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flat rate feeding Q&A Review

What do Australians think of Donald Trump?

Well you see we’ve already been there, in the 1980s. We had a politician who, for those of us old enough to remember him, reminds us a lot of Donald Trump. And that person was ,Joh Bjelke-Petersen He was premier of the State of Queensland in the 1970s and 1980s. That’s kind of the equivalent of being a state governor in the USA. Although a minority of voters in the state voted for him and his Country party (later National party) government, he retained power due to gerrymandering of electoral boundaries that downweighted the urban vote. Sir Joh was famous for an authoritarian government that did things like declare state of emergencies to control public protests, general restriction of civil liberties, increased police powers to draconian levels, contempt for media - he referred to press conferences as “feeding the chooks (ie chickens)” , contempt for heritage (he loved knocking down listed buildings) contempt for the environment, promotion of “development” regardless of cost, a confronationist approach to industrial relations, racially discriminatory policies to the Aboriginal population etc. Does any of this sound familiar? In 1987 Joh decided he would take his platform national, and tried a run for national government, the so called “Joh for Canberra” campaign. At first many people,and the media, laughed at his naive sounding, populist policies - including a 20% flat rate tax - and his knockabout, spur of the moment campaigning. Does this sound familiar? But he attracted support of up to 20% in national opinion polls. In the end, however, he wasn’t able to run for national government, being outmanouevered by the sitting government in their choice of poll date Of course later it all fell apart. Various Royal Commissions and police investigations showed large scale institutional corruption. By his death his reputation, such as it was, was completely tarnished. But for a while there we had a candidate that looked a lot like Trump So we think Trump smells like a fraud and a huckster. And those of us who remember Joh, remember the damage he did to Queensland. Thankfully Joh never got the chance to have influence on defence, foreign policy, immigration or other important issues. Americans need to make sure Trump never gets that chance

What is the meaning of flat-rated thrust?

Flat Rating of Turbine Engines Flat rating could be for thrust (in a straight jet), or Horsepower (for a turboprop). The following mostly describes turboprop engines but the same principles apply to straight jets, including turbofans. A turbine engine’s power output is specified for international standard atmospheric (ISA) conditions, which are 15°C (59°F) air temperature at sea level. At any higher temperature or elevation, the engine will produce less power because the air is less dense. To understand what's going on with the performance improvements (say, from the more powerful Pratt & Whitney PT6 engines), you need to know that there are two fundamental measures of power. The most basic measure of power -- and the one listed in the airplane specifications -- is the maximum shaft horsepower (shp) of the engine. The other element in the power equation is how much power the engine can potentially produce at sea level on a standard 15° C day, which are the international standard atmosphere (ISA) conditions. In order to provide the needed power for takeoff and climb on hot days, or from higher elevation airports, an engine is, flat rated,. That means that the engine is capable of making much more power on an ISA day than the pilot is allowed to use. However, on a hot day, or at a higher elevation, the extra power potential of the turbine engine is available to produce the same power that it could on that mythical ISA day. The ultimate power potential of a turbine engine is usually called its “thermodynamic” rating. The limits of a turbine engine are set by the ability of its components to withstand temperature, rpm and pressure, thus “thermo” and “dynamic” stresses set the limits. The higher the temperature and pressure a turbine can withstand, the more power it will create. As air density decreases with higher air temperatures or elevations, the less power a turbine can produce before reaching its thermodynamic limits. So to have enough power available on a hot or high day for takeoff, or to have enough power left at high altitude to cruise, the engine is flat rated for takeoff to a value below its maximum thermodynamic potential. More on the thermodynamic limit This principle is so important that it bears repeating. The power potential of the gas producing section of the engine is totally dependent on the density of the air it is operating in. When air is dense, on a cool day at sea level, for example, the turbine section loafs along. The compressor has plenty of air to work with so it feeds the burner section its maximum charge of air using only low rpm and relatively low compression ratios. But when the air is less dense, at high altitude, or when air temperature is above ISA, the compressor struggles to ram the same air charge into the burner. The air is hotter exiting the compressor and burns hotter. The compressor must spin faster to do its work. And at some point the density of the air available to the compressor just isn't enough for it to deliver the full charge of air into the burner before reaching the rpm limits, or the temperature limits, or both. When the engine reaches its limits of temperature or rpm it is at its thermodynamic limit: Thermo, obviously, being temperature, while dynamic refers to the rotating speed of the components. That's why you'll see that a PT6 will have a limit of, say, 850 shp in the TBM, but have the thermodynamic rating of about twice that. The difference between the low and high power ratings is called flat rating, or de-rating. ▲ ,The SOCATA TBM 850. Featuring a 1,825 HP Pratt & Whitney PT6A-66D turboprop engine flat rated to 850 shp, the TBM 850 turns in impressive numbers. At takeoff weight, the 850 can climb to FL 260 in 15 minutes and to its service ceiling of FL 310 in 20 minutes. I like the term flat rating best because it accurately describes what is happening. The airplane and engine gearbox can only take so much shp, so, ,the engine is capped at that value. ,Its power is held flat,. But the magic of flat rating is that you can use the extra thermodynamic power to increase climb and cruise speed. As the airplane climbs into less dense air there is plenty of margin in the compressor section to keep packing a full charge of air into the burner before rpm and temperature limits are reached. Just as a turbocharged piston engine continues to make full power as it climbs, the flat-rated PT6 delivers full-rated power at altitude by having the margin to increase rpm and ITT. The result is higher climb rates and true airspeed. It wasn't always this way with the PT6. An early version of the engine in the King Air 90, for example, couldn't make full-rated power on the runway if the air temperature was hot, or the airport elevation high. Gradually Pratt improved the design and materials of the engine to make it ever more powerful, even though certified shp remained the same. And over the past several years versions of the PT6 are almost twice as powerful even though the external size and shape is about the same. This available increase in thermodynamic power is what makes the engine produce that power to a much higher altitude or air temperature. The results are many, many knots of increased cruise speed, much higher climb rate, and often a fuel flow increase that essentially matches the speed increase so range remains about the same. -from ,Flying, magazine

