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toyota hilux italy Post Review

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toyota hilux italy Q&A Review

If you could choose one car each from German, United States, United Kingdom, Italy, and Japan, what would you pick?

I would not say i am a huge car fan but i like this question and heres my list. German: Audi RS5 It just looks like such a fun car to drive. That along with the fact that Audis are known for being technologically advanced cars would make for one great driving experience. I would definitely take it over any Benz or BMW. United States: Dodge Durango The only reason this is on the list is because I can not think of a car I would take of this from the US. It's a decent looking SUV though. It looks powerful. United Kingdom: Bentley Continental GT Possibly the prettiest supercar in the world. It is has a comfortable looking interior and seems pretty futuristic. It is fast, stylish and not too flashy. I couldn't ask for more. Italy: Pagani Huayra BC This hypercar is an absolute beast. 6Litre twin turbo V12 engine producing 745 horsepower. 132KG lighter giving a power to weight ratio of 1.62Kg/HP. 0-100Km/h in 2.8 seconds and a top speed of 370Km/h. A $3.7 Million price tag. Ridiculous numbers for a very impressive car. It may not be the fastest car in the world but it just might be the craziest. Japan: Toyota Hilux Who can deny a good, reliable and trustworthy Toyota Hilux? It has got to be the best 4x4 truck in the world.

Just how effective was the fight against ISIS so far?

Few effective ISIS are ,living ,in more time than Iraquian Armed Forces when invade Kuwait and ,was attacked by NATO. ISIS are ,a bunch of cowards ,armed with AK-47,very few military tatics, very small manpower, they drive Toyota Hiluxs without any armor in the desert. ,What could be a great advantage in battlefield,attack helicopters destroying Enemy Pick Ups. ,And even so, the Coalition ,still not defeat ,them. ,It’s sad! ,Because they are making the captured cities a ,hell ,and made massacres with the population. The execution videos are terrible and ,no one banned it from Media. ,It seems like The World like the ,Death Entertainment ,. USA ,couldn’t help until 2015. ,Before it,Russia and China ,vetoed ,any type of intervention. ,In 2015,Russia start to ,bombed ISIS areas in Syria. ,USA ,are tired of wars and Military spendings. ,Because of this,they aren’t make an effective intervention. ,But ,all these things can change with the Donald’s Trump victory. The ex-UK prime-minister David Cameron ,wanted to intevene, ,but the Parliament ,refused ,Other NATO countries,except France, Germany and Italy, ,ignored. ,The three Western Europe countries sent fighters and made Bombings. ,But they still don’t sent troops. Russia sent some VDV’s,Iranian and Turkish Armed Forces sent some troops too… but ,it lacks desire to defeat ISIS.

Were the Brits completely incompetent in World War Two, losing every battle until the United States intervened?

Oh, the irony of the question! Actually, the British (and Empire forces) secured ,all three, of the first German military defeats of WWII on land, sea and air – ,El Alamein, The Battle of the Atlantic, and ,The Battle of Britain,. The planning, skill, technical know how, experience and courage to do this whilst fighting in all theatres of war, concurrently, in all corners of the globe and against better prepared forces of vastly superior numbers was an outstanding achievement. Germany’s war was regional by comparison. Japan’s war the same. Italy and ,Vichy, France too. Taking on all the above nations and securing these wins for the democratic free was, by any standard, let alone because Britain was smaller than these pea-cocking belligerents, a feat of pure brilliance. As well as achieving the above three first victories against the ‘unstopable’ German military war machine, Britain achieved that which no other nation in the world could even possibly dream of accomplishing in the early 1940s – namely fighting, at any one time, a global war in the ,Middle East,, the ,Far East,, the ,Indian, subcontinent, the ,Pacific,, ,North Africa,, ,West Africa,, ,East Africa,, the ,North Atlantic,, the ,South Atlantic,, the ,North Sea,, the ,Barents ,and ,Arctic, seas, the ,Mediterranean, ,the, Adriatic, and of course mainland ,Western Europe,, ,Eastern Europe ,and ,Scandinavia, too. However, if being the only military power in human history to achieve the aforementioned is not a convincing enough case for ,broad ,British competence, there are six, additional and more specific ,reasons why British military, ,forces were deemed broadly capable in the early war years as follows: 1. THE ROYAL AIR FORCE The Battle of Britain, was Germany’s first military defeat – it stopped the rot, it showed the world Britain was serious and showed the world that Britain had the capability to punch hard when nobody else seemingly had the capacity, preparedness or inclination to do so. Fighter Command ,– ,The ,RAF, had ,Fighter Command,, the world’s first and only integrated national air defence system using British invented ,Radio Detection And Ranging (RADAR) ,to identify approaching enemy planes at height hundreds of miles away with a centralised command centre to scramble and vector its fighters towards incoming enemy planes to intercept at height. Instead of attributing ,Air Chief Marshall Dowding ,as inventor, Britain simply told ,Hitler, et al ,RAF, pilots ate carrots to improve their vision. Supermarine Spitfire ,–Spitfire, fighters gave ,Goering, such a hard time during ,The Battle of Britain, he famously fielded sardonic requests from his fighter Aces (specifically Galland) for a squadron of ,Spitfires, for ,Luftwaffe, use. German fighter pilots had never faced such capable defence and the ,Spitfire, became ,WWII’s, most successful fighter – able to receive weapon, power, armament and fuel capacity upgrades throughout the six year span of the war. The Japanese ,Zero, on the other hand, once best in class, quickly became outmoded, the ,Messerschmitt 109, was too small for serious upgrades and adequate Soviet and US fighters only materialised late in the war. The US ,Mustang, had a brief appearance by comparison and was so underpowered at altitude it needed the capable British and their ,Merlin, engine to save it from the scrapheap. Avro Lancaster ,–,Meanwhile British aerial bombing took the war to the German doorstep like not even the ,USAF, could achieve. The ,Lancaster, heavy bomber, as well as being an equal ,‘area bomber’, to the US equivalent ,B17 Flying Fortress,, was so much more superior and manoeuvrable that it could fly low level at night through hilly terrain and accurately drop specialised ordnance deep behind enemy lines. Lumbering but equally brave USAF ,B17, pilots could simply dream of accomplishing such operations. Specialised Ordnance ,– ,The British ,Barnes Wallis, invented ,‘Earthquake Bomb’ ,felled German bridges and viaducts like dominos. Operationally known as, ‘Tall Boy’,, it was almost as long as the ,Lancaster, from which it was deployed, fell from great height (breaking the sound barrier), drove itself underground using its armoured nose and exploded deep below the surface creating tremors to collapse structures which had survived tens of conventional ,B-17, missions using many hundreds of bombs (eg. the ,Bielefeld, viaduct). It could pass straight through the fortified hulls of Germany’s largest battleships with an explosion lifting them clear of the water (eg. ,Turpitz,). Meanwhile the, ‘Bouncing Bomb’ ,smashed strategic targets (Oder and Moner industrial dams) also impossible to destroy through conventional, and famously inaccurate, US aerial strategic bombing. De Havilland Mosquito ,– ,The fighter-bomber re-invented aerial bombing itself and was the fastest aeroplane in the world. Mosquito, was the world's only fighter bomber capable of both day and night time precision bombing and equally capable at 30,000 feet as it was at tree top level and, being the fasted plane on the battlefield, needed no defensive machine guns or heavy armour protection. Loss ratio was 4% and the lowest of all allied aircraft types. The plucky little twin-engined ,‘Wooden Wonder’ ,carried a 4,000 pound bomb load, (same as a four engined lumbering ,B17 Flying Fortress,) yet its top speed was, due to its light-weight all wood construction, a whopping, record breaking, 400mph. It was the fastest, most sought after and most versatile fighter-bomber of ,WWII, and the only aircraft where German pilots attributed themselves two kills when they downed one aircraft. The Germans wanted ,Mosquito, so much they captured one, successfully copied it and, in an interesting twist of fate, failed to get the plane into production: British ,Mosquito’s ,ability to target single buildings with pin-point accuracy enabled it to be responsible for destroying the very glue factory used for joining together the wooden parts to the German copy (imaginatively called ,Moskito,),. Moskito ,was therefore rather aptly destroyed by its very namesake ,Mosquito,. It could strike so accurately it was used in a mission to breach a single prison wall deep behind enemy lines, a thousand miles from Britain, enabling the break-out of 200 important POWs and resistance fighters to escape imminent execution. Called ‘Operation Jericho’, it was the world's first precision bombing operation taking the avoidance of collateral damage as core mission priority,. Mosquito, was even sent on a mission to bomb ,Herman Goering, in a recording studio in Berlin during his scheduled live radio address to the German people. If one listens to the recording of the