But the Volvo S60 T8 has its own appeal.Exterior – the most beautiful car in the world?
go through some its own pros and cons.Pro – Zippy and easy to drivePowered by 1.5-litre turbo engine
Model | GalleryWith the hatchback Volvo V40 no more, the taller riding (and higher priced) Volvo XC40
Volvo XC40 Recharge T5 at the 2020 Thailand International Motor ExpoThe Volvo XC40 Recharge T5 plug-in
Volvo is stern in its direction towards the electric future with the introduction of the fully electric
400 km of range.Mercedes-Benz EQVAnnounced in 2018, the long-term partnership between Toyota and the PSA
milestone for the Naza Automotive Manufacturing (NAM) plant in Gurun, Kedah, which now counts Groupe PSA
Volvo Cars has announced its plans to go fully electric by the year 2030.
Volvo Cars and Geely announced that they have plans to create a standalone business focused on developing
From 1 January 2020 onwards, all Volvo plug-in hybrids sold in Malaysia will be covered with an 8-Year
Volvo Cars Malaysia has just introduced the locally-assembled (CKD) Volvo S60 in Malaysia.The Volvo S60
Volvo Cars welcomes former Mercedes-Benz designer Claudia Braun and former Facebook web designer Thomas
The locally-assembled (CKD) Volvo XC40 Recharge T5 will be launching this month!
Back in May 2020, Volvo Malaysia launched the 2020 Volvo S60 T8 CKD, priced the same as the imported
Volvo is intent on walking the talk when it comes to phasing out internal combustion engines (ICE).
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We previously reported that Volvo Car Malaysia (VCM) has plans to launch the locally-assembled (CKD)
As you know, PSA and Fiat Chrysler have entered a 50:50 merger deal to form the world’s fourth-largest
wheels; which makes this Volvo 480 just plain bonkers.
Volvo Car Malaysia (VCM) has just launched the 2021 Volvo XC40 T5 Recharge in Malaysia.
Volvo XC60 T5 – RM 298,888 Volvo XC60 T8 Inscription – RM 333,888 Volvo XC60 T8 Inscription
Is the Proton X50s using the same engine as the Volvo XC40?
Volvo Car Malaysia today paved a new path for customers with the launch of its 360 total-care used car
Volvo Car Malaysia will be launching the new 2021 Volvo S90 facelift, now wearing the new ‘Recharge
Volvo Malaysia released a special teaser for the third generation S60 on their social media platforms
Volvo Malaysia has just refreshed their best selling large SUV, the 2020 Volvo XC90.
S60 T8 R-Design - Facts and Figures Engine 2.0-litre 4-cyl supercharged and turbocharged with
A recent check on Volvo Car Malaysia’s website has shown that the pre-facelift Volvo S90 has been
powertrains could be used by Mercedes-Benz and all Geely Holding Group’s portfolio of brands, including Volvo
@jakebeldercars Great thread. A common engine. Ford. MINI (Like Mine!) Volvo. Etc use the PSA 1.6hdi. Make sure you do the EGR blanking plate also. Cyl 1+Intake Mani suffers from major carbon build up. A 'nice' diesel motor to work on though.
@jakebeldercars Normally the signal should be 1-2v at idle. If it’s >3v it’s measuring a soot mass or the sensor is at fault. As it’s a PSA engine sometimes ford parts are cheaper too. The volvo part used to be around £80 and ford around £40
@russ_nicol 2008 Mazda3 1.6D same engine in the mini psa group Volvo and ford. 1.6 Hdi. 109 hp
@hunterathelen1 Auto manufacture truly global . Volvo owned by geely XC60 made in china,xc90 USA Mini 1.6 engine made by Peugeot also in c4 Citroen. Bentley owned by vw Rolls Royce ". ". BMW Vw own Lamborghini and even Ducati The whole fiat Chrysler group now owned by psa owns Peugeot 😳😳
I liked a @YouTube video ✔ Oil change 2.0 HDI, TDCI, D, Citroen, Peugeot, Volvo, Ford 2.0 PSA engine
@nornirishfella @JarrieSam @realDonaldTrump The Nissan Renault deal makes sense. Nissan reliability in electronics, and Renault's solid, low emission engines. Synergistic. I thought only the smaller engine (1.6) engine in Volvo's wasn't from volvo, albeit I thought it was PSA. Is the ford Mazda link up not just chassis?
