-8,, ,STS-51-A Guy Gardner, — ,STS-27,, ,STS-35 Jake Garn,, ex-U. S. Senator, first politician in space — ,STS-51-D Owen K. Garriott, — ,Skylab 3,, ,STS-9 Charles D. Gemar, — ,STS-38,, ,STS-48,, ,STS-62 Michael L. Gernhardt, — ,STS-69,, ,STS-83,, ,STS-94,, ,STS-104 Edward Gibson, — ,Skylab 4 Robert L. Gibson, — ,STS-41-B,, ,STS-61-C,, ,STS-27,, ,STS-47,, ,STS-71 John Glenn, (1921-2016), first American in Earth orbit, U.S. Senator, and oldest person to make a spaceflight — ,Mercury 6,, ,STS-95 Linda M. Godwin, — ,STS-37,, ,STS-59,, ,STS-76,, ,STS-108 Michael T. Good, — ,STS-125,, ,STS-132 Richard F. Gordon, Jr., — ,Gemini 11,, ,Apollo 12 Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie, — ,STS-91,, ,STS-99,, ,STS-108,, ,STS-123 Ronald J. Grabe, — ,STS-51-J,, ,STS-30,, ,STS-42,, ,STS-57 Frederick D. Gregory, — ,STS-51-B,, ,STS-33,, ,STS-44 William G. Gregory, — ,STS-67 S. David Griggs, (1939–1989) — ,STS-51-D Gus Grissom, (1926–1967) First person to go into space twice. — ,Gemini 3,. Also flew suborbitally in ,Mercury 4,. Died in the ,Apollo 1, launchpad fire John M. Grunsfeld, — ,STS-67,, ,STS-81,, ,STS-103,, ,STS-109,, ,STS-125 Sidney M. Gutierrez, — ,STS-40,, ,STS-59 H[,edit,] Fred Haise, — ,Apollo 13 James D. Halsell, — ,STS-65,, ,STS-74,, ,STS-83,, ,STS-94,, ,STS-101 Kenneth Ham, — ,STS-124,, ,STS-132 L. Blaine Hammond, — ,STS-39,, ,STS-64 Gregory J. Harbaugh, — ,STS-39,, ,STS-54,, ,STS-71,, ,STS-82 Bernard A. Harris, Jr.,, first ,African-American, to walk in space. — ,STS-55,, ,STS-63 Terry Hart, — ,STS-41-C Henry Hartsfield, — ,STS-4,, ,STS-41-D,, ,STS-61-A Frederick Hauck, — ,STS-7,, ,STS-51-A,, ,STS-26 Steven Hawley, — ,STS-41-D,, ,STS-61-C,, ,STS-31,, ,STS-82,, ,STS-93 Susan J. Helms, — ,STS-54,, ,STS-64,, ,STS-78,, ,STS-101,, ,STS-102,/,105 Karl Gordon Henize, (1926–1993) — ,STS-51-F Thomas J. Hennen, — ,STS-44 Terence T. Henricks, — ,STS-44,, ,STS-55,, ,STS-70,, ,STS-78 José Hernández, — ,STS-128 John Herrington,, first ,Native American, in space. — ,STS-113 Richard Hieb, — ,STS-39,, ,STS-49,, ,STS-65 Joan Higginbotham, — ,STS-116 David C. Hilmers, — ,STS-51-J,, ,STS-26,, ,STS-36,, ,STS-42 Kathryn P. Hire, — ,STS-90,, ,STS-130 Charles O. Hobaugh, — ,STS-104,, ,STS-108,, ,STS-129 Jeffrey A. Hoffman, — ,STS-51-D,, ,STS-35,, ,STS-46,, ,STS-61,, ,STS-75 Michael S. Hopkins, — ,Soyuz TMA-10M Scott J. Horowitz, — ,STS-75,, ,STS-82,, ,STS-101,, ,STS-105 Millie Hughes-Fulford,, first female ,Payload Specialist, — ,STS-40 Douglas G. Hurley, — ,STS-127,, ,STS-135 Rick Husband, (1957–2003), died on the ,Columbia, — ,STS-96,, ,STS-107 I[,edit,] James Irwin, (1930–1991) — ,Apollo 15 Marsha Ivins, — ,STS-32,, ,STS-46,, ,STS-62,, ,STS-81,, ,STS-98 J[,edit,] Mae Jemison,, first ,African-American, woman in space — ,STS-47 Tamara E. Jernigan, — ,STS-40,, ,STS-52,, ,STS-67,, ,STS-80,, ,STS-96 Brent W. Jett, Jr., — ,STS-72,, ,STS-81,, ,STS-97,, ,STS-115 Gregory C. Johnson, — ,STS-125 Gregory H. Johnson,* — ,STS-123,, ,STS-134 Thomas David Jones, — ,STS-59,, ,STS-68,, ,STS-80,, ,STS-98 K[,edit,] Janet L. Kavandi, — ,STS-91,, ,STS-99,, ,STS-104 James M. Kelly, — ,STS-102,, ,STS-114 Mark E. Kelly, — ,STS-108,, ,STS-121,, ,STS-124,, ,STS-134 Scott J. Kelly, — ,STS-103,, ,STS-118,, ,Soyuz TMA-01M,, ,Soyuz TMA-16M Joseph P. Kerwin, — ,Skylab 2 Robert S. Kimbrough, — ,STS-126,, ,Soyuz MS-02 Timothy L. Kopra, — ,STS-127,/,128,, ,Soyuz TMA-19M Kevin R. Kregel, — ,STS-70,, ,STS-78,, ,STS-87,, ,STS-99 L[,edit,] Wendy B. Lawrence, — ,STS-67,, ,STS-86,, ,STS-91,, ,STS-114 Mark C. Lee, — ,STS-30,, ,STS-47,, ,STS-64,, ,STS-82 David Leestma, — ,STS-41-G,, ,STS-28,, ,STS-45 William B. Lenoir, (1939-2010) — ,STS-5 Frederick W. Leslie,* — ,STS-73 Byron Lichtenberg,, first NASA Payload Specialist. — ,STS-9,, ,STS-45 Don L. Lind, — ,STS-51-B Kjell N. Lindgren,* — ,Soyuz TMA-17M Steven W. Lindsey, — ,STS-87,, ,STS-95,, ,STS-104,, ,STS-121,, ,STS-133 Jerry M. Linenger, — ,STS-64,, ,STS-81,/,84 Richard M. Linnehan, — ,STS-78,, ,STS-90,, ,STS-109,, ,STS-123 Gregory Linteris, — ,STS-83,, ,STS-94 Paul Lockhart, — ,STS-111,, ,STS-113 Michael Lopez-Alegria,* — ,STS-73,, ,STS-92,, ,STS-113,, ,Soyuz TMA-9 John M. Lounge, — ,STS-51-I,, ,STS-26,, ,STS-35 Jack R. Lousma, — ,Skylab 3,, ,STS-3 Stanley G. Love, — ,STS-122 Jim Lovell, — ,Gemini 7,, ,Gemini 12,, ,Apollo 8,, ,Apollo 13 G. David Low, (1956–2008) — ,STS-32,, ,STS-43,, ,STS-57 Ed Lu, — ,STS-84,, ,STS-106,, ,Soyuz TMA-2 Shannon Lucid,* — ,STS-51-G,, ,STS-34,, ,STS-43,, ,STS-58,, ,STS-76,/,79 M[,edit,] Sandra Magnus, — ,STS-112,, ,STS-126,/,119,, ,STS-135 Thomas Marshburn, — ,STS-127,, ,Soyuz TMA-07M Michael Massimino, — ,STS-109,, ,STS-125 Richard Mastracchio, — ,STS-106,, ,STS-118,, ,STS-131,, ,Soyuz TMA-11M Ken Mattingly, — ,Apollo 16,, ,STS-4,, ,STS-51-C K. Megan McArthur, — ,STS-125 William S. McArthur, — ,STS-58,, ,STS-74,, ,STS-92,, ,Soyuz TMA-7 Jon McBride, — ,STS-41-G Bruce McCandless II, — ,STS-41-B,, ,STS-31 William C. McCool, (1961–2003), died on the ,Columbia, — ,STS-107 Michael J. McCulley, — ,STS-34 James McDivitt, — ,Gemini 4,, ,Apollo 9 Donald R. McMonagle, — ,STS-39,, ,STS-54,, ,STS-66 Ronald McNair, (1950–1986), died on the ,Challenger, — ,STS-41-B Carl J. Meade, — ,STS-38,, ,STS-50,, ,STS-64 Bruce E. Melnick, — ,STS-41,, ,STS-49 Pamela Melroy, — ,STS-92,, ,STS-112,, ,STS-120 Leland D. Melvin, — ,STS-122,, ,STS-129 Dorothy M. Metcalf-Lindenburger, — ,STS-131 Edgar Mitchell, (1930–2016) — ,Apollo 14 Barbara Morgan, — ,STS-118 