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overhead camshaft benefits Q&A Review

When you see a car has 2 exhaust pipes, does it mean that it has 2 engines?

Dual exhausts were originally created for V type engines with two cylinder banks, as they had two exhaust manifolds and could therefore benefit from two mostly separate exhaust pipes. This was most common on big V-8 engines, with four cylinders on each exhaust pipe Over time, the dual exhaust became a fashion piece on cars. After catalytic converters became required on engines, manufacturers did not want to put two expensive catalytic converters on the engine. Vehicles that had V-8 engines usually merged the headers one exhaust pipe and were single exhaust up until the end of the system, where it branched into two separate tips. This is what is known as “fake duals”. A fake dual exhaust on an engine will not give a real performance benefit, it just looks good. Although it may breathe more freely than the stock one outlet exhaust, a single larger diameter exhaust would be more efficient. There is also a problem with V-8 engines in that there are uneven firing intervals into the exhaust manifolds. People may think the V-8 exhaust “burble” sound is cool, but it results in a loss of performance. On racing engines, you want cylinders to alternate between exhaust pipes. This resulted in the “bundle of snakes” exhaust system on the Ford V-8 racing cars, which was done to sort out the exhaust pulses. Inline engines also sometimes had dual exhausts. On an inline six, it was efficient to divide the exhaust system in two, with the front three cylinders firing into one exhaust manifold and the back three into the other. These were generally high performance engines such as the famous Jaguar inline six. Dual overhead cams and triple carburetors also helped in this regard. I used to like doing dual exhausts on Chevy sixes, such as the 292 (5 litre) six, which while designed as a truck engine, could be tuned to much higher output relatively easily by putting multiple carburetors and dual exhausts on it. It was fun to do this with 6 cylinder engines and drive the guys with V-8’s nuts. Chev 292 six with dual exhausts and triple carburetors. A good, cheap, racing engine with high reliability and lots of torque, being a truck engine. A bit like the Jaguar six but without the dual overhead camshafts and “traditional British craftsmanship”, a pejorative phrase which means it does not use nearly as much oil as the Jag and doesn’t cost nearly as much to fix. You could also split the exhaust system of an inline four in two, with the middle two cylinders firing into one exhaust manifold and the end two firing into the other. The BMW 4s were built that way. They didn’t normally continued it to the end of the exhaust system, though. The old Volkswagen Beetle flat four had dual exhausts, but that was just because it was cheaper to build it that way. It didn’t produce very much power, it was just simpler to do it that way rather than cross-connecting the exhaust pipes, which was more efficient.

I want to know everything about bikes. How do they work? What should be looked for before categorizing them into good and bad? What are cc, strokes, etc.?