station on the day of the attack, an explosion can be heard in the background, then there is a commotion (where one imagines ,Goering, being ushered out of the room) and, finally, the ‘live’ address switches to a ,Wagner, pre-record. This is the sort of operation the ,USAF, has only recently mastered using high tech drones, laser guided bombs and ,GPS, guided missiles to assassinate high ranking ,Taliban, and ,ISIS, commanders. I apologise for digressing, I think I was supposed to be discussing British incompetence. Pilot Numbers ,– ,Furthermore, Britain, an established and outward-looking nation with global friends, could call upon a network of courageous pilots from around the world (,Canadians, Americans, Barbadians, Irish, Australians, Jamaicans, Kiwis, South Africans ,and, Rhodesians) ,to help fly its planes whereas Germany, a new up-start nation, had few friends. Astonishingly Hitler, Germany’s supposed head of state and international spokesperson,, ,had never been abroad (apart from sitting in a muddy trench in the ,Somme) ,and was possibly one of the worlds most insular politicians. Not many crossed the globe to fight for the ,Luftwaffe. Pilot Assassins ,– ,Accordingly the ,RAF, had ,Polish, fighter crews — the war’s most tenacious and revengeful pilots. The result? ,303 Squadron,, ,WWII’s, highest kill rate fighter unit. They did not fly ,Spitfire, and their statistics are a real testament to the ,Hawker Hurricane, which had a tighter turning circle to the ,Messersmitt 109, and, with an incredible eight ,Browning ,machine guns, had devastating firepower. Hawker Hurricane ,– ,Famed for its simple wood and canvas construction, the sturdy fighter could be patched up after battle and turned around in minutes and, contrary to popular belief, the fighter was responsible for downing the highest numbers of ,Luftwaffe, in the ,Battle of Britain,. Hurricane ,was to become the war’s most versatile, rugged and enduring fighter. It was the world’s first monoplane fighter to launch from a ship (during The Battle if the Atlantic using rockets) and was capable of taking 8 machine guns, cannon, rockets, bombs and incredibly accurate and quick firing twin ,auto loading 40mm, ,anti-tank guns ,under each wing ,– ,yes, on a fighter! Whilst B-17 carried 50 calibre machine guns [think bullets the size of a thumb] the plucky little British fighter carried shells as wide as a fist. In North Afrika the twin 40mm cannons wreaked havok against the Panzer IV and the Tiger alike at El Alemain. When an even bigger version of the same gun (the 6 Pounder anti–tank gun) was mounted on ,Mosquito, it was called, ‘Tsetse’, ,after the biting fly, and could fire 55 rounds per minute (America has only just mastered this technology with the cannon firing AC130 Gunship). Despite being intended for use against ,U-boats ,it was also deadly against tanks. In an attacking dive, firing a shot per second, pilots had time enough to accurately loose off up to seven armour piercing shells to open up thinner top-side tank armour like a ,Yanky, can of Heinz. It took the US until the 1970’s to develop their equivelent A10 Thunderbolt tank-buster ‘Warthog’ and the 1990’s to develop the C130 Gunship. Aircraft Production ,– ,However, perhaps the ,coup de grace, the British most capably served the ,Luftwaffe, was deftly dealt from a desk in London by ,Lord Beaverbrook, (,British Minister of War Production,). His efficient simplification of ,RAF, aircraft production methods was arguably the single most important contributing factor to winning ,The Battle of Britain,. Wooden ,Mosquito,s and ,Hurricane,s could be produced by plentiful furniture, cabinet and piano makers in dispersed and abundant rural artisan workshops and, as a result, were impossible for the ,Luftwaffe, to locate and destroy. Meanwhile Canada produced hundreds of Mosquitos due to its plentiful timber and skilled woodworkers whilst Australia did the same. Germany on the other hand found themselves in the very war they had spent 10 years preparing for and had no friends to call upon for equivalent aid. Furthermore, the Germans used centralised city factories (to build overly complicated planes) which the ,RAF, bombed mercilessly. Throughout the war, ,RAF ,fighter production increased capacity, ,whilst ,Luftwaffe, production numbers reached a plateau then descended in decreasing circles. Furthermore, a German slave labourer production force purposefully built in errors to their manufacturing and, as a result, ,Luftwaffe, pilots often lacked confidence in their own aircraft. With early warning detection, vectored interception, strategic bombing, ship launched aircraft, decentralised (and international) aircraft production, the Merlin engine, uncomplicated aircrfaft, specialised ordnance and a wide pool of trained pilots there is no doubt the RAF was the most widely capable airforce of WWII. I’m sorry — we were supposed to be talking of British incompetance and I must have got sidetracked by those pesky British flyboys. Let’s dig the dirt on the Royal Navy instead, afterall surely their being the most powerful naval force on the globe was just bluster? 2. THE ROYAL NAVY British naval forces were the world’s most potent and revered military sea force and the German, Kriegsmarine,, outnumbered 20 to 1, rarely left harbour as a result (unless doing so below the surface in ,U-Boats,). The Italians of course did the same whilst Vichy France dithered and had her ships sunk. Those German ships which did leave harbour were deftly hunted down and sunk by the British. Every major battleship the ,Germans ,put to sea (Scharnhorst, Graf Spee, Tirpitz, Gneisenau and Bismark) was systematically located, chased and destroyed by the superior and more experienced ,Royal Navy, which had smaller, more agile, more experienced and more capable ships as opposed to ,Hitler’s, tactically useless vanity projects built for show. Italian ships rarely showed up to their own war until ,Hitler ,kicked up such a fuss the, ,Italians were forced to leave harbour and put on a show – those that did were all sunk by the, ,British at ,Taranto,. The ,Royal Navy,, the only navy in the world at the time which trained for night operations using ,radar,, boarded one of the many ,Italian, ships before it sank and found all hands drunk and incapacitated. Indeed ,Taranto, was the massacre it was partly because the Italians, thinking the approaching ,Royal Navy, ships on the horizon were friendly, signalled their fleet’s position with a location flare. It was not a day known for Italian ‘competence’. After 1942, using the world’s most advanced ,code-breaking,, ,long range sea-planes,, ,escort carriers,, the world’s first ,air-to sea-radar, (,centimetric radar ,using the ,cavity magnetron,), ,sonar,, forward firing ,‘hedgehog’, ,depth-charges, ,and the world’s first sea launched monoplane fighter ,(all British inventions) the ,Royal Navy, and the ,Royal Air Force, finished off those lurking underwater too. The ,Battle of the Atlantic, destroyed German hopes of a blockade hereby completing Germany’s second defeat. The ,Battle of the Atlantic, involved the methodical scanning of every square metre of the ,Atlantic Ocean ,and required patience, determination, planning, organisation, courage and the home invention of many new technologies. Don't forget that ,The, ,Battle of Britain,, as way of narrative for a halting of the invasion of mainland Britain, is a romantic fiction. It was the deterrent capability and size of the ,Royal Navy, which ensured, even without air superiority, that Britain could fend off invasion (think Ruhr river barges against British, ,naval destroyers — the bow wave alone would have swamped them). It is widely accepted that the Germans did not ever have the capability to invade Great Britain with or without air cover or air superiority. 3. BRITISH LAND FORCES ‘Tommy’, ,– first won admiration from the Germans during the defence of ,Crete,. Such heavy death toll was inflicted upon German paratroopers that ,Hitler,, to save repeated loss of face and to maintain troop moral, never again fielded his beloved and legendary ,Fallschirmjäger, paras in their true role again. However, although the ,‘Tommy’ ,also won gritty admiration from the German ,Africa Korps, ,he was not the fiercest fighter for three very good reasons – 1). With a smaller army less risk can be taken – simple, logical and sound British thinking 2). The British valued the lives of their soldiers thus leading to further caution. Only megalomaniacs like ,Stalin, Hitler ,and ,Tojo, sacrificed their soldiers in the thousands for the sake of pride. 3). Unlike Russia or Germany, British, ,forces were not desperately defending their homeland and families from invading barbaric hordes. They were, in the main, capable civilians intervening and mediating in someone else’s fight – they were not interested in mainland Europe’s continual fetish for extreme and authoritarian politics (,Napoleon, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Franco...,). 