Lee M.E. Morin, — ,STS-110 Richard Mullane, — ,STS-41-D,, ,STS-27,, ,STS-36 Story Musgrave, — ,STS-6,, ,STS-51-F,, ,STS-33,, ,STS-44,, ,STS-61,, ,STS-80 N[,edit,] Steven R. Nagel, — ,STS-51-G,, ,STS-61-A,, ,STS-37,, ,STS-55 George Nelson, — ,STS-41-C,, ,STS-61-C,, ,STS-26 Bill Nelson, — ,STS-61-C James H. Newman,* — ,STS-51,, ,STS-69,, ,STS-88,, ,STS-109 Carlos I. Noriega,* — ,STS-84,, ,STS-97 Lisa Nowak, — ,STS-121 Karen L. Nyberg, — ,STS-124,, ,Soyuz TMA-09M O[,edit,] Bryan D. O'Connor, — ,STS-61-B,, ,STS-40 Ellen Ochoa,, first ,Hispanic, woman in space — ,STS-56,, ,STS-66,, ,STS-96,, ,STS-110 William Oefelein, — ,STS-116 John D. Olivas, — ,STS-117,, ,STS-128 Ellison Onizuka, (1946–1986), died on the ,Challenger, — ,STS-51-C Stephen S. Oswald, — ,STS-42,, ,STS-56,, ,STS-67 Robert F. Overmyer, (1936–1996) — ,STS-5,, ,STS-51-B P[,edit,] William Pailes, — ,STS-51-J Scott E. Parazynski, — ,STS-66,, ,STS-86,, ,STS-95,, ,STS-100,, ,STS-120 Ronald A. Parise, (1951–2008) — ,STS-35,, ,STS-67 Robert A. Parker, — ,STS-9,, ,STS-35 Nicholas Patrick,* — ,STS-116,, ,STS-130 James Pawelczyk, — ,STS-90 Gary Payton, — ,STS-51-C Donald H. Peterson, — ,STS-6 Donald Pettit, — ,STS-113,/,Soyuz TMA-1,, ,STS-126,, ,Soyuz TMA-03M John L. Phillips, — ,STS-100,, ,Soyuz TMA-6,, ,STS-119 William R. Pogue, — ,Skylab 4 Alan G. Poindexter, (1961-2012) — ,STS-122,, ,STS-131 Mark L. Polansky, — ,STS-98,, ,STS-116,, ,STS-127 Charles J. Precourt, — ,STS-55,, ,STS-71,, ,STS-84,, ,STS-91 R[,edit,] William F. Readdy, — ,STS-42,, ,STS-51,, ,STS-79 Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr., — ,STS-48,, ,STS-60 James F. Reilly, — ,STS-89,, ,STS-104,, ,STS-117 Garrett Reisman, — ,STS-123,/,124,, ,STS-132 Judith Resnik, (1949–1986), died on the ,Challenger, — ,STS-41-D Paul W. Richards, — ,STS-102 Richard N. Richards, — ,STS-28,, ,STS-41,, ,STS-50,, ,STS-64 Sally Ride, (1951-2012), first American woman in space — ,STS-7,, ,STS-41-G Stephen Robinson, — ,STS-85,, ,STS-95,, ,STS-114,, ,STS-130 Kent Rominger, — ,STS-73,, ,STS-80,, ,STS-85,, ,STS-96,, ,STS-100 Stuart Roosa, (1933–1994) — ,Apollo 14 Jerry L. Ross, — ,STS-61-B,, ,STS-27,, ,STS-37,, ,STS-55,, ,STS-74,, ,STS-88,, ,STS-110 Kathleen Rubins, — ,Soyuz MS-01 Mario Runco, Jr., — ,STS-44,, ,STS-54,, ,STS-77 S[,edit,] Albert Sacco, — ,STS-73 Robert Satcher, ‚ ,STS-129 Wally Schirra, (1923–2007) — ,Mercury 8,, ,Gemini 6A,, ,Apollo 7 Harrison Schmitt, (The last,12th man, who arrive and set foot on the Moon)— ,Apollo 17 Rusty Schweickart, — ,Apollo 9 Dick Scobee, (1939–1986), died on the ,Challenger, — ,STS-41-C David Scott, — ,Gemini 8,, ,Apollo 9,, ,Apollo 15 Winston E. Scott, — ,STS-72,, ,STS-87 Paul D. Scully-Power,* — ,STS-41-G Richard