@jakebeldercars Not sure if you planned on it already but with the PSA applications for this engine, replacing the turbo involves two oil changes. The Volvo service bulletin may not suggest it. It’s also advised to measure the flow of oil from the new feed pipe but I don’t know the figures.
@eclat521 I think Mercedes went first, BMW held on for a bit longer. I only really ended up with a 1 series because I resented the Volvo V40 for having a PSA engine. I hope not but it’ll probably happen to BMW too one day.
@mattymidland @50046Gary @OwlGbamh1972 What car is it in Matt .. I have a Volvo V50 1.6 D that requires Eolys fluid in a separate tank and a counter reset every 30k miles . It has the PSA 1.6 Hdi engine in it .
@caravanchaos Incidentally, Freelander 2 is on the same platform as Volvo XC60, and Ford Kuga, and Range Rover Evoque. The 4x4 system is the same as the XC60/90. The Land Rover 2.2 TD4 engine is the PSA/Ford unit found in Ford, Volvo, Jaguar, Peugeot, Citroen, and the Mitsubishi Outlander
When looking at diesel engines and their reliability we can divide diesel engines into two categories New diesel Old diesel Old diesel is driven by either a inline pump or a distributor type pump. These babyes can then again come in two different versions a mechanical controlled pump and an ECU controlled pump. Old diesel have a fuel injection pressure of between 300 bars and up to 1800 bars for the latest versions. New diesel is divided between unit injectors (e.g. volvo trucks) and common rail (e.g. All modern engines) common rail is today in the vast majority of diesel engines. So back to the question! With higher pressures comes higher tollerances and the engine becomes more vulnerable against particles, air, water and bad fuel quality. However if you do your service work and remever to replace filters at the right intervals then modern diesel is almost as reliable as modern diesel. However when something fails in a common rail engine it is more prone to give a complete breal down. An old diesel engine could loose a pump element and still keep running... However if you refere to diesel vehicles instead of diesel engines then yes old diesel vehicles are more reliable. Reason: new vehicles are packed withall sorts of complicated extra add ons: Diesel particle filter (removes particles) Adblue catalyst (removes nox) Turbors, biturboes and tripple turboes. A turbo is a fragile thing due to the extreme rpm it is running with Pressure sensor glow plugs (now we are on the very latest generation diesel engines) Exhast gas recirculation valve (reduces nox) Higher compression - harder to crank Additives to increase particle filter regeneration (psa engines) But all of this doesnt matter but because a new diesel engine with and injection pressure of 2500 bars is much cleaner, economical, fun, higher torque, higher hp, less noise. So there is really not a comparison between old and new diesel.