In this answer I will be trying to make you understand the terms which you are going to face often on the web pages of different motorcycles. 4 Stroke Engine, A 4 stroke engine is the one in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning a crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. 4 strokes can be categorized as following : (Please refer to this animation as I couldn't incorporate it in my answer ,Four-stroke engine, ) Intake: Open the intake valve(right one in the following diag.) so that air fuel mixture can come into the chamber. Compression: Compress the air fuel mixture. Power: While the mixture is fully compressed and piston is at its top most position, ignite the mixture using spark plug.Ignition leads to expansion of air-fuel mixture and thus forces the piston down to its bottom most position. Expansion: Exhaust valve (left one in above diag.) is opened and the piston forces the residual air-fuel mixture out of the chamber. These days all bike engines are of 4 strokes so their is no need to get further into it. Let's start focusing on more important aspects. 4 Valve and 2 Valve, In above diag. you can see there is one valve present for intake and one valve for exhaust of air fuel mixture hence the term 2 valve engine. In a 4 valve engine, there are 2 intake valves and 2 exhaust valves. Just as when you run at fast speeds you start taking breath from mouth as well, having 2 extra valves will help engine to get air-fuel mixture in sufficient amounts at higher rpms. Sports bike like R15 and CBR have 4 valve engine whereas 2 valve engines are more common in street bikes. SOHC and DOHC, In the engine diagram shown above, just above the rods attached to intake and exhaust valves, you can see two rotating pieces having a bulge outside. This mechanical piece is known as Cam and the bulge present at its surface helps to open and close the intake and exhaust valves just at right moments. Both cams used to be attached to a single rotating shaft, known as Camshaft, as shown in the following diagram. Fig. 1: The two bulgy pieces are Cams and the whole structure of cams and shaft/rod going through them is called Camshaft. Orange pieces are the rods connecting intake and exhaust valves. (Refer ,Camshaft, for complete animation) In a 2 valve engine a single camshaft is enough to open and close intake and exhaust valves by placing the cams at appropriate angles. Things get complicated in a 4 valve engine. There are two options to circumvent this problem : i) Use two camshafts, each camshaft having 2 cams for 2 inatke valves and other camshaft having cams for 2 exhaust valves. ii) Use single camshaft alongwith more complicated mechanism to operate all 4 valves. Hence, the name dervied are : SOHC : Single Overhead Camshaft DOHC : Double Overhead Camshaft Fig 2: 2 Valve SOHC Engine ( Image source ,Motorcycle Specifications, ) Fig 3: 2 Valve DOHC Engine ( Image source ,Motorcycle Specifications, ) As the camshafts are present just directly at the head of the engine, hence the name Overhead. Just to avoid any confusion, camshafts are present outside the engine but just above its head. DOHC layout has better valve opening and closing timings and more precise also but increases the weight and number of moving parts in engine. SOHC although will be lighter but we will have to use rocker arms to control the valves. CBR has 4 valve DOHC engine while R15 has 4 valve SOHC engine. 2 valve engine bikes have usual SOHC. Spark Plug, Position of spark plug plays key role in the efficient combustion of air-fuel mixture, as the ignition should spread evenly in the chamber. A 4 valve DOHC engine offers very favourable top central position for spark plug. In case of 4 valve SOHC engine, due to single camshaft present at top central position, spark plug is placed slightly away from this key position. Fig 4: 4 Valve DOHC Engine with spark plug in the middle of 4 vlaves (Image source ,http://www.caranddriver.com, ) Bajaj has been using DTSi technology which use two spark plugs instead of one for more efficient combustion although other key players are able to give equivalent benefits using only single spark plug. Air Cooled and Liquid Cooled, Air cooled engines are cooled naturally by outside air. They generally have fins present to dissipate more heat. Fig 5: Air cooled engine. (Image source ,http://zxj510228.en.ec21.com, ) Liquid cooled engine is surrounded by a continusouly flowing coolant which absorbs the heat and dissipate it at the radiator. Liquid cooling is used in the engines having high compression ratio, which can operate at high rpms as sports bike. Fig 6: Liquid cooled engine (Image source ,http://www.iamabiker.com, ) R15 and CBR use liquid cooled engine as opposed to air cooled engine in FZS, Gixxer, etc. Max Power and Max Torque, These parameters are of great importance to look out for while comparing motorcycles but they are very hard to understand and quite confusing. I am incorporating few words from this article ,http://www.bikesindia.org/reviews/difference-between-motorcycle-power-torque-explained-which-is-better.html, Power:, The Power produced by any engine is the capacity of that engine to take the motorcycle to its maximum speed. Torque:, The Torque generated