Why do they feed prisoners food that says not for human consumption?

“,Cheap Cheap Five Dollah,!” I didn't see or hear about the “Not for human consumption" labels at the federal prison, but at CCA we all knew about it. CCA ,(Corrections Corporation of America,, now called ,Core Civic ,because changing your name to get away from bad press is viable option if you're a large company) was a privately run prison. They basically got a flat rate for each soul they stored in their little locker. If you're a traveling salesperson and get a per diem, do you stay in the best hotel you can find, or go cheap and pocket the savings? CCA used an extreme form of the same basic principle. Instead of picking the worst flea-bag by-the-hour motel, they would opt for the equivalent of cardboard boxes behind the dumpster. It's an appropriate analogy because CCA's food spent some time in or around a dumpster too. I'm willing to bet that very few people outside of prison have ever had the experience of putting rancid meat inside their mouth. We all heard the stories about the labels. You might not believe it… until you took a bite. Then you knew it was all true.

Why does someone who makes billions have to pay more in taxes since everyone is using all public benefits equally?

So go to a flat rate of tax. Take 15% of your income and give it to the feds. Do the same for the billionaire. You make 40k a year and now have 34k to live on and feed your family. The billionaire makes 100m a year now has only 85m to live on and feed his family. Besides the arguement is that the businessman utilizes more of the infrastructure than the poor person. Roads airports etc.

Why don't liberals think tax equality is a good idea?