4). Britain did not indoctrinate or politicise their youth with violent and hateful propaganda. This meant the Tommy was a soldier and the Wermacht were murderers. To compare the two is not to compare like for like. So, that is the ,reason, why the British ,‘Tommy’, is often known for his caution and now I will discuss its ,effect, and why the world should breathe a sigh of relief for British ,caution, in war. Thanks to stubborn resilience and refusal to ‘come to terms’ with ,Adolf,, the ,British and Her Empire, were the only ones fighting ,Germany ,for a whole year. After the fall of France, ,Hitler ,had expected an ‘understanding’ with, ,Britain, ,and, she being isolated, Hitler did not expect Britain to fight on. The British however, unlike many European nations, were CAUTIOUS to accept defeat and CAUTIOUS to chummy up with Germany and, with a moderately sized army, CAUTIOUSLY fought on against numerical superiority. So, those critical of, Tommy ,‘caution’ should be forever grateful for it – if it had not been for this British trait the British Expeditionary Force may have been squandered with gung–ho tactics — thankfully a CAUTIOUS tactical withdrawal enabled Britain to fight efficiently without the worry of underperforming allies to her flanks. Without this attribute there would have been no stepping stone to ,D-Day, and no saving of modern democracy (‘Greater Europe’ would now either be communist or fascist – which way it would have gone would be a good discussion in this forum). Indeed gung-ho Americans, ,wanted ,D-Day, in 1943 and British CAUTION persuaded them this was pure folly and therefore saved ,D-Day ,from being history’s largest combined forces military disaster. Obsequiously caving under pressure from ,Stalin ,to start a second front, the ,Americans, wanted ,D-Day, in ,Calais, in 1943. The British, thanks to their experience of the ,Dieppe Raid, and the more sober strategic influence of their ,Field Marshall Alan Brooke,, dug their heels in and told the ,Americans, they were ill-equipped, ill-advised, untrained and very unready. The Allied ,D-Day, armada, if launched in 1943 as per ,US, wishes, would have been seriously challenged by ,U-boats,, there would have been no ,Higgins, landing craft, not enough landing troops, not enough tanks, not enough air cover and the ,Luftwaffe, was not even yet defeated… I could go on – US strategic planners were naive at best. British planning, experience, patience and willingness to play the long game meant that both the eventual timing and planning for ,D-Day, were impeccable. So, all those who enjoy their fascist free daily lives – let’s give a cheer for British CAUTION. However, all this having been said, the ,‘Tommy’ ,had many guises. Many of them feared by their opponents for very good reason: Commandos, ,– Hitler hated British, Commandos,. So much that a directive was issued for all ,Commando, captives to be shot on site and even in surrender. No such unit had ever been seen in the world and the ,Commando, was a new type of military thinking – soldiers chosen for their individuality. The ,Commando, raid on ,St Nazaire,, successfully eliminating ,Tirpitz, and ,Bismark, from the war in the Atlantic wa,s, so audacious, ,it is referred to by historians as ‘,The Greatest Raid of All’. Special Forces, – the ,SAS,, or ,Special Air Service, (previously the ,Long Range Desert Group, or ,LRDG,), was a constant thorn in ,Rommel’s, side. ,Sterling’s, ,SAS ,achieved in a single night that which the ,RAF, would achieve in a month (at ,Fuka, they destroyed 18 fighters in a single raid and estimates for the total ,SAS, tally for the North Afrika campaign are as high as 350). No such unit had ever been seen and the ,SAS, were the most elite soldiers of ,WWII,, as they remain so to this day. Paratroopers, — British ,Paras, fought like devils during ,Operation Torch ,and ,Operation Market Garden ,– battle hardened German SS Panzer Divisions admiringly nicknamed them ,‘Rote Teufel’ (Red Devils), after their fighting spirit and distinctive red beret. Ghurkas, ,— Feared most for his ,‘Kukri’ ,knife, the ,Ghurkha, was respected perhaps most of all for his hand-to-hand and close quarter combat. It is said that they are the most fearsome soldiers in the world, partly because of the ,kukri’s ,notoriety for severing human heads. Glider-borne Troops, ,— Best in the world. The taking of ,Pegasus Bridge,, a successful moonlit landing in a field smaller than football pitch on the dawn of ,D–Day,, was the only ,Allied, operation on a par with spectacular German glider-borne achievements at ,Fort Eben-Emael, in Belgium 1939. Anzacs and Canadians, ,— tenacious, reliable and brave. Possibly the ,Allies, most revered infantry fighter. Without the hard earned lessons of Dieppe, D-Day might not have been a success. Artillery, – the following objective views of German commanders, who faced both Russian and ,Allied, artillery, leave no doubt that the British were the best in the world. In April 1944 the ,Red Army's, spring offensive had been broken up by Germany’s powerful armoured reserve of ,SS Panzer Corps, consisting of ,9 Panzer Division, ,A,nd ,10 SS Panzer Division,. Fearing an ,English Channel, invasion, the they were withdrawn and moved to Normandy – thereby exposing the German front line and leading to a Russian breakthrough. How did these elite German troops fare against the British who had now accumulated unprecedented experience gained over five years of fighting? “…the firing power of a British division can hardly ever be compared to that of a Soviet armoured division…” ,Walter Harzer Chief Staff Officer, 9 SS Panzer Division,, “because the British support by aircraft and artillery was far superior to anything the Soviet could ever offer us…” Captured German tank crews believed the British gun crews were using a ,‘Gattling’, field gun – not an unreasonable supposition because the British had developed the self-loading, fully automatic, ,6 Pounder, anti-tank gun with a furious rate of fire for both the ,Mosquito, bomber and the ,Hurricane, fighter. “…down came a barrier defensive fire such as we ‘East Fronters’ had never known; the Russians never had as many guns as this and they did not use them in this way; and then came a thick smoke screen. Our attack folded at the foot of a hill before we had even got onto the slopes.” ,Willi Fey, Tank Commander. In spite of three years on the Russian front, for Lieutenant H. Holler, ,“…because of the terrible bombardment”, this ,“had been the worst day of the war.” The German armoured divisions were to experience the same fate at the hands of ,RAF Bomber Command, during the ,Battle of the Bulge,. Pictures of the biggest German tanks show them tossed around like toys. These assessments and experiences are the result of diligent ,British, artillery training (British artillery regiments had the experience of ,WWI, and countless other operational deployments) and years of design refinement – the ,25 Pounder Field-gun, was world renowned and the most accurate mobile artillery piece of ,WWII ,(the German ,88mm, was not artillery but an anti-tank gun). The Russians famously used the terrifying ,‘Stalins Organ’ katuscha, rocket launchers mounted on the backs of trucks. This makeshift solution was cheap to produce in numbers, highly manoeuvrable, terrifying to see and even worse to hear. However, a bit like an ,ISIS Toyota Hilux, mounted gun-platform, it was an improvised and makeshift solution, incredibly inaccurate and the crews were without the ,Royal Artillery’s, hundreds of hours of meticulous live-fire training on ,Salisbury Plain. 4. BRITISH PLANNING Nobody planned combined armed military forces like the British. ,Dowding's ,revolutionary ,National Air Defence System, is replicated today the world over largely unchanged (indeed the system is now used to defend the US and those who operate it have British ‘competence’ to thank for). All the while ,Monty's ,only equal for the planned set-piece battle was ,Zhukov, and nobody matched Britain's global sea planning capability – the ,Graf Spee, was sunk off Argentina, the ,Gneisenau, bombed and left to rot in Kiel, the ,Turpitz, sunk in Norway, the ,Scharnhorst, in the arctic and the ,Bismark, damaged and scuttled in the ,Bay of Biscay, – no stone was left unturned and every threat systematically eliminated. These deftly sunk German battleships were larger, better armoured and more powerfully gunned than anything the British had but German sea planning and doctrine was inexperienced, incorrect and all for show. Hundreds of years of British naval fighting showed that smaller ships were more agile and, when well commanded, were more efficient in battle. Vanity doesn’t run deep in British naval doctrine and it was naive of an upstart new nation like Germany to dream of taking on a sea-dog nation like Great Britain. The Italian navy, even larger than the German ,Kriegsm,a,rine,, also rarely daring to leave harbour, seldom got a look in. The Battle of the Atlantic ,was won in much the same way as ,The Battle of Britain, – through the highly organised mapping of every square mile of the ,Atlantic Ocean, (using British invented ,Radar,) and the subsequent meticulous deployment of search planes, systematically combing designated grids and by destroyers doing the same all in search of ,U-Boats,. This took diligence, patience, planning and organisation at the highest level all the way down to the operational crews. It was perhaps, due to the size of the ocean and invisibility of ,U-Boats,, an even greater organisational task than ,Dowding’s ,brainchild national air defence in ,The Battle of Britain., Fewer people know about it because depth-charges, aptly named, ‘Hedgehogs’, ,are not as sexy as ,Spitfires. The Battle of Britain, El Alamein ,and ,The Battle of the Atlantic, were British led military successes – on land, at sea and in the air, in close succession. They were also Germany’s first three notable defeats. ,D–Day ,came next and ,Operation Overlord, (the sea-borne element of ,D-Day,) was the biggest sea invasion in history. The task to plan and lead the operation was given to the ,Royal Navy – ,its formation date of 897 ,A,D (by ,King Alfred the Great ,to beat the ,Vikings,) on the application form was deemed just enough to pip the ,US ,naval application for the job to the post. 5. BRITISH ESPIONAGE SOE (Special Operations