by an engine is an entity which determines the pulling capacity of the bike. You will have to dive deep into this topic on your own. Displacement, As given on Wikipedia, engine displacement is the volume swept by the piston inside the cylinder of engine in a single movement from top dead centre (topmost position) to bottom dead centre (bottommost position), commonly specified in cubic centimeters(cc). Generally higher the displacement higher the torque and power you get. But there is no direct relationship between displacement and power. For example Honda CB Trigger with 150cc engine given max power of 14 bhp whereas Honda CBR 150R with 150cc engine gives max power of 18 bhp. So instead of looking just at displacement, give more weightage to maximum torque and maximum power the engine can deliver. Disc Brake and Drum Brake, In a disc brake, the brake pads squeeze the disc attached instead of the wheel, and the force is transmitted hydraulically instead of through a cable. Friction between the pads and the disc slows the disc down. Fig 7: Working of disc brake ( Image source ,http://auto.howstuffworks.com,) In drum brake set of shoes or pads press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called brake drum. Disc brakes are superior to drum brakes in stopping vehicle, they dissipate heat better and also have less wear and tear. General trend is to have disc brakes in front, as momentum is transferred to the from while stopping, and drum brakes in rear due to cost constraints. High end bikes have disc brakes in both front and rear. Fuel Injection and Carburetor, Constant supply of air-fuel mixture in right proportions and in right amount to engine is of upmost importance and the amount should be adaptable according to the factors like the speed at which engine is running, load, etc. Before the advent of modern electronic sensors, this task was handled by a mechanical device called Carburetor. Fig 8: Carburetor (Image source ,http://www.rc-trucks.org,) Now days, carburetors are replaced with electronic Fuel Injection systems which gather engine operation information using various sensors and then decide the control over the air-fuel mixture. Carburetor are still popular in motorcycles and there is a heated debate between which one to use. Carburetors can be diagnosed by a mechanic in case you got unlucky in some remote area and their performance have been quite satisfactory until now. Fuel injection systems provide better fuel efficiency and power but to what extent is a topic of debate. Also if you got unlucky with fuel injection system in a remote area, then there is not much that you can do. There are lot of other factors which you can find on internet. Twinshock and Monoshock Rear Suspension, For rear suspension generally Twinshock absorbers are used but they add additional weight and get bendy and flexible in extreme riding conditions. Fig 9: Simplified view of twinshock absorber ( Image source ,The Car Maintenance Bibles, ) These problems can be overcomed by the use of Monoshock absorbers. Fig 10: Monoshock absorber ( Image source ,BikeAdvice.in,) Monoshock are more popular with high end sports bike and Twinshock with general street bikes. Full Fairing and Half Fairing, A motorcycle fairing is a shell placed over the fame of some motorcycles with primary purpose to reduce air drag. Full fairings cover both upper and lower portions of motorcycles, as distinct from a half fairing, which only has an upper section, and leaves the lower half of the motorcycle exposed. Fig 11: Full fairing, most portion of engine gets hidden behind the fairing. (Image source ,http://sv1000.lsn.net, ) Fig 12: Semi faired version of Karizma. (Image source ,Top Speed In,) Kerb Weight, Kerb weight is the total weight of a vehicle with standard equipment, all necessary operating consumables such as motor oil, transmission oil, coolant, air conditioning refrigerant, and a full tank of fuel, while not loaded with either passengers or cargo. So lesser the kerb weight more performance engine can provide. Wheelbase, Wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. Well the shorter it is the quicker a bike can turn and the longer it is the more stable it will be. That is why criusers like Bajaj Avenger have much greater wheelbase compared to other street and sports bikes. Fig 13: (Image source ,http://www.carbibles.com, ) More motorcycle geometry and handling factors can be read at ,Motorcycle Geometry 101,. Tubeless Tyres, Tubeless tyres do not require a separate inner tube and hence light weight and air leakage is slower in case of puncture. You can cover few more kilometers on motorcycle itself once tyre gets punctured. At the end of my answer, I will say that although the features described above play key role, factors which cannot be described but rather can only be experienced are handling, comfort, easiness in shifting gears, engine vibrations, noise and many more. I will also not recommend you to maximize the features described above as that will lead you only to Sports Bikes. Instead, first the select category from which you want your bike to be and then you can sort according to the above parameters. Bikes are broadly categorized as : Street Cruiser Sports Happy Hunting !!