A. Searfoss, — ,STS-58,, ,STS-76,, ,STS-90 Margaret Rhea Seddon, — ,STS-51-D,, ,STS-40,, ,STS-58 Ronald Sega, — ,STS-60,, ,STS-76 Piers Sellers,* (1955–2016) — ,STS-112,, ,STS-121,, ,STS-132 Brewster H. Shaw, — ,STS-9,, ,STS-61-B,, ,STS-28 Alan Shepard, (1923–1998), first ,American, in space — ,Apollo 14,. Also flew suborbitally in ,Mercury 3,. William Shepherd, — ,STS-27,, ,STS-41,, ,STS-52,, ,Soyuz TM-31,/,STS-102 Nancy Sherlock – see ,Nancy Currie Loren Shriver, — ,STS-51-C,, ,STS-31,, ,STS-46 Deke Slayton, (1924–1993) — ,Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Steven Smith, — ,STS-68,, ,STS-82,, ,STS-103,, ,STS-110 Sherwood C. Spring, — ,STS-61-B Robert C. Springer, — ,STS-29,, ,STS-38 Thomas Patten Stafford, — ,Gemini 6A,, ,Gemini 9A,, ,Apollo 10,, ,Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, — ,STS-115,, ,STS-126 Robert L. Stewart, — ,STS-41-B,, ,STS-51-J Susan Still, — ,STS-83,, ,STS-94 Nicole P. Stott, — ,STS-128,/,129,, ,STS-133 Frederick Sturckow, — ,STS-88,, ,STS-105,, ,STS-117,, ,STS-128 Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan,, first ,American, woman to walk in space — ,STS-41-G,, ,STS-31,, ,STS-45 Steven Swanson, — ,STS-117,, ,STS-119 John "Jack" Swigert, (1931–1982) — ,Apollo 13 T[,edit,] Daniel Tani, — ,STS-108,, ,STS-120,/,122 Joseph R. Tanner, — ,STS-66,, ,STS-82,, ,STS-97,, ,STS-115 Norman Thagard, — ,STS-7,, ,STS-51-B,, ,STS-30,, ,STS-42,, ,Soyuz TM-21,/,STS-71 Andy Thomas,* — ,STS-77,, ,STS-89,, ,STS-91,, ,STS-102,, ,STS-114 Donald A. Thomas, — ,STS-65,, ,STS-70,, ,STS-83,, ,STS-94 Kathryn C. Thornton,, first woman to make multiple ,EVAs, — ,STS-33,, ,STS-49,, ,STS-61,, ,STS-73 William E. Thornton, — ,STS-8,, ,STS-51-B Pierre Thuot, — ,STS-36,, ,STS-49,, ,STS-62 Eugene Trinh,* — ,STS-50 Richard H. Truly, — ,STS-2,, ,STS-8 V[,edit,] Lodewijk van den Berg,* — ,STS-51-B James van Hoften, — ,STS-41-C,, ,STS-51-I Charles Veach, (1944–1995) — ,STS-39,, ,STS-52 Terry Virts, — ,STS-130,, ,Soyuz TMA-15M James S. Voss, — ,STS-44,, ,STS-53,, ,STS-69,, ,STS-101,, ,STS-102,/,105 Janice E. Voss, (1956-2012) — ,STS-57,, ,STS-63,, ,STS-83,, ,STS-94,, ,STS-99 W[,edit,] Rex J. Walheim, — ,STS-110,, ,STS-122,, ,STS-135 Charles Walker, — ,STS-41-D,, ,STS-51-D,, ,STS-61-B David M. Walker, (1944–2001) — ,STS-51-A,, ,STS-30,, ,STS-53,, ,STS-69 Shannon Walker, — ,Soyuz TMA-19 Carl Walz, — ,STS-51,, ,STS-65,, ,STS-79,, ,STS-108,/,111 Taylor Wang,* — ,STS-51-B Mary E. Weber, — ,STS-70,, ,STS-101 Paul J. Weitz, — ,Skylab 2,, ,STS-6 Jim Wetherbee, — ,STS-32,, ,STS-52,, ,STS-63,, ,STS-86,, ,STS-102,, ,STS-113 Douglas H. Wheelock, — ,STS-120,, ,Soyuz TMA-19 Edward Higgins White, (1930–1967), first American to perform an ,EVA,. Died in the ,Apollo 1, disaster — ,Gemini 4 Peggy Whitson,, holds the American record for time spent in space — ,STS-111,/,113,, ,Soyuz TMA-11 Terrence Wilcutt, — ,STS-68,, ,STS-79,, ,STS-89,, ,STS-106 Donald Williams, — ,STS-51-D,, ,STS-34 Jeffrey Williams, — ,STS-101,, ,Soyuz TMA-8,, ,Soyuz TMA-16,, ,Soyuz TMA-20M Sunita Williams,, holder of the women's spaceflight record — ,STS-116,/,117,, ,Soyuz TMA-05M Barry E. Wilmore, — ,STS-129,, ,Soyuz TMA-14M Stephanie Wilson, — ,STS-121,, ,STS-120,, ,STS-131 Gregory R. Wiseman, — ,Soyuz TMA-13M Peter Wisoff, — ,STS-57,, ,STS-68,, ,STS-81,, ,STS-92 David Wolf, — ,STS-58,, ,STS-86,/,89,, ,STS-112,, ,STS-127 Alfred Worden, — ,Apollo 15 Y[,edit,] John Young, — ,Gemini 3,, ,Gemini 10,, ,Apollo 10,, ,Apollo 16,, ,STS-1,, ,STS-9 Z[,edit,] George D. Zamka, — ,STS-120,, ,STS-130 Americans born abroad[,edit,] William Anders,, born in ,Hong Kong, to American parents. Gregory Chamitoff,, born in ,Montreal,, ,Canada,. Michael Collins,, born in ,Rome,, ,Italy, to American parents. Richard Garriott,, born in ,Cambridge,, ,England,. Gregory H. Johnson,, born in ,South Ruislip,, ,England,. Frederick W. Leslie,, born in ,Ancón,, ,Panama Canal Zone, (now ,Panama,). Kjell N. Lindgren,, born in ,Taipei,, ,Taiwan,. Shannon Lucid,, born in ,Shanghai,, ,China, (then under Japanese rule) to American parents. James H. Newman,, born in the ,United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, (now ,Micronesia,). Naturalized Americans[,edit,] Anousheh Ansari,, born in ,Mashhad,, ,Iran,. First ,Iranian-American, in space. Fourth space tourist and first female space tourist. Franklin Chang-Diaz,, born in ,San José,, ,Costa Rica,. First Costa Rican-American in ,space,. Kalpana Chawla,, born in ,Karnal,, ,India,, (1961–2003). First ,Indian-American, in space. Michael Foale,, born in ,Louth,, ,England,, dual British and American citizen. Michael Lopez-Alegria,, born in ,Madrid,, ,Spain,. Carlos I. Noriega,, born in ,Lima,, ,Peru,. First Peruvian-born person in space. Nicholas Patrick,, born in ,Saltburn-by-the-Sea,, England, dual UK-US citizen. Paul Scully-Power,, born in ,Sydney,, ,Australia,. Piers Sellers,, born in ,Crowborough,, England, dual UK-US citizen. Charles Simonyi,, born in ,Budapest,, ,Hungary,. Fifth ,space tourist,. Andrew Thomas,, born in ,Adelaide,, Australia. Eugene Trinh,, born in Saigon, ,State of Vietnam, (now ,Ho Chi Minh City,, ,Vietnam,). First ,Vietnamese-American, in space. Lodewijk van den Berg,, born in ,Sluiskil,, ,the Netherlands,. Taylor Wang,, born in Shanghai, China. First ,Chinese American, in space. Vietnam[,edit,] Phạm Tuân, (,Intercosmos,), first ,Vietnamese, and first ,Asian, in space. — ,Soyuz 37,/,36


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