The medium goal will be to consolidate all the models they have so that they can start using PSA Groupe Engines, Gearboxes, Suspension, BSI units etc. They will no doubt allow Vauxhall and Opel to design their own vehicles, but with the stipulation that the stuff under the bonnet uses PSA Group “technology”. This will be cheaper for PSA Group in the short term, but long term, it could potentially destroy both Vauxhall and Opel. Peugeot and Citroen have a perception of unreliability in the market place, and thats not just the view of the public and the motor trade, thats the opinion of Carlos Tavares the President of PSA Groupe. His plan is for Vauxhall to expand from the UK market to possibly being sold in North America, as both Vauxhall being a British marque has a cachet that the French marques simply don’t have. There is a 10 year transition period where by the end of that time, all Vauxhall and Opel models will be 100% no longer General Motors derived or designed. At the moment, General Motors owns the rights and technologies to all the current engines that Vauxhall and Opel use (with the exception of the Fiat derived diesel engines), and the technologies within. By the end of the ten year transition period, PSA Groupe will have phased out all of the GM technology to be replaced by their own technology. So the Fiat and Isuzu derived diesel engines will go and be replaced by the current crop of HDi engines as used in the Peugeots and Citroens (and some Fords and Volvos), the current crop of GM derived petrol engines will be replaced with whatever Peugeot and Citroen are using. However, unless PSA Groupe do some serious work on their diesel technology to make it more durable, they could end up saddling both Vauxhall and Opel with the very same reliability issues that plague Peugeot and Citroen cars. For years, motor manufacturers have been obsessed with reducing engine size and capacity, but still maintaining the same power figures. The old 2.0 HDi RHY engine as used in the Citroen Picasso, Peugeot 306 and early Peugeot 307 was a pretty reliable engine, with good economy figures. The 1.6 HDi engine that replaced it with the same power figures, has been much less sturdy, with failures happening with much more regularity than the outgoing 2.0 HDi unit. Body Control Modules (BSi units or Comms Units) in Peugeots and Citroens are notoriously delicate, and this technology is likely to make its way into Vauxhalls and Opels, they too will have problems foisted upon them that they simply didn’t have before. Say what you like about Vauxhall and Opel, but the majority of the GM tech running the cars worked, and is very rarely an auto electricians nightmare, the French marques……… not so encouraging. Carlos Tavares wants to expand Opel across Europe, and wants Vauxhall to enter the North American market on the perceived quality of a British brand, but if he’s going to saddle Vauxhall with all the technology that makes the Peugeots and the Citroens so unreliable…….. Is he serious about his dream?
Not necessarily. It depends on how many cylinders there are to distribute the workload. Generally speaking, engines that are smaller displacement than larger ones will wear out faster than their larger cousins - if the same number of cylinders and configuration are used. Diesel engines are the exception in most cases because most engineers design diesels to run at lower RPM’s than gasoline engines do. Thus piston wear between a 2 and 2.5 liter engine will be almost identical. But your question is very confusing. You ask about small displacement but then add additional information suggesting the same horsepower output. An engine that makes more power per liter will have more load on it, assuming the same materials and cooling systems are in place. That’s like asking can you drink 10 beers with 2% alcohol and not be intoxicated compared if you only had 3 beers that had 5%, but wanted each beer to have 500 ml instead of 300 ml. Engineers design engines based upon parameters required. This includes; vehicle weight payload fuel type travel distance driving environment durability cost (to operate and manufacture) competition With these goals in mind, other factors are also taken into consideration such as: Platform (more than one use) Flexibility (increase / decrease in power operating range) Life cycle (years of production) This allows a manufacture to have a base foundation and offer several different models of the same basic engine block and cylinder head(s) that can support different uses. In today’s modern world, engines are based on mass production that often exceeds 1 million units. The basic components can be used to small cars to medium size commercial trucks. They will have different bore and stroke specifications and use different crankshafts, connecting rods and pistons to suit needs as required. Peugeot - PSA built a XU / XUD engine line that had different displacement options ranging from 1.8 liters to 2.1 liters. Some were 2 valve while others were 3 or 4 valve. The engine was used in 41 different models across 10 different manufactures in addition to Ford which co-designed the last generation of the XUD and became known as High Pressure Direct Injection (HDI). Ford then used it in all its cars that had a diesel engine option including Volvo, which at the time was owned by Ford. BMW began using the same engine for its Mini brand, using models built by PSA in France. Given the specific parameters you listed, with both using the same engine block and cylinder head in a four cylinder, in-line configuration with one being 2.0 liters and the other being 2.5 liters, if all things were equal, the wear rates would be almost the same. If power output was equal between the 2.0 and 2.5 liter, the 2.0 Liter model would likely wear out slightly faster if both are driven in the exact same manner.
Yes they did. As the majority of their market is in Europe, and Europe are banning sales of all new ICE vehicles after 2030 then this makes total sense for them. I would imagine that the majority of European car manufacturers (even Audi, BMW and Mercedes as well as Ford, PSA and VAG) will all follow suit within the next few months.
After 10 years and over 600.000km of driving a 1999 Hyundai Lantra Sportwagon (that was my first car, bought in 2007), opportunity arose to get my second car. And it took almost half a year of research and planning, and I didn’t even get what I wished for… I don’t like sports or small cars, but I don’t like SUV’s either. I got a passion for large family cars, especially wagons. I don’t like to stand out, but I don’t like to drive a very common car either. I am young, I had my first car at 23, and it was a wagon, without having a large family to transport, or lots of luggage - it’s main purpose was riding comfortably on long trips, while the back served as resting place without having to pay on hotels to lay down and sleep :) But after 10 years of intensively driving all around the country, often offroad, my previous car got really noisy, and tired, barely had any torque left in that 1.6l gasoline engine, so it was time for a new one. That’s why the new one had to be: a large wagon, newer (implying safer and less pollutant), reliable, not very common and some personal preferences: in blue or green exterior color + cream leather interior. But that narrowed down extremely the results, so I had to compromise. Plus I decided to try a diesel car this time, for two reasons - higher torque at low revs and less fuel consumption. Then I added some other very important criteria: it had to had as little milage as possible, as little wear as possible, and preferably a complete service history. With my budget, the newest car I could get was manufactured before 2010, with under 200.000km. Any newer model, or with less than 150.000km would add considerably to the budget. Plus, I knew that all second hand cars require some money to invest in. Aside from that, researching on cars and sellers, I decided it would be best if I’d go personally to buy it from the “holy land of vehicles” - Germany. For several reasons: 1.it’s a known fact that Germans really take care of their cars, taking them to authorized shops, respecting maintenance times etc. 2.Germans have good roads, with less dirt 3.Most of the Germans are correct and don’t overprice a very used thing while in my country things are exactly the opposite: 1.Most drivers can’t take good care of their cars due to financial issues - they preffer to use the cheapest parts, in unauthorized shops 2.Roads are really bad, full of potholes, and we lack highways 3.Most sellers would overprice garbage vehicles, lying about their functionality and overall state. To add to all these, it is also a very known fact that there are a lot of cars for sale around here, that were bought defective (or even worse, wrecked) for next to nothing, then repaired and sold at a high price. So that made me decide to go by myself and get a car from Germany. Now my choices were: 2005–2007 Saab 9-3 Sportwagon, 2006–2010 Volvo S40/V50, 2008–2010 Citroen C5 Tourer, 2006–2010 Mazda 6 Wagon, and 2005–2006 Honda Civic Hybrid. To be honest, the one I would have loved the most was a 2008+ Honda Accord Estate, but it was much more than I could afford, plus it came with a 2.2l engine that was highly taxable here. I also loved the old Subaru Legacy Outback, but the newer Outback didn’t seem as nice as the old one, plus I read a lot of reviews about the boxer engines having gasket problems. The most reliable aside the Honda Accord would’ve been a Toyota Avensis, but man that was ugly inside and out, in my opinion. I loved the design of a Peugeot 407, built on the platform of my dream car (the Citroen C6), but the reviews also said they were kinda’ unreliable. I didn’t want any Fords, VW, Skoda and BMWs because they’re the most common around here, and I couldn’t afford to maintain any Mercedes or Audi, although I absolutely love the old Audi Allroad, both the A4 and the A6. The same goes with the Volvo XC70… I could only afford a 1998–2003 model with over 400.000km. And they also have big engines. These were the reasons of my selection above… And from those models, I selected about 30 cars all around Germany… But hey, I couldn’t just take the bus and the train to wander through cities all around the country, cause that would’ve cost me half the price of the car… So I had to go to a single city, and search there - and I chose Berlin. I flew to Berlin, and started calling the sellers from my favourites list. Unfortunately there were no Saabs 9–3 Sportwagons around (most of them were North of the Country, or West). I said pass to the Mazda, as they were suspiciously cheap, so I was left with the Volvo S40/V50, the Citroen C5 Tourer and the Honda Civic Hybrid (the only sedan from my list, but it seemed so spacious and beautiful). Unfortunately, not many Civic Hybrids around, and the only one I got to see had a dead hybrid battery :( Then, between the Volvo models, I loved the S40, it seemed so dynamic (yeah, also a sedan), but the reviews said it had a really small trunk… and the V50 wasn’t so big either comparing to other wagons. And I absolutely loved the Citroen C5 Tourer inside and out, and it was the biggest of all, but I knew it had serious realiability issues, mainly with the electrics. I couldn’t believe Berlin was so big, so I could only see a Citroen C5 and 2 Volvo V50 in the 2 days that I spent there. One of the Volvos was the color I wanted - a raw green, with cream leather interior… but it was in a pretty bad shape, which wasn’t visible from the internet pictures… it had lots of badly worn signs and the engine sounded bad. And the Citroen was decent, but it had some broken plastics, the battery was dead, a bit too much milage (270.000km) and that led me to this 2009 Volvo V50 2.0HDI that I bought: And that’s because it was the best looking of all - very little signs of wear, very well maintained, lower milage (172.000km), had all the accesories (almost new winter and summer tires on separate rims) etc. So I drove it back home some 2000km. Now it’s been a year since I have it, and I drove almost 20.000km with it. Indeed, I had to invest some 10% of what I paid for it in order to repair some damages that the owner didn’t mention about plus some maintenance, but overall I’m quite happy with it. Yes, I don’t like that it’s Black (instead of Blue or Green), I don’t like that it’s windows are smaller comparing to my old Hyundai, making it pretty hard to side park it, I don’t like that the trunk is much smaller comparing to my old Hyundai, making it quite impossible to lay down and sleep in it, I don’t like that it has black material seats instead of cream leather, I don’t like that it has a low ground clearance (my old Hyundai had too, but I elevated it using some suspension accessories)… And I also don’t like that it’s made on the same platform as the Ford Focus and Mazda 3, using a PSA engine. But I love that it’s so quiet, and the suspension is smooth, and the sound system is great, and the night visibility is great due to it’s bi-xenon headlights, and it’s got lots of torque delivered efortlessly, and the fuel consumption is low, and the emissions are low. And from what I’ve heard, it’s very safe, as every Volvo, although to be sincere, it seems very fragile. I just hope I don’t have to test its safety and just enjoy it for as long as I can… they will ban diesels in a couple of years anyway, so next one will surely be a Hybrid :)
I have done internship at ,Ashok Leyland, so I know that the company uses NX Cad for its R&D. The automobile companies in india are mostly production development based so they usually get the designs from other MNC’s design companies but they do some FEA and other design analysis. Maruti is also NX cad based. Usually Soild Works is used by german manufactureres such as Audi, Merc etc. Many automotive companies use, CATIA, to varying degrees, including ,BMW,, ,Porsche,, ,McLaren Automotive,,,Chrysler,, ,Honda,,,Audi,, ,Jaguar Land Rover,, ,Volkswagen,,,SEAT,, ,Škoda,, ,Bentley Motors Limited,, ,Volvo,, ,Fiat,, ,Benteler International,, ,PSA Peugeot Citroën,, ,Renault,, ,Toyota,,,Ford,, ,Scania,, ,Hyundai,, ,Tesla Motors,,,Rolls-Royce Motors,, ,Valmet Automotive,, ,Proton,, Elba, ,Tata motors, and ,Mahindra & Mahindra Limited,. ,Goodyear, uses it in making tires for automotive and aerospace and also uses a customized CATIA for its design and development. Many automotive companies use CATIA for car structures – door beams, IP supports, bumper beams, roof rails, side rails, body components because of CATIA's capabilities in ,Computer representation of surfaces,. ,Bombardier Transportation, of Canada is using this software to design its entire fleet of Train engines and coaches. ,Webasto, uses CATIA to design its roof.
A lot of interesting answers. In some cases, the answer is yes and others the answer is no. The Volkswagen AG (Group) in the past competed in the universal engine supply market in which the basic cylinder block, crankshaft and cylinder head(s) are based on the same design as a ,platform, ,that are customized for use by different brands. VW in general, has withdrawn from this specific market space. But it does internally mass produce engines that are used across all platforms it owns. Some engines originally in use (design), are under license and then modify it for their own platform. The changes can be anything from bolt locations to intake and exhaust manifold differences. This was the case with SEAT and Skoda until they bought both companies. Renault - Nissan have teamed up several times as has Peugeot and Ford of Europe, which have shared a base diesel platform in the 1.4 to 2.0 engine class and the V6 2.7 and 3.0 liter class which is used by Ford, Volvo and its own (Puegot) cars. Hyundai - Mitsubishi have shared engines in addition to Volkswagen - Audi - Porsche. Chrysler - Fiat have shared diesel and gasoline engines now known as FCA. GM did have shared engines in its Opel brand cars. GM and Ford have a new shared 10 speed transmission. By far, the most widely used provider and supplier of common engines is Group PSA (Peugeot - Citroën). It has supplied gasoline and diesel engines to BMW, Ford, Jaguar, GM, Land Rover, Mazda, Suzuki, Vauxhaul, and the former Chrysler operations of Europe which it bought in 1978. The company has engine plants in over 15 countries and produces millions of engines worldwide. Probably the most famous is its High Pressure Direct Injection Diesel engine known as the HDi and is manufactured and assembled in two plants in France, one in the U.K. and another in Sweden. To date, it has sold over 4 million of these engines. Not all of the engines are available in their final form to other manufacturers. Some may have smaller turbos and intercoolers while others will not have the intercooler at all (or the associated electronic controls). But they still have common rotating assembly (in some cases, depending on the displacement). Not all of these engines are in production today in their original form. As upgrades or changes in regulations or competitive requirements change, so did the engines, with many of them getting updates. Not all manufacturers wanted or needed the changes in their specific markets. PSA in some cases created multiple lines of production or handed off production of these components to one of its subsidiaries, which in turn, would complete final assembly. The PSA - Ford joint venture have different models of the basic engine, in particular the cylinders heads and stroke used in the engines vary. Some engines have continued in their original form except electronics and emissions parts. One of the more unique engines, Ford - Land Rover, designed together the 3.6 liter AJD-V8 diesel and is still built in Mexico as a 4.4 liter variant. Twin turbo charged, it was originally co-designed by Ford when they owned Land Rover in the Dagenham, UK and Gebze, Turkey. PSA used a variant of this engine (as did Ford) in a V6 configuration. Volkswagen - Audi know the advantages common engine platforms offer. Costs are dramatically reduced both in terms of production and post sale support of spare parts. VAG has multiple car brands that span the globe. They were early pioneers of universal core engine platforms used across multiple types of vehicles beginning in the 1950’s. Today, VAG produces several cross-platform engines. Not all cars can be adapted as a complete assembly and often, are not required in the exact same configuration. Just like PSA / Ford. One cannot easily say VW uses an Audi engine or vice versa. They are VAG engines with a single owner. An example is the EA 189 diesels. These engines are tuned slightly differently due to the weight and transmission used in each model of car. Over the years, the tune has been electronic in nature because the fuel injectors, transmissions and shared chassis (platform) are in the same weight class. VW / Skoda and Audi have all used the same 2.0 L TDI engine for years with the same rated HP and Torque specs. Gasoline engines have followed a similar pattern but the tune and power ratings do vary based on model and class. This is particularly true of VAG engines that are turbocharged. One might be tempted to use a Audi tune of an engine in a VW model. It could work depending the model and configuration. But what wouldn’t work is a Audi engine certified to European standards and then used directly in the same “model” sold in North America. The emissions parts and standards used are very different. The same problem would arise if attempted on a VW North American model with the same base configuration engine. Here is what is ,generally true, ,the basic configuration engine as assembled, in the plant essentially use the same core common parts; crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, and cylinder head(s) assemblies. VAG doesn’t have multiple engines that use the same core with different displacements as they once used to. But like other manufactures, some models may have different intake and exhaust manifold bolt bosses and maybe different turbocharger sizes along with electronics including fuel pump and injector sizes. The electronic tuning would be different along with different sensors (02, NOX, etc.) and likely have different engine management computers. If a change is planned for the next model year, say intake and exhaust valve sizes, chances are, all models that use this engine would get the valve size update but could still have different ancillary parts. An example is the VW Group W12, which was used in Audi (500 HP variant) and now discontinued, Bentley (507 to 635 HP) which is still in production and VW (450 HP) cars which also discontinued its use in 2010. All three used different tuning and parts (in particular, the camshafts were different in all three). Audi did have its own W12 program and originally designed very different configurations. Beginning in 2014 for the 2015 model year, VW Group began to internally restructure engine development programs with a focus of reducing the number of different engine types currently in use and production with the goal of harmonizing the amount of different parts and sub-assemblies required. This trend is occurring across the entire industry and not just VW. It’s likely you will see the company reduce its 4 cylinder engine design package down to 3 baseline models with the distinction only being bore and stroke while maintaining same centerline bore separation of all three which allows the use of the same crankshaft bore spacing in all of them (same main bearing sizes and distances between each one but capable of accommodating different connecting rod journal sizes for different lengths). The goal would be to eliminate different block deck heights and use a common cylinder head face that can bolt to the block, yet offer the option of single side intake and exhaust manifold ports or cross flow of intake and exhaust manifolds on opposite sides of the head. Even so, this may meet resistance as parts commonality is now a high priority. There was talk of an entirely new 2020 VR line up that could essentially be based on the same core block dimensions that could offer 6 or 8 cylinder configurations and has since been revealed as false last year (fall 2016), as the program was never confirmed. The VR is still in production and has been used by Audi, VW and Porsche. Variants were also produced in the past for Ford, Mercedes Benz and SEAT for their European passenger vans. It’s probably just a matter of time before Man and Scania wind up building common heavy industrial diesels for use in marine and transportation trucks and reducing the number of different types of diesels both currently manufacture.
“Do German cars use French-made engines?” It seems so. If BMW is German, and the Prince engines are French, read this: ,Prince engine - Wikipedia,. Mercedes A180d is using a Renault 1.5 DCI engine. Some Smart models are also using Renault engines. PSA is/was delivering engines for Ford, Volvo and Toyota too.
That’s not really true. Some of the design was done by Mazda. It was built in a Volvo-owned plant in Ghent, Belgium. The 1.8L petrol engine was a Mazda engine, the 2.0 diesel was a PSA engine and all the other engines were Volvo engines.
Instead of developing a unique and expensive engine for themselves, Volvo saved the money from developing costs and bought the engine from PSA (Peugeot-Citroën) and made it better in terms of reliability and performance. This gave them an edge in terms of cost-cutting. This way, they can invest extensively on safety research yet sell their safe cars to a competitive price with other makers. Volvo is a small car manufacturer in comparison with the others. They don't have the money to develop everything themselves so they buy parts from other manufacturers.