Can you explain the working of a flat four engine?

Yes. It is the same as any other internal combustion engine. Let's assume overhead camshafts, petrol spark ignition. Take pretty much any OHC SI engine, and you'll have an angle between two banks of cylinders. If the angle is 0 it's an inline engine. If it's 15 degrees it's a narrow-angle (see Lancia Fulvia). If it's 40–120 degrees it is called a V-engine. If it's 180 degree it's a flat engine. There are some variations that go with each to do with primary and secondary couples, driveabikity, packaging (for instance, a single throttle is fine on an inline 4, but not quite so good on a flat 4 as the combustion chambers are much further apart), exhaust design. There are also varying benefits with each in terms of weight, height, centre of gravity height, noise, NVH ratings and so on. But in principle, the layout of the cylinders has no bearing on “how they work”.

What is an SCE engine?

Renault is introducing the all-new 1.0 SCe (Smart Control Efficiency) Engine. It is developed by the Renault Technology Americas (RTA) and manufactured at the Ayrton Senna Complex, in the State of Paraná, the new engines stand out for their low fuel consumption, improved performance and driving pleasure. The new 1-liter 12-valve 3-cylinder SCe engine comes with innovations like the DOHC (Dual Overhead Camshaft, one operating the intake valves and the other one operating the exhaust valves), a first-of-its-kind technology among entry-level powerplants. The all-aluminum engine is 20 kg lighter than its predecessor. The 1.6-liter 16-valve 4-cylinder SCe engine comes with a dual overhead camshaft operating the intake valves, fuel injectors mounted on the cylinder head and other novelties that ensure a high level of efficiency and performance. It is also an all-aluminum engine and is 30 kg lighter than its forerunner. The 1.6 SCe engine also comes with the Stop&Start system that automatically shuts down and restarts the engine to reduce the amount of time the engine spends idling at traffic lights Renault’s engineers introduced new technologies aimed at enhancing fuel efficiency. The 1-liter SCe engine has diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated tappets, piston rings and variable valve trimming (VVT). Usually applied as coatings to other materials that could benefit from some of those properties, the DLC is a class of amorphous carbon material that displays some of the typical properties of diamond. Already seen on the 2-liter engine that equips the Duster Oroch, the new 1.0 and 1.6 SCe engines now come with the all-new Energy Smart Management (ESM) system that recovers braking and deceleration energy to optimize efficiency. Through a simple yet efficient operation, when the driver releases the accelerator pedal at deceleration, the engine keeps on running without using fuel, and the alternator automatically recovers energy to direct it to the battery, whose charge increases without using fuel. During acceleration, the alternator does not ‘steal’ engine power to send it to the battery, as it was charged during deceleration. Fuel efficiency is improved by up to 2% thanks to this system. Thankyou.

What Is the benefit of a double overhead camshaft in some cars?

More efficient intake of fuel and expulsion of exhaust, resulting in higher torque and horsepower with better fuel efficiency. Lynn Bryant DeSpain

Why do big American V8s still not use overhead cams?

The overhead cams add complexity and reduce reliability without substantial benefits in most cases. The reason why the pushrods engines had issues at high RPM is that people didn’t understand, how big are the forces on the pushrods. The old-time pushrods flexed a lot, causing both distortion in the valve phasing and damage to the pushrods. Once this had been understood, the solution was simple: make stronger pushrods. And the way to make the stronger pushrods without increasing their weight is to increase their diameter, keeping the walls relatively thin. The NASCAR pushrod engines routinely run at 9000 RPM for hours at a time. An interesting thing is that the modern pushrod engines represent a development of the racing technology. If NASCAR weren’t limited to the pushrod engines, nobody would have bothered to think about fixing the weak pushrods. But the NASCAR teams had to work with this limitation, so they have spent the effort studying the problem and have discovered the simple solution. Granted, there are limits: if you want to go to 20000 RPM, you’ve still got to use the overhead camshafts and pneumatic springs. But what street cars have even the 9000 RPM redline? Pretty much none (well, except for rotaries, but that’s a separate story). So without the overhead cams you get a simpler, cheaper, more reliable, more compact, more serviceable, lighter package, with the better weight distribution (fewer heavy parts on top).

Which cars use 4 valves per cylinder, in which inlet and exhaust valves provide different camshafts?

OK let me try to Answer this,although i don't belong to Mechanical Engineering(or related Stuff), but i have some interest. First of all let me clear what 4 valves and camshaft do. Generally, ,engines, with dual overhead ,camshafts, (DOHC) are higher performance engines, they produce more power, and can run at higher speeds.The camshafts have the job of opening the valves that let air into and exhaust out of the engine. The camshaft uses rotating lobes, called cams, that push against the valves to open them. Springs on the valves return them to their closed position. This is a critical job, and can have a great impact on an engine's performance at different speeds. The main benefit of dual overhead cams is that they allow an engine to have ,four valves per cylinder,. Each camshaft operates two of the valves, one camshaft handles the intake valves, and one handles the exhaust valves. Having four valves per cylinder gives an engine several advantages: 1) By having four valves in a cylinder instead of two, a larger portion of the area can be used to let air in and exhaust out. The engine can make more power if more air enters the cylinder, and it wastes less power if it is easier to pump the exhaust out of the cylinder. At higher engine speeds, the engine pumps a lot of air though the cylinders. Having four valves per cylinder allows the engine to pump enough air to run and make useful power at these higher speeds. 2 )Another interesting thing that some car makers do is have a separate intake runner for each of the two intake cylinders. One of the intake runners is wide and short for maximum airflow, the other is a ,tuned intake runner,. which creates pressure and This extra pressure helps cram more air-fuel mix into the cylinder -- effectively acting like a ,turbocharger,. There are Cars in the market CHEVROLET's Avalanche,Colorado,Camaro,Cruze some from GM (General Motors),BMWs,Ferrari, Toyota F1. These are some of the cars I know,although definitely there are others also. I hope I am able to answer your Question. Thanks for A2A!

Which type of engine is used in the Duke?

To answer this question in a common manner “the gasoline (4 stroke ) engines” are used in the Duke models. But to be specific there are certain components that make the KTM Duke stand out from other manufacturers. DOHC Setup — It stands for Double Overhead Camshaft. The cams are used for the closing and opening of the valves. In most of the bikes there will be single cam for opening and closing of the valves, but in the KTM models there are twin overhead camshafts. This is used in the dukes to reduce the strain on the cam and to provide initial high revving nature of the engine. NIKASIL Coated cylinder — Nikasil stands for Nickel Silicon Carbide. Silicon carbide in itself is a compound used to produce hard ceramic but when it is chemically bonded with nickel, and electroplated on the aluminium cylinder bore it makes for a highly wear resistant and low friction surface. So, besides the obvious benefits of very low friction and low wear and tear, Nikasil plating also allows for very large bores without modifying the size of the block a lot. Traditionally, most engines use a cast iron sleeve that is placed inside the block at very high temperatures so that when the block cools down, the sleeve and block becomes pretty much a single unit. This means that the size to which the cylinder can be bored out, as a result, is not very large. Meanwhile, when you electroplate Nikasil on the bore you can afford to get a larger sized piston without compromising on the strength of the block. SHORT stroke — the KTM bikes are famous for their short stroke engines unlike the RE's with their long stroke engines. This short stroke of the piston result in improved power delivery and high revving nature which is predominantly used in the KTM models. They provide ballastic power that will make you just ooze away in no time. Higher compression ratio — higher compression ratio results in increased power delivery. First, the higher the compression the more power the engine will make. This is due to being able to extract greater mechanical energy from a given amount of air/fuel mixture that is created by its higher thermal efficiency. Higher compression ratios place the molecular structure of the fuel and air into a smaller area, along with the adiabatic heat of the compression, which causes a greater evaporation and mixing of the fuel droplets in the combustion chamber. The compressor ratio in Duke is 11.3 : 1. Liquid cooled engine — Since the engine has higher compression ratio the heat generated of its result is more. Thus to compensate the heat management the liquid cooling system is a must. The coolant flows through the pipeline or any spaces that is provided outside the cylinder. When the combustion happens the heat is generated, this heat is transferred to the liquid that flows through the piping. Then the pipelines are transferring the hot liquid to the radiator which reduces the temperature of the liquid and then it again sends it to the cylinder pipings. Thus in this way the heat management takes place in the Duke engines. Fuel injection — The fuel supply to the engine is taken care of FI and the ecu. The ECU determines the amount of fuel that is to be sent to the chamber and it enriches the air fuel mixture accordingly. Thus there is an increased initial power delivery unlike the conventional carbureted engines. No adjustments needed for the fuel injected engines unlike the carbureted engines. The above mentioned are some of the things that makes the Duke models stand out of the crowd. The engine is the gem of the bike and there is no other manufacturer who provides this kind of performance oriented bike in that segment.

Should two-stroke engines be forgotten?

In some applications, 2-stroke motors are almost essential. The benefits of a 2-stroke over a 4-stroke include: Lower weight to power ratio Fresh lubrication-no reusing the same oil over and over No worries about tipping over Fewer moving parts For small, hand held equipment, getting the most umph with the least weight is important. Weed trimmers and such are already heavy enough without the added weight of poppet valves and camshafts. However, Stihl has been using an overhead valve 4-stroke design for some trimmers and blowers. The 4-mix line solves the problem of having both intake and exhaust ports open at the same time. Thus, less unburned gasoline and oil makes it to the atmosphere. However, these still require lube oil to be mixed with the fuel. The 4-mix line still gets fresh lubrication like a 2-stroke. 4-stroke engines re-use the same oil over and over. Yes, I understand that from an environmental perspective, that oil should be used more than once before being dumped into the world. But for engine longevity, fresh oil is always better. Take most 4-stroke engines and turn them upside down while they are running and you’ll get a cloud of blue smoke followed by the engine dying-possibly with catastrophic results. This doesn’t bode well for equipment that has to work at any angle. A 4-stroke would fall flat on its face on a chainsaw. Lucky for us, new and better 2-stroke oils are being produced. Many of the synthetic oils available are bio-degradable. As far as the problem mentioned earlier of intake and exhaust ports open simultaneously, advancements are being made to address this issue as well. Like fuel injection instead of a carburetor.

What is the most commonly used valve actuating mechanism in modern cars?

The most common valve activating mechanism in modern cars is the DOHC system. It stands for Dual OverHead Camshafts. Generally, engines with dual overhead camshafts(DOHC) are higher performance engines, they produce more power, and can run at higher speeds. The camshafts have the job of opening the valves that let air into and exhaust out of the engine. The camshaft uses rotating lobes, called cams, that push against the valves to open them. Springs on the valves return them to their closed position. This is a critical job, and can have a great impact on an engine's performance at different speeds. The main benefit of dual overhead cams is that they allow an engine to have ,four valves per cylinder,. Each camshaft operates two of the valves, one camshaft handles the intake valves, and one handles the exhaust valves. Having four valves per cylinder gives an engine several advantages.By having four valves in a cylinder instead of two, a larger portion of the area can be used to let air in and exhaust out. The engine can make more power if more air enters the cylinder, and it wastes less power if it is easier to pump the exhaust out of the cylinder. At higher engine speeds, the engine pumps a lot of air though the cylinders. Having four valves per cylinder allows the engine to pump enough air to run and make useful power at these higher speeds. Sources https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://auto.howstuffworks.com/question562.htm&ved=0ahUKEwj8s9fOucXVAhXJQI8KHZ-CCu4QFghJMAc&usg=AFQjCNETWwDRd9z_RRR8yu9nOxgKMfqawQ