Executive) ,spying and ,Bletchley Park, code-breaking were the best in the business and pretty much the only people in the business. When Hollywood release fictitious movies featuring US submarines capturing the German ,Enigma, don’t you believe it – no such event occurred. It was the ,Royal Navy, which achieved the coup. My grandmother worked at ,Bletchley Park, and Hollywood’s lying fantasists owe her, her peers and the ,Royal Navy, an apology, indeed some share of royalties would be appropriate – Britain made America the super power it is via ,Lend Lease, but our charity can only go so far. Bletchley Park ,– ,British espionage capability at ,Bletchley Park, shortened the war by a popularly accepted 4 years. Conversely the US information collecting machine, having failed to head their own direct warnings of imminent Japanese attack, does not see ,Pearl Harbour, as its greatest moment. Germany’s 4th defeat, – Bletchley, also provided the Russians with the German battle plan for the attack on Moscow, helping Russia to win its very first battle. I think at the time the Russians were also using the 1,924 ,Hawker Hurricanes, Britain sent them before the US had even started with their military aid. So it could be said that Britain indeed helped secure the first four German defeats. Germany’s 5th defeat, – ,After this Russia was forewarned, through ,Bletchley Park, again, of German troop build up at ,Kursk,. A British spy, ,John Cairncross,, leaked the information to Moscow and Russia subsequently achieved its first victory in battle on open ground through advanced warning, planning and preparation – a truly appropriate gift from the British. Shall we agree then that Britain had a hand in Germany’s first five defeats? SOE, – ,Meanwhile ,SOE, were more tactical than ,Bletchley, – they ended Germany’s ambitions to create a nuclear device at ,Vemork,, blew up power stations, once halted submarine production at Bordeaux for a month, helped persuade ,Hitler ,that the ,D–Day, and Sicily landings were to happen hundreds of miles away (operations ,‘Mince Meat’,* and ,‘Fortitude’,) and stopped Panzers from reaching ,D–Day, beaches without firing a shot (,Das Reich SS Panzer Division ,began its advance through France towards the beaches and ,SOE, agents siphoned off the axle oil from the division's rail transport cars replacing it with abrasive grease – all of the rail cars seized). On another occasion a German supply train, again loaded with tanks, was sent to the wrong destination using only a forged document. However, often shots were fired – ,SOE, assassinated ,Heydrich,, blew up the ,Gorgopotamos, rail bridge (carrying vital supplies for ,Rommel's ,desert army) among many other bridges, railroads and docks. Three ,SOE ,agents even took 12,000 German ,POWs, in Genoa. More generally,, SOE ,so harassed ,Axis ,powers that thousands of troops were pulled from the front lines to guard railways, storage depots, and factories, while the British in contrast simply relied upon pensioners to protect such facilities. SOE, agents were real, James Bonds ,and, as such, even had a ,‘Q Branch’, which supplied submersible kayaks, camel dung disguised road mines, the single shot cigarette pistol, radio sets disguised in logs, pieces of coal containing dynamite and they even invented ,‘carborundum’, abrasive grease which, when smeared on locomotive axles, brought trains to a standstill. Indeed the agent behind ,Operation Mincemeat*,, ,Ian Flemming,, went on to write the ,James Bond, saga*. So the fiction that is Jason Bourne doesn't even get close. Colossus ,– ,However, it was ,Bletchley,, the British ,Colossus, (world’s first computer) and teams of amateur chess players, crossword enthusiasts, linguists and eccentric individuals who broke the ,Enigma, and ,Lorenz, cyphers. ,“Ultra intelligence produced at Bletchley shortened the war by two to four years, and that without it the outcome of the war would have been uncertain” ,Hinsley, 1996. 6. BRITISH POLITICAL CLOUT Thankfully the British and Commonwealth fighter had ,Winston Churchill ,behind him. ,Churchill,, unlike many of his foreign counter-parts, was a political heavy-weight – an intelligent, considered, educated, sophisticated, hard working, dedicated and humorous man who understood armed forces’ tactical and strategic requirements. No soldier wants a ,Hitler,, a ,Stalin,, a ,Mussolini, or a ,Franco, behind him (the only political megalomanic that has ever been good for a soldier was ,Napoleon, – possibly the world’s greatest ever military leader and Britain saved Europe from him too). Dictators seldom make good military minds. Allowing ,Hitler,, a bitter, ill-educated, un-travelled, simplistic, nihilistic, corrupted, ego-centric megalomanic to influence, define and control a nation’s military doctrine is a strange thing. This rather undistinguished Corporal, acting as Commander-in-Chief to an entire nation, was addicted to amphetamines, paranoid, socially droll and thought he could lead a nation from his telephone in a bunker. He also blindly thought that he was a good tactician. When he visited Paris in 1939 after the fall of France it was his first time abroad (apart from sitting in a trench in the ,Somme,). Ouch – a nation’s international spokesperson who had never been abroad – that’s incompetence! Perhaps ,Hitler’s, angst is explained by the disclosure of a document noting a conversation in the 1960s between German ,WWI ,doctor ,Johan Jambor ,and his priest. Although it was known ,Hitler ,suffered a groin injury in the ,Somme,, evidence suggests that he was, 'monorchic' ,- the medical word for the condition of only having one testicle. ,Blassius Hanczuch,, a friend of ,Jambor,, said the doctor blamed himself for saving ,Hitler's, life. He said: ,“they fought in the Battle of the Somme. For several hours, Johan and his friends picked up injured soldiers. He remembers Hitler. They called him the ‘Screamer’. He was very noisy. His abdomen and legs were all in blood. Hitler was injured in the abdomen and lost one testicle”., Ouch – a nation’s war leader with misgivings about his manhood – that’s incompetence! Churchill, on the other hand was a well connected, adept and worldly statesman who amused and charmed people, bringing nations together by diligently, patiently and relentlessly rallying them. He wrote numerous letters to ,Roosevelt ,every week keeping him informed of his European cousins’ fight to save freedom and democracy. During the war alone he visited leaders and troops in the ,US, Yalta, Moscow, France, Gibraltar, and ,Casablanca. ,When the ,Luftwaffe, bombed London Churchill stood on the rubble to publicly address his fellow Britons with stirring and motivating addresses, by contrast ,Hitler ,ranted from a bunker. ,Churchill, did not release ,Diktats, through intimidation down long telephone lines but instead met, cajoled and encouraged whole nations for support. And this he did capably because he was affable, educated and of officer class. The little corpral was, by comparison, very out of his depth. Whilst never inter-fearing in day to day tactics, ,Churchill, never-the-less, and through the correct military hierarchical channels only, introduced the world to new military concepts. One being the tank,. ,Another the ,Commando, raider – a highly successful elite force tasked with ,‘setting Europe ablaze’ ,— no other nation had an equivalent. ,Churchill, was the architect of clandestine operations due to his experience as an adept army officer fighting against the ,Boers,, original partisan and clandestine fighters of asymmetric warfare. Unlike ,Hitler,, ,Churchill, had balls and was prepared to use them (he even wanted to land in the first wave on ,D-Day, and was scolded by ,King George V, for it). He was able to make extremely brave and difficult decisions for strategic betterment — after the collapse of France, and fearing French battleships would fall into German hands, ,Churchill, gave the lack-lustre French navy in North Africa an offer to sail to Britain to join the good fight. The French, being French, refused and so he gave them an ultimatum to join the allies, sail to a neutral harbour or to be sunk. The French famously chose the latter option and ,Churchill, took the brave, necessary and militarily correct decision to follow through. Within days all Americans knew the British were serious in continuing the fight and Roosevelt felt he had the mandate of the people to enact ,Lend Lease,. Thus the beginning of the end was put into motion. Churchill, also single handedly kept Spain out of the ,Axis, by threatening ,Franco ,and his then war-wrecked and fragile recovering economy with a ,Royal Navy ,blockade. ,Franco, wisely took siesta for the next six years. Churchill, is known by some to have been a war mongering bull-dog and, we're that the case, he was just the man for the moment. I would say however that his attributes were more subtle. ,Churchill’s, portrayal of the ‘miracle’ of ,Dunkirk, in such a positive light was not blind British bull-dog bravado but the nuanced and PR-adept positioning of Britain as a capable nation worthy of American financial investment so as to continue the fight. What a salesman he was. I might advise the writer of this question to read his history with specific regard to the competence of Germany’s military hierarchy. If he did so he would see that: —Whilst sober, patient, competent and forward thinking British men like ,Dowding ,were, for five pre-war years, carefully preparing their nation with untested and ground-breaking military doctrine, innovation and invention Germany devised an airforce centred round a one-trick-pony ,Blitzkrieg ,tactic only relevant to invasion and