Taxes based on the person are called ,poll tax,, or ,head tax,, or ,capitation,. If you had everyone pay $500 a year, that'd be a poll tax. The talk about tax rates, etc. concerns ,income tax,, which is a tax on transactions, and a different kind of beast altogether. That's why, for instance, the tax brackets go with particular amounts. If you make $400K, you don't pay 35% on all 400K (your income), but only on the part of that income that falls into that bracket. And so forth. This means that having an income tax system based on equal dollar payments makes no sense: It isn't an income tax anymore, but a poll tax. (See my endnote for why poll taxes have a bad rap in the US-- I am not using that term with its typical connotation.) As for equality in taxation, the short answer is that there are various types of equality at play here, and that they aren't even the highest priority to begin with. Equality of rate : ,Every transaction is taxed at the same rate. This is akin to how sales tax works, although even there, there are exceptions (groceries are often exempt, and hotels have jacked-up rates). A "flat tax" prioritizes equality of rate over equality of burden. Equality of burden : , The impact of the tax is the same for each person paying it. Chris Rock puts the point the best, even though he's talking about divorce settlements: "If you're making 20 million and your wife want half, big deal, you ain't starvin'. ... But if you're making 30 ,thousand,, and your wife want 15, you might have to kill her! `I ain't movin' back in with my momma 'cause you ain't in love!'" I quote him not to advocate domestic violence but to demonstrate the point on equality of burden: Taking the same bite out of your income makes a much bigger impact if you have a lower income: It could mean the difference between being able to afford necessities or not. Having your own home, feeding your family, etc. An analogue is the "day-fine" system used in Scandinavian countries to penalize misdemeanors. If you get pulled over speeding in, say, Finland, you aren't charged a fine of X amount of dollars (or whatever). Instead, you're charged a day's income, times the severity of the infraction. The reason: If the fine is $500, that will hit you much harder if you make $20K than if you make $200K or even $20 million. Indeed, for really high incomes, $500 isn't a punishment at all: That's less than a nice dinner. To make the punishments equal, they're defined as functions of income. If you make $250 a day (~$50K/year), and the fine is one day's income, you pay $250. It's manageable, but it stings. If you make $25,000 a day (~$5 million), and the fine is one day's income, you pay $25,000. For normal folks that's unimaginable. For someone pulling that kind of money, though, it's manageable, but it stings. That's how equality of burden works; the day-fine system equalizes the burden somewhat (though not all the way, when you factor in saved wealth). The balance of equalities: , At the end of the day, the question isn't who believes in equality or not... it's which kind of equality do you prioritize? Because people who prioritize equality of burden still favor an equality of rate, ,after, you equalize the burden. So every income in the same bracket is taxed at the same rate. On the flipside, do flat-tax advocates really not care that a flat tax imposes a much higher burden on people with lower incomes? Generally no. They do care, but they prioritize an equality of rate. The priority of effectiveness: ,One other thing: I want to question the assumption that taxes even need to be fair in the first place. It'd be nice, sure, but what's more important is that the tax serve the needs of the country. Same as with other necessary duties, like the military draft. It isn't fair that we only draft fit, young men. A truly fair draft would enlist babies and invalid grandmas alongside. For, are they not equal in the eyes of the law? They are, but more important is that the draft be effective. We ask more from those with the most to give to the war effort: Young men. We ask more from those whose sacrifice costs the country the least. That's [harsh truth] the young in general, who are less likely to have dependents, less likely to have established careers or businesses that need them around, and so on. (As women prove their effectiveness in combat, we might include them in the group with the most to give). Again, this isn't fair to the young men, because many young men don't make good soldiers and do have careers and families, etc. But again we have clashing priorities: Efficiency and effectiveness trumps fairness. But once effectiveness is met, then it's fair afterwards: We pick draftees by lottery, and we use locals to determine objections, deferments, and exemptions, since locals have a fairer sense of these things about their neighbors. Likewise with income tax. We ask the most from those with the most to offer (high incomes) and whose sacrifice hurts the country the least. Again, that's high income makers. Once effectiveness is met, then fairness comes into play. A progressive tax thus makes sense for effectiveness, and also equality of burden, and to a lesser extent equality of rate. I would thus characterize the "liberal" viewpoint [or rather, the argument for progressive taxation] as prioritizing effectiveness, then equality of burden, then equality of rate. It's hard to make a flat tax that would be effective at collecting enough revenues without damaging the economy, and it would violate equality of burden. So people who support a progressive rate look very unfavorably upon flat rates. Coda:, You ask in an edit what if private industries did the same thing... well, they often do. It's normal in the legal and medical professions to lower payments based on ability to pay. Many restaurants and museums employ a "pay what you can" system. But in a broader sense, paying for services and doing your duty to your state/country are not very comparable, because they induce different moral priorities on both ends. When businesses cut rates, they generally do it for compassion, or to avoid getting paid nothing at all. When governments make impositions, the reasons are completely different. It isn't our duty to buy a car or take the bus, or go to the steakhouse, so there's no compelling interest (or need, for that matter) in requiring different rates for these things. It wouldn't be terribly efficient, either, and remember: Efficiency is the first priority. Endnote: , The word "poll tax" brings up images of Jim Crow in the US, but I don't mean it like that. We confuse "poll tax" with electoral "polls", but that's a coincidence. Poll taxes date to the dawn of history--- they're just a tax per head. But like many things, the rulers of the Jim Crow South abused the laws of the land to promote their own special brand of tyranny. For instance, everyone had to pay an annual poll tax, but there wasn't a criminal penalty for not paying. Instead, if you couldn't pay the tax, you couldn't register to vote. This was a legal but shady way of getting poor people (mostly black) to be unable to vote, without having an explicit law saying "Blacks can't vote". The poll tax was equal in terms of rate (so to speak), but equality of burden was not their priority. Indeed, the ,inequality, of the burden was the point. As collateral damage, it hit poor whites, too--- my own grandparents couldn't vote in Texas and their German heritage made them as white as you can imagine.

Should we have “one man, one vote, one tax rate”? By one tax rate, I mean a single flat tax rate that doesn’t discriminate, with a standard deduction.

No. Take 15% of the income of someone who can barely feed themself and they will starve. Take 15% of the income of a billionaire and they won't even notice, in their day-to-day life. Fairness is not computed from raw numbers or percentages, but from the effect on the taxpayer's quality of life. A flat tax is only fair if everyone has the same quality of life to begin with.

Where can I buy a puppy in Vancouver?

If you are interested in a specific pedigreed breed, contact breeders in your area. But why do that when there are homeless pups up for adoption who need homes? Try a local SPCA and see what pups they have to offer. The dogs aren't free - you will have to help those good folks who help the dogs with veterinary care, vaccinations, spaying/neutering, grooming, feeding and some rudimentary training or at least socialization of the dogs. This is normally a flat rate - $200 in our nearest big city. I have no idea what it will cost in Vancouver, but here's a place to start: http://www.northvancouver.com/west-vancouver-spca-branch/16859/

If you are given a chance to be the president, what are the tax reform you want to change in your state to provide economic and social benefits?

Some things many, many countries ,ought, to do almost immediately:— Flat-rate personal income tax Introduce a flat-rate personal income tax for individuals on salaries, wages and similar time-rated income. This will incorporate a stepped scale of pretax deductibles — personal allowance, per-head children’s allowances, and similar. The stepped scale for deductibles mean that individuals with families and other dependents get more tax breaks in line with their increased expenditures. The reason for this is that salaried people and wage earners are very much locked into their jobs, and their income tend to be fairly static with little or no upward movement generally. It’s not like salaried people have the potential to earn ‘profits’ like companies can. Removal of ‘provisional’ personal income tax ‘Provisional’ personal income tax is ,part payment of the expected tax that the authorities calculated or assessed for the next tax year,. The idea (excuse?) is that such provisional tax paid can be returned to the taxpayer if the tax liability turns out to be lower when the tax return is finalised. This kind of taxing people for ,not-yet-earned income, is pretty unfair if we step back a bit and look at the overall picture. It doesn’t help the individual taxpayer and doesn’t help the overall economy either — that money could’ve been used by the taxpayer for anything else if it hadn’t been funnelled into feeding the tax authorities. I don’t doubt the tax authorities’ honesty and desire to pay back all overpaid tax to the taxpayer, but it’s going to take time. Broadly speaking, the individual taxpayer is in more pressing need of cash than (say) companies, and ‘future’ tax paid does not help the individual overall. It is more efficient for the government to operate that provisional tax system on company profits and to do less politically inspired ‘subsidising’ of industry sectors. Removal of worldwide tax liability for individuals In other words, taxation on basis of ,territorial source of income,. For instance, many countries have worldwide income tax — meaning the individual is taxed in both the overseas and home countries. Governments need to unstick their heads from their asses and get their priorities straight. Most overseas-working people are not “salary kings” but mere salaried workers, so it’s extremely unfair to tax them on both ends. Tax the multinationals and companies with overseas operations, not the overseas-working citizen. Profits tax on two flat rates and one sliding scale Introduce a 3-tier profits tax system for business entities. Tiers 1 and 2 are strictly flat-rate profits tax,, based on turnover or profits (whichever is easier to do). It’s very, very easy and cheap to implement and operate. Tier 1, is the lowest ,flat-rate, profits tax. This nets the general run of small and semi-small businesses (especially those that are unincorporated). Remove provisional profits tax requirement too — it doesn’t affect government revenue, but it affects the health of the business and jobs. Retain existing system of tax deductibles. Tier 2, is a higher ,flat-rate, profits tax. This nets the general run of semi-small and midsized businesses (especially those that are incorporated). Introduce a low provisional tax requirement to aid government revenue. Retain existing system of tax deductibles. Tier 3, is the full corporate tax structure — the ,sliding-scale, profits tax that’s the existing structure in nearly all countries right now. Tier 3 would be required to pay provisional profits tax (because most will be able to do so). Broaden the tax net Some extremely ‘wealthy’ entities pay absolutely no tax. This creates a hostile environment for everybody else because of their being excused on the grounds of religion, or the doctrine of ‘cannot tax knowledge,’ or some other artificial excuse. Full tax exemption only for charities and NGOs, with actual charitable or humanitarian operations. This cuts down on the morass of organisations registrable as charities but the overall complexion of their operations isn’t charity work. Special tax structure for churches, religious bodies, and other NGOs, — either Tier 2 flat rate or introduce a higher flat rate. It’s way past normal to allow these organisations to go on living untaxed, considering the kind of wealth most have. Special tax structure for universities, and similar level of educational establishments. I personally don’t favour a flat rate (because universities have the expertise and resources to defeat this), so a sliding scale lower than the corporate rate seems preferable. More tax breaks for more ,applied, research projects. Lots of tax experts have discussed and explained the various criteria that are usable to determine the tax liability of organisations that are currently untaxed — so I won’t go into this. Sales tax I have no opinion about sales tax or VAT. If there is one, keep it. If not, don’t introduce it. If it has to be introduced, start off really low and on a flat rate. What I would do is to stop the ,ridiculous, U.S. practice of the retail price not inclusive of the sales tax — the price shown ,must already incorporate the sales tax, and is the price payable. Tax payment Governments need to respect their taxpayers. Individuals and small businesses ,ought, to be given the option to ,pay tax by 2, 3 or 4 instalments, (interest-free, of course, because it’s ,tax, after all). For the government, this has the advantage that money is always coming in from that part of the tax net. As mentioned already, the individual (as well as the small business) is in more pressing need of cash in most practical situations. People ,do understand, that tax is a necessary obligation, but don’t punish them with a lump-sum requirement — the result is tantamount to gutting them every single year of their savings. If the government could handle the complexities of subsidising various industry sectors and trade deals, then running a instalment payment system is just simple beyond belief. That’s about it for now. All of the above is based on pure common sense.

What is an hourly labor rate for a HVAC company?

This is a VERY open ended and truly unfair question. First off, if you don't pay much, you probably won't get much. If you pay a lot, you're likely to get better service but this is not guaranteed. Find three reputable companies, if available, and ask them their rate. FYI... there are typically two pricing systems. 1) Time and material and 2) flat rate. Flat rate, you typically pay less for the diagnoses but more for the repair. Time and material, you pay for what you get. Either way it should work out to be close. Some companies pay their techs less on the hour and the techs make up for it on commissions. I've never made squat on commissions but I do very well on the hour plus benefits. I rather not choose between feeding my family and selling stuff.

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