unable to defend its people. —Whilst skilled, revengeful and unforgiving ,RAF, pilots from ,303 Squadron, such as ,Sgt Josef František, were busy confirming 17 kills (in ,The Battle of Britain, alone) many of his counterpart ,Luftwaffe, pilots were busy getting blitzed on crystal meth. —Whilst capable and measured British men like ,Lord Beaverbrook ,carefully, diligently and painstakingly ensured their nation had enough planes to survive impending doom Germany’s ,Luftwaffe, big man ,Hermann Goering, was busy injecting himself with morphine from his gold syringe. —Whilst defiant ,Winston Churchill, skilfully cajoled the free world in unity little man ,Adolph, was taking amphetamines to get out of bed in the morning and dopamines to get back in at night – famously the man was so high on ,Eukoda,l (an opiate with a bigger kick than heroin) on ,D–Day, that he could not be roused until midday. —By 1945 the ,Temmler, factory, which produced ,Pervitin, (official metamphetmine for the German people), had manufactured a staggering 35 million pills. Germany was ill and ‘competence’ is not an attribute often given to addicts. So, when a ,Yank, tells me ,‘Uncle Sam taught Britain to fight’,, I have to politely laugh and, with sardonic good humour, pretend I think he is joking – knowing that being a ,Yank,, he doesn’t understand the irony of his own premise. After all,, ,it was ‘incompetence’ and naive isolationism that made the US ill prepared for war – the Japanese attack on ,Pearl Harbour ,had been forewarned but US military hierarchy did not listen. Subsequently ‘green’ US forces entered into ,WWII ,in North Africa with some of the war’s most ignominious defeats and required the experienced British to share their hard earned war-fighting knowledge with them. This the British were of course happy to do – however, clearly a provision should have been made that, in return, future generation ,Yank ,be taught his wonderfully short history a little better. ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– * Operation Mincemeat (later made into a film ‘The Man that Never Was’) was conceived by Commander Ian Flemming, a Royal Naval Officer tasked with dreaming up clandestine operations against Germany. A tramp’s body (Glyndwr Michael, who had committed suicide in Kings Cross, London) was disguised as Captain (Acting Major) William Martin, a British Officer, and ejected from a Royal Navy submarine close to the Spanish shore and not far from Gibraltar knowing Spanish fishermen would hand the ‘soldier’ to Spanish authorities who in turn would hand the body to German agents. German agents conducted a post mortem in Madrid and concluded he was a British officer drowned after a plane crash as sea. The ‘British Officer’s’ brief case chained to his wrist was filled with Allied ‘secrets’. The body was given countless props so as to make the story believable – letters and photos from a fictitious English girlfriend, English train tickets, a London laundry ticket, an English postcard, a British made wallet etc. These ‘secrets’ led the Germans to believe that the imminent Allied landings at Sicily were to happen hundreds of miles elsewhere on the Greek mainland. Hitler, as a result, moved much needed troops, tanks and fighters away from Sicily where the landings were need to take place. Hitler moved 10,000 soldiers to Sardinia alone and to mainland Greece many more. Michael Howard, described Operation Mincemeat as “perhaps the most successful single deception operation of the entire war”. The British had expected 10,000 killed or wounded in the first week of fighting in Sicily — only a seventh of that number were injured; the navy expected 300 ships sunk in the action but they lost 12. The predicted 90 day campaign was over in 38 days. The man who dreamt up the operation was Commander Ian Fleming who went on to write a book. The main character was a suave British spy called Commander James Bond and much of the detail was based upon Flemming’s own operational spying experience. So, in summary and by way of a message to all you Yanks: James Bond is real – Jason Bourne just a wonderful schoolboy fantasy want for a history the nation is without but wished it had.

Where are Argentines treated best, other than their own country?

Spain. Lots of them came, included my grandmother and great grandparents. Argentina saved Spain from starving and gave money to them in their worse times without asking anything back, and we will do it again and again with Madre España. There is no visa, double citizenship, etc. Italy, no visa again, more of them came, including other of my great grandparents. We gave them food when they needed, and will do it again and again. Argentina is like a second Italy. Uruguay. Practically the same, Uruguay is not part of Argentina because it was created as a buffer state between Brazil and Argentina by the english interest. We are always fighting each other but we love them, they are our brothers. And their rock bands are awesome. Germany. The third ethnic composition of Argentina are Germans (around 4 million argentines). The bound is clear. There is a lot of German-Argentines working on the Deustche Welle network. There is strong economical and cultural ties with Germany. Brazil. Brazilian women like argentines a lot, we like their beaches, we don’t like their soft beer, lol. Always competing in arrogance and football with them but the truth is they come to Argentina and we go to Brazil and most people get in love with each other country and people. Peru. History ties them with us, and we owe them big time from their help in 1982. If you consider a latinamerican country (not limiting us) a trusty friend as a brother, they are. Argentines co to Peru all the time to visit their marvels and enjoy their culture. As i heard they treat us very well and their women like argentines also. France. There is strong historical, cultural and economical ties with France along a Franco-Argentine community. Haven’t hear of any complain of Argentine with the French. Argentina admires France a lot and we consider them a very close friend. Israel. At the point they gave intelligence, spare parts and tried to triangulate exocets to Argentina in 1982. The Argentine jewish community is the largest in latinamerica and there is thousands of Argentine-Israeli people living in Israel and in their government and armed forces. The technological and militar relationships with Israel is very strong. Syria and Lebanon. 2 million Argentines are Syrian ethnic and have family there. No wonder why we don’t like the mess the United States did in Syria. It was common that Argentines vacationed in Syria and visited family in that beautiful secular and safe country before 2012. Those who were in danger for the terrorism and with family in Argentina are refugee here, mostly educated professionals that are already working. The Lebanese/Syrian people came in the first half of the XXth century escaping the oppressive ruling of UK. Russia. When the famine hit the Soviet Union they remember the ships with wheat and meat we sent them. There is a parallelism between the way our societies are and the struggles we suffer, we consider Russia very similar to Argentina (saving the clear differences). Many russians came to Argentina along serbians before WWI. Netherlands. Their Queen is one of us, lol. Lots of Argentines visit Holland for the weed, haha. Cuba. We gave them food and medicines when they needed, sold them cars when the USA blockaded them and lots of Argentines of well passing go to do tourism there. And the Che, although he is not a positive figure in Argentina and surely the people who go to Cuba considers him a tug and a murderer. UK. Despite our conflict with the Malvinas/Falklands, many Argentines go to visit London and even working in translation institutes. My high school teacher lived in London and went to homologate her english as certificated translator and language professor. Truth is there is 400.000 Anglo-Argentines, an english language newspaper, The Buenos Aires Herald. The english settled in Argentina while building railroads, influenced the high society in Argentina (sometimes for the worst), the Navy took the Royal Navy model as rule, and the english left an imprint in the Argentine culture and sports (Polo, Tennis, Football, Rugby the Rotary Club). I haven’t heard about any animosity of the english against Argentines there. As they are welcomed and well seeing people in Argentina, the same applies there, just keep the Malvinas issue out. We love english rock, a lot but a lot and their bands are in love with Argentina, as AC/DC, Motorhead and Deep Purple Ireland. We have a long historical bond with Ireland, our Navy was founded by William Brown, and Irishman who was primordial to defeat the naval power of Spain in the Independence Wars. Later the bond deepened with the shared conflict with UK that invaded Argentina several times as oppressed Ireland. As a catholic country, Argentina was elected as a destiny by the Irish who escaped from the ruthless english oppression and the starvation campaign of england over them. Ireland supports the Argentine claim for the Malvinas Islands. And practically most the world. Wherever argentines go the first thing people say is “oh Argentina Maradona, Tango, Messi. I remember reading in The Garage Magazine that in the Dakar 2001 a Toyota Argentina team competing with the Hilux were assaulted by armed Bedouins and robbed. When they saw they were from Argentina they started to say “Maradona, Maradona” and then took a picture with them and an Argentine national football t-shirt.

What are some of the most economical armored fighting vehicles of today's militaries?

These are all good candidates for economical vehicles. Some are lightly armored. Top 10 Light Utility Vehicles Which is the best light military vehicle in the world? Which is the greatest military jeep-style vehicle and why? There are hundreds of various light utility vehicles that are being used for military service. Some of them are commercial designs, just repainted in military colors. The others are purpose-built tactical vehicles, that where specially designed for military use and operation in forward areas. The light utility vehicles are used to carry troops, staff, supplies, evacuate wounded soldiers and for other roles. Key factor for this Top 10 analysis are production numbers, how widespread is the specific light utility vehicle. How many countries use them. Other important factors, such as payload capacity, cross-country mobility, reliability are also considered. This Top 10 list includes only operational light utility vehicles. It do not includes vehicles that are being developed or received no production orders. Currently Top 10 military light utility vehicles in the world are these: Nr.1 ,HMMWV, (United States) Currently the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, or HMMWV, is the most widely used military light utility vehicle in the world. It was designed by the AM General. Its production commenced in 1981. Initial batch of these utility vehicles was delivered to the US Army in 1983. It replaced in service the ,M151 series jeeps, and some other US military vehicles. Eventually the HMMWV became the vehicular backbone of the US forces. Over 160 000 of these light utility vehicles were built. The HMMWV is in service with more than 50 countries. Its production still continues. Furthermore numerous clones, copies and international variants of these vehicles are being built all over the world. The M998 is a baseline vehicle of the HMMWV family. It was designed primarily for personnel and light cargo transport. It is powered by a Detroit Diesel 6.2-liter diesel engine, developing 130 hp. Engine is mated with an automatic transmission. The HMMWV was designed for use over all types of roads. All-wheel drive, high power-to-weight ratio combining with high ground clearance give it good cross-country mobility. A wide track was designed to drive in tracks left by the main battle tanks. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system, which is adjusted from the driver's station to suit various terrain conditions. This vehicle is air transportable and droppable from a variety of military transport aircraft. It can be carried underslung by some helicopters. In 1996 production of the M1114, an improved and armored variant, commenced. Armor of this vehicle provides protection against small arms fire and landmines. This variant is fitted with a larger and more powerful engine. There are over 20 variants of the HMMWV in service with the United States. These include troop/cargo carriers, ambulances, armament carriers, ,TOW, missile carriers, shelters, prime movers and so on. Some of the variants are armored. A civilian version of the HMMWV is the Hummer H1. Nr.2 ,Land Rover Defender, (United Kingdom) The Land Rover Defender entered production in 1990. Between 1983 and 1990 a similar utility vehicle was produced by Land Rover, but it was simply known as the Land Rover 90, -110, or -127. Only in 1989, with the introduction of a civilian Discovery model, Land Rover company decided to name its utilitarian off-road model the Defender in order to avoid confusion. The Defender light utility vehicles are in service with the British forces and are widely used around the world. Each year approximately 8 000-9 000 of Land Rover light utility vehicles were produced, and sold for military operators worldwide. The Defenders are manufactured in some countries, including Australia, Malaysia and Turkey. Production of the Defenders ceased in the UK in 2016. Jaguar Land Rover company announced their intention to launch a "new Defender". However it might be a totally different vehicle. The Land Rover Defender is available in various models, such as 90, 110 and 130. The number in the designation is a length of wheelbase in inches. All Land Rover vehicles come with a number of options, including open top with folding windscreen, or roll-over bar, additional fuel tanks. These military vehicles can withstand the most demanding off-road conditions. Vehicles carry troops, equipment or communication systems, depending on the role. Defenders are also used as weapon carriers, mobile workshops, shelter carries, ambulances, or light recovery vehicles. There are a number of armored versions of this vehicles, as well as open-top special forces vehicles. The General Service (GS) are the baseline Defenders with an open top, covered by a canvas cover. Such vehicles are capable of carrying 8-14 troops, depending on the model. There are also used to tow light artillery pieces. The FFR version with an all-metal body is often used as a mobile command post or signal vehicle. All Land Rover Defenders have a NATO standard towing jaw and are capable of towing a trailer with a maximum weight of up to 4 t. The Defenders are powered by 2.5-liter petrol or diesel engines, developing from 68 to 111 hp. There is also a more powerful 3.5-liter V8 petrol engine, developing 134 hp. Gearbox and transfer is standard across the range of military vehicles. The Land Rovers are popular for being easily maintained in the field, as only tools required to service these military vehicles are often just a hammer and a few spanners. Nr.3 ,Mercedes-Benz G-class, (Germany) The Mercedes-Benz G-class is also referred as Gelandwagen, G-Wagen, G-Wagon. In the German Army service it is known as the Wolf. The G-class was developed in the early 1970s as a military vehicle from the ground up. Production commenced in 1979. Since its introduction the G-class is also available for civilian customers as sport utility vehicle. This military vehicle was constantly improved. In 1990 the redesigned G-class replaced the ,Volkswagen Iltis, in the German Army service. Later it replaced the Iltis with Canadian Army. Currently the Mercedes-Benz G-class is still in production. It is in service with more than 60 countries. Each year 4 000 to 6 000 of these vehicles are produced both for military and civil customers. In some countries it is manufactured under license. The Mercedes-Benz G-class was developed for tough terrain conditions. It is available in various body styles and various wheelbase lengths. It is available with hard or open tops. It is also used as shelter carrier, ambulance and communication vehicle. A 6x6 model is also available for certain markets. Some vehicles have turret rings and are armed with machine guns or automatic grenade launchers. A light armor kit can be fitted in field conditions. Specially designed armored models are also available. The payload capacity of the G-class is about 500-1 500 kg, depending on the model. It can also tow light trailers or artillery pieces. Since its introduction a number of petrol and diesel engines have been fitted. Both manual and automatic gearboxes were available. Older vehicles have a selectable four-wheel drive. Modern G-class utility vehicles have a full-time all-wheel drive. This military vehicle made its reputation for reliability and ruggedness. The French ,Peugeot P4, military vehicle is a license produced version of the G-class, fitted with French engine, transmission and has a reshaped body. There is also another French Panhard VPS vehicle for special forces, which is also based on the G-class. Nr.4 ,UAZ-469, (Russia) The UAZ-469 was introduced in 1973. It was specially designed to fulfill military roles. The UAZ-469 was widely used by the Soviet military, as well as civilians. This vehicle was exported to around 70 countries worldwide. Over 2 000 000 of these light utility vehicles were produced. An updated variant, the UAZ Hunter, is still in production. Currently it is the only vehicle of its class, in service with the Russian Army. This robust off-road vehicle is simple in design and technology. Its simplicity allows for easy maintenance and repairs. Vehicle has an open-topped body with a soft canvas cover and detachable door tops. It is a very capable 4x4 vehicle, which can drive on any terrain. The UAZ-469 has a payload capacity of 800 kg. This off-road vehicle provides seating for the driver, plus 6 passengers with 100 kg of cargo, or alternatively one passenger and 600 kg of cargo. It can also tow trailers or light artillery pieces on cross-country terrain with a maximum weight of 850 kg. Vehicle is powered by a commercially available UMZ-452MI 2.45-liter petrol engine, developing 72 hp. A diesel engine is also available. Vehicle has a full-time all-wheel-drive. It is worth mentioning, that civilian version was not as capable cross country terrain. The UAZ-3151 is an improved version, produced since 1985. It is powered by new engines. The UAZ Hunter is the current version with some minor improvements, produced since 2003. Nr.5 ,Toyota Land Cruiser, (Japan) The Toyota Land Cruiser first appeared in 1953. It is not a purpose-designed military vehicle, but rather a commercial 4x4 vehicle, intended for civil market. However due to its unsurpassed reliability, durability and great off-road performance it is widely used by various military and paramilitary units, non-governmental organizations and militant groups from all over the world. The Land Cruiser was built in impressive numbers. Since its introduction in 1953 around 4 million of these vehicles were produced by Toyota. These vehicles were and still are license-produced in some countries, such as Columbia, Malaysia and Venezuela. The Land Cruisers are very popular in Africa, Middle East and South America. The 1980s war between Chad and Libya was named the Toyota War because of the heavy use of Land Cruisers by both parties. These pickup trucks are used to carry weapons and supplies. The Land Cruisers are often converted into improvised fighting vehicles, armed with heavy machine guns, mounted on a tripods. These improvised combat vehicles are called "technicals". Also there are numerous improvised modifications, fitted with anti-aircraft guns and missiles, anti-tank missiles, recoilless rifles and even artillery rocket systems. Currently the most often encounter models, used by military and paramilitary users, are the 70 series Land Cruisers. Production of the 70 series vehicles commenced in 1984 and still continues. Though over the years a number of modifications were made to these vehicles. Model 73 has a mid-length wheelbase, while the model 75 has long wheelbase. The model 77 is another long wheelbase version. In 1999 production switched to updated model 78 and 79. Most 70 series Land Cruisers were produced with either a two-door pickup body, or a two-door station wagon body. There is also a four-door pickup body, as well as armored versions. There are even dedicated light armored personnel carriers with fully enclosed armored hulls, based on model 79 chassis. These are Minerva Special Purpose Vehicles Panthera T6 and Streit Group Cougar. The current production Land Cruiser model 79 is powered by a 4.2-liter turbocharged diesel engine, developing 170 hp. Also there is a 4.5-liter diesel developing 202 hp, and 4-liter petrol, developing 227 hp. Engine is mated to a 5-speed manual transmission. There are different fuel tank sizes, so actual range of the vehicle varies depending from the engine type, body type, wheelbase length and so on. Toyota continued development and production of the Land Cruiser. Eventually 80, 90, 100 and 200 series appeared. However these luxury vehicles were intended for civilian market and lack off-road performance of the 70 series. These vehicles are more suited for non-frontline and paramilitary units, that operate in the rear echelon. The only exception was a 105 series which was a capable off-road vehicle. There is another pickup from Toyota, the Hilux, which is also used by various non-frontline and paramilitary units, as well as governmental organizations and militant groups. This light commercial vehicle is smaller than the Land Cruiser and has inferior cross-country performance. Though it is also favored by various military and paramilitary users due to its durability and reliability. It is suitable for non-tactical roles. The Toyota Hilux pickup is available with a two-door, or four-door cab. Nr.6 ,Pinzgauer, (Austria) The Pinzgauer was developed in Austria by Steyr-Daimler-Puch. This all-terrain vehicle was specially designed to meet military needs. Production commenced in 1965. Eventually it proved to be a very successful design. Since 1986 the original Pinzgauer was replaced in production by improved ,Pinzgauer 716, (4x4) and 718 (6x6) series vehicles. Currently the Pinzgauers are in service with many military users from all over the world. In all their forms the Pinzgauers have been produced in a bewildering array of models with hard or soft-tops, equipped for carrying either passengers or cargo. Some versions have provision to carry weapon systems or communication shelters. There are also command versions and some examples were used to carry 20 mm anti-aircraft guns. Ambulance versions with special panel bodies have been manufactured. All Pinzgauers have an excellent cross-country performance due to their high ground clearance and short wheelbase. Recently a ,Pinzgauer II, has been developed. This new-generation vehicle is available only with 6x6 configuration. It is larger and has more internal volume. Also it has increased mobility, payload, performance and protection. However so far this version received no production orders. Nr.7 ,Beijing BJ2022, (China) The Beijing BJ2022 is a Chinese light utility vehicle. It is also referred as "Yongshi" or Brave Warrior. It was jointly developed by Beijing Auto Works and Chrysler. A concept vehicle was revealed in 2002. Chinese Army got very interested in the project, as it was looking to replace the ubiquitous BJ212 and ,BJ2020, light utility vehicles. So a couple of prototypes were made specially for the Chinese army. Eventually it has been adopted. Production of the the BJ2022 began in 2005. Deliveries to the Chinese Army began in 2007. In 2009 due to financial troubles in the US the Chrysler left the joint venture and granted Beijing Auto Works the rights to continue production of this vehicle under its own name. Currently the BJ2022 is being produced in large numbers. It is the most widely used 4x4 vehicle in the Chinese army. It is also used by some paramilitary and law enforcement units. China produced around 500 000 units of BJ212, BJ2020 and BJ2022 series military vehicles. The BJ2022 is based on a Jeep Cherokee, but is longer and wider. The new vehicle is larger and more spacious than the older BJ2020. It is used as a troop and cargo transport, command vehicle or reconnaissance vehicle. A baseline BJ2022 has a fully-enclosed 4-door body. This vehicle has a 500 kg payload capacity. It carries 5 soldiers, including the driver. Windscreen can be folded over the bonnet and top and side windows removed in order to reduce vehicle height. It has a trailer hitch and can tow light trailers or artillery pieces with a maximum weight of 500 kg. Other body types are also available. There are 4-door vehicles with open top, 2-door vehicles with hard top, 2-door pickup, and possibly some other. Some of them can carry up to 8 men, including the driver. These vehicles have 500 kg or 750 kg capacity, depending on the version. Payload capacity corresponds with the towed load. A lightly armored version has also been developed. This vehicle is powered by a 3.2-liter turbocharged diesel engine, sourced from Nissan. It developed 140 hp. Civil versions are also available with a 2.7-liter petrol engine, also sourced by Nissan. Vehicle is fitted with a front-mounted self-recovery winch. Nr.8 ,IVECO 40.10, (Italy) The IVECO 40.10 is an Italian military vehicle, that fits the gap between light utility vehicles and light trucks. It is in service with the Italian Army. This vehicle is license-produced in some countries. The IVECO 40.10 has a payload capacity of 1.5 t and is used for a variety of tactical roles. It can be configured in a number of ways. It can also tow light artillery pieces and trailers. There is a whole host of variants. Driving cab is usually fitted with a soft top, however hard top is also available. Cargo compartment is of all-steel construction. It has folding seats along each side for 10 men. Windscreen can be tilted forward to reduce height. The IVECO 40.10 was designed for simple installation of different body types, such as van or ambulance. Vehicle can carry recoilless rifle or anti-tank guided missile launcher, as well as various machine guns. This vehicle was designed for high mobility both on and off road. It is based on a platform of the 1st generation ,IVECO Daily, commercial van. It is powered by Fiat 8142 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 103 hp. This military vehicle can be airlifted by the ,C-130 Hercules, transport aircraft. It can also be airdropped. The ,LSVW, is Canadian variant, produced by Western Star. It is in service with Canadian Armed Forces. The Nanjing NJ2046 is a Chinese version, locally produced by NAVECO. Nr.9 ,GAZ Tigr, (Russia) The The GAZ-2330 Tigr (,tiger,) is a high-mobility military vehicle was modeled after the US ,HMMWV,, but there are some conceptual differences between the two. The Tigr was developed alongside Emirati and Jordanian ,Nimr, and is a broadly similar vehicle. Production of the Tigr commenced in 2005. Currently it is in service with the Russian Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Internal Affairs. These vehicles are used to deploy rapid-reaction teams, escort convoys, conduct patrols. The GAZ Tigr is simple in design and technology. It has a payload capacity of 1 500 kg and fits the gap between light utility vehicles and light trucks. It is available with various body styles - passenger, armored, cargo. It can be tailored to suit various mission requirements. There are some specialized versions of this vehicle, such as an anti-tank missile carrier. The standard version provides seating for driver and 11 passengers. Other configurations accommodate 1+3, 2+4 or 2+7 soldiers. A 7.62 mm, 12.7 mm machine gun or 30 mm automatic grenade launcher can be mounted on top of the roof. An armored version of the Tigr is available. This armored version is 700 kg heavier, than the standard Tigr. Armor of this vehicle provides some degree of protection against small arms fire, artillery shell shrapnel and explosions. The GAZ Tigr is available with Cummins B-180 (5.9-liter, 180 hp), Cummins B-214 (5.9-liter, 215 hp) or GAZ-562 (3.2-liter, 197 hp) turbocharged diesel engine. It seems that other engines are also available. This vehicle is proposed with manual or automatic transmissions. The Tigr uses some proven automotive components of the ,BTR-80 APC, and ,GAZ Vodnik, light utility vehicle. This vehicle has a full-time all-wheel-drive. It is fitted with a central tyre inflation system. Nr.10 ,URO VAMTAC, (Spain) The URO VAMTAC (Vehiculo de Alta Movilidad TACtico or high mobility tactical vehicle) was developed to meet a Spanish armed forces requirement. It is similar in concept and design to the US ,HMMWV,. Production commenced in 1998. The URO VAMTAC is in service with the Spanish Army. Export operators are Belgium, Dominican Republic, Ireland, Malaysia, Morocco, Portugal, Romania and Venezuela. Vehicle has a payload capacity of 1 500 - 2 500 kg, depending on the version. It can tow trailers with a maximum weight of 1 500 kg. The VAMTAC is available in a number of variants with different body types. The main forms are pick-up, command/control and chassis-cab. Pick-up and chassis-cab variants are available with two-door, four-door or reduced size four-door version. The chassis-cab variant is used to mount a vide variety of shelters, or cargo bodies. The command/control variant has four-doors and cargo area, covered with soft, or sloping hard top. Open top models are available. Armored version of this light utility vehicle is also available. Its body is completely made of ballistic materials for a more effective protection. Around 25% of the Spanish Army VAMTACs are fitted with add-on ballistic protection. Vehicle can be armed with machine guns, grenade launchers, anti-tank guided missiles, 81 mm mortar, 106 mm recoilless rifle or short-range air defense missiles. The URO VAMTAC is available with a choice of two Steyr turbocharged diesel engines, developing 166 hp (URO VAMTAC I3) and 188 hp (URO VAMTAC S3). Vehicle is fitted with automatic transmission and has a full time all-wheel drive. It has good cross-country mobility. Vehicle is air-portable inside military transport aircraft. Also it can be carried as external load underslung by the ,CH-47 Chinook helicopter,. The VAMTAC can be parachute-delivered from low altitude. Numerous variants include ambulance, fire-fighting vehicle, command post, weapon carrier, cargo carrier. These are all good candidates as economical yet effective armored fighting vehicles. Top 10 Armored Personnel Carriers Do you know which is the best Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) in the world? Which is the greatest modern APC and why? Our Top 10 analysis is based on the combined score of protection, firepower, capacity and mobility. All of the armored vehicles mentioned here are great, however not all of them have seen combat during military operations yet. Analysis is based on specifications and available data. Why all APCs listed here are wheeled? Because currently there is a trend that tracked vehicles are retired from this role due to their poor protection against mines. Why all APCs listed here have 8x8 configuration? Because 8x8 configuration offers better overall mobility, internal volume and payload capacity. This list includes only operational vehicles, that are currently in production. After exhaustive research I was surprised with the results. Currently top 10 best armored personnel carriers in the world are these: Nr.1 ,AMV XP, (Finland) The Patria AMV XP is a newer, improved and more capable version of the ,Patria AMV,, which is currently one of the best armored personnel carriers in the world. The "XP" stands for Extra Payload, Protection and Performance. This armored vehicle was first publicly revealed in 2013. The Patria AMV XP was selected by Slovakia. Slovak military plans to order 81 of these armored vehicles for delivery between 2018 and 2024. The Patria AMV XP has a maximum combat weigh of 30 t. It is heavier than the standard AMV, which is already one of the heaviest and most protected armored personnel carrier in the world. Considering its protection levels, a well-armed the Patira AMV XP can be seen as a wheeled Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV), rather than a wheeled armored personnel carrier. It weights more, is better protected and packs heavier punch than most armored personnel carriers. In many respects it even outperforms many older IFVs, such as American ,M2 Bradley,, British ,Warrior,, or Russian ,BMP-2,. With maximum level of protection the front arc of the AMV XP withstands 30 mm armor-piercing rounds. All-round protection is against 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds. Vehicle also has a top-class mine protection. It withstands blasts equivalent to 10 kg of TNT under any wheel or anywhere under the hull. Uparmored AMV XP can survive hits of ,RPG-7, rockets. An NBC protection system is fitted as standard. The Patria AMV XP can be fitted with various weapon systems, either remotely controlled or turret-mounted weapons. A baseline armored personnel carrier is proposed with a remotely-controlled weapon station, armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun. Slovak armored vehicles will be fitted with a locally-produced Turra 30 remotely-controlled turret, armed with a 30 mm cannon, 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun and two anti-tank guided missile launchers. This armored vehicle is powered by a Scania DC13 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 603 hp. The Patria AMV XP has amphibious capability. On water it is propelled by two rear-mounted waterjets. However once extra armor is fitted it is no longer amphibious. Nr.2 ,AMV, (Finland) The Patria AMV was developed in association with the Finish Defense Force. It revealed in 2001. This APC has significant export success. Export operators are Croatia, Poland and Slovenia. Some other countries also ordered this armored vehicle. With maximum level of protection the front arc of the AMV withstands 30 mm armor-piercing rounds. Vehicle also has a top-class mine protection. It withstands blasts equivalent to 10 kg of TNT. Two uparmored Polish Army vehicles were hit in Afghanistan by ,RPG-7, rockets, however armor was not penetrated and vehicles managed to return to base. The baseline version is armed with remotely-controlled 12.7 mm machine gun, or 40 mm automatic grenade launcher. This APC is fitted with a powerful engine, developing 490 or 540 hp. The baseline variant is fully amphibious. Nr.3 ,Piranha V, (Switzerland) The Piranha V is the latest and most protected vehicle of the MOWAG Piranha line. It was revealed in 2010. The Piranha V is in service with Monaco. Recently it was also selected by Denmark, Romania and Spain. Vehicle has an all-welded steel armor hull with integrated add-on composite modular armor. With maximum level of protection the Piranha V withstands 25 mm armor-piercing rounds all-round. Vehicle has a double floor with a V-shaped hull and is well protected against landmines and IED blasts. It withstands a 10 kg anti-tank mine blast under any wheel. This APC is also available with active protection system. In APC configuration this vehicle is proposed with a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, or 40 mm automatic grenade launcher. Though heavier armament can be also fitted. An uparmored and well armed Piranha V can be even considered as a wheeled infantry fighting vehicle. The Piranha V is fitted with a powerful engine, developing 580 hp. It has good off-road mobility due to its height-adjustable semi-active hydropneumatic suspension. Nr.4 ,LAV 6.0, (Canada) The Canadian LAV UP or LAV 6.0 is an upgraded version of the ,LAV III Kodiak,. It was developed by General Dynamics Land Systems. Upgrades were based on the lessons learned by the Canadian Army during combat operations. The General Dynamics Land Systems was awarded a contract to upgrade 616 Canadian Army LAV III vehicles to the new standard. It was planned that all of these vehicles will be upgraded until 2017. These will form the backbone of the Canadian armored vehicle fleet. The new LAV 6.0 is also being proposed for export customers. Saudi Arabia ordered a total of 900 LAV 6.0 armored vehicles in various versions. The upgraded LAV 6.0 weights significantly more than the original LAV III. A fully upgraded vehicle with add-on armor kit weights just over 28 t. Protection has been improved, though many of the core design elements remain the same. Currently it is one of the most protected armored personnel carrier in the world. It can be even considered as a wheeled IFV. The most notable difference of the upgraded LAV 6.0 is a double V-shaped hull. It was added for improved protection against landmines and improvised explosive devices. Crew members and troops are seated on energy absorbing seats. Vehicle retains a ceramic add-on armor kit of the original LAV III. It looks like with this kit maximum level of all-round protection is against 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds and the front arc withstands hits from 30 mm cannons. Cage armor can be installed for protection against anti-tank rockets and missiles. The baseline Canadian Army vehicle has a two-man turret, armed with an M242 Bushmaster 25 mm chain gun. This weapon has an effective range of 2.4 km. There is also a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun. Another 5.56 mm machine gun is located on top of the roof. Other weapons can be also fitted. Saudi Arabia ordered the LAV 6.0 armored personnel carriers armed with 20- and 30 mm cannons. The LAV 6.0 has improved fire control system with an integrated target detection, recognition and identification system. It automatically corrects for target range and crossing speed. Turret sights have been upgraded. The new thermal sight and intensification sight have extended ranges. So overall surveillance capability of the vehicle improved. The gunner can spot a man at a range of 1.2 km. Furthermore the LAV 6.0 has got a new battlefield management system. This armored vehicle is powered by a 450 hp Caterpillar diesel engine. The LAV 6.0 is not amphibious. Nr.5 ,M1296 Dragoon, (USA) The M1296 Dragoon is an upgraded version of the ,M1126 Stryker, with significantly increased lethality. Its official designation is Infantry Carrier Vehicle - Dragoon, or ICVD. First operational M1296 Dragoon was delivered to the US Army in 2017. The M1296 Dragoon is a well protected and well armed APC. However it lacks protections for a true wheeled IFV. Still though it is better protected than many other contemporary armored personnel carriers, including Russian and Chinese designs. Maximum level of all-round protection with add-on ceramic armor is against 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds. This vehicle was designed to survive mine blasts. It is claimed that Stryker series vehicles are superior to other armored personnel carriers regarding survivability against mines and improvised explosive devices. Dragoons employed in combat zones can be fitted fitted with steel cages, called slat armor, that provides protection against anti-tank rockets and missiles. Recently an explosive reactive armor kit was designed for this vehicle. The M1296 Dragoon is fitted with unmanned turret, armed with a 30 mm cannon. It can effectively engage lightly armored vehicles up to a range of 3 000 m. This cannon also fires airburst rounds that explode above the target. It allows to hit people hiding in trenches and behind walls. These rounds are also effective against unmanned aerial vehicles. There is also a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun. This APC is fitted with a battlefield information management system. It links up with other similarly equipped vehicles and command posts. It displays position information of friendly vehicles. These APCs operate in rapid deployment Stryker Brigade Combat Teams. Each brigade has more than 300 Strykers of all variants, including APCs, reconnaissance vehicles, 105 mm fire support vehicles, 120 mm mortar carriers, command vehicles, armored enginer vehicles, ambulances, anti-tank missile carriers and NBC reconnaissance vehicles. These brigades can be airlifted and deployed anywhere in the world within 96 hours. Nr.6 ,Terrex, (Singapore) The Singaporean Terrex is one of the latest and most advanced armored personnel carriers. It entered service with Singaporean armed forces in 2006. Maximum level of all-round protection is against 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds. Vehicle has a double V-shaped hull, which deflects mine blasts away from the vehicle. The Terrex can withstand up to 12 kg TNT explosion under the hull and the vehicle still keep on moving. The baseline version is armed with remotely-controlled 40 mm automatic grenade launcher and coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun. Alternatively it can be fitted with remotely-controlled 12.7 mm machine gun. The Terrex is fitted with a powerful engine, developing 400 hp. This armored personnel carrier is exceptionally mobile due to its powerful engine and advanced independent suspension system. This APC is amphibious. Nr.7 ,Boxer, (Germany/Netherlands) The Boxer is one of the latest and most advanced armored personnel carriers. It was jointly developed by Germany and Netherlands. As with all German vehicles it is well engineered and reliable. It is a truly modular vehicle with interchangeable snap-in modules. It uses a single chassis for different purposes, including infantry carrier, command vehicle, ambulance, supply carrier and so on. Modules can be replaced in less than an hour. Some other armored vehicles are also claimed to be modular. However they never really exploit their modularity. Modular armor of the Boxer is made with special ceramic mix. Every mission module has its own primary safety cell. It is claimed that front armor withstands 30 mm rounds. All-round protection is against 12.7 mm fire. Damaged armor slabs can be easily replaced in field condition. The triple hull floor is shaped for maximum protection against anti-tank mines. Also this APC has low radar and acoustic signatures, making it harder to detect. Despite being well protected the standard Boxer is armed only with remotely controlled 12.7 mm machine gun, or 40 mm automatic grenade launcher. There are some proposed versions with turret-mounted cannons. Nr.8 ,Bumerang, (Russia) The Bumerang is a new-generation Russian armored personnel carrier. It was developed to replace the BTR-series APCs. The Bumerang was first publicly revealed in 2015. During the same year a handful of pre-production vehicles were delivered to the Russian Army. Initially it was planned that full-scale production could begin in 2016. However it was delayed due to funding problems. It is estimated that Russian Army has a requirement for around 2 000 Bumerang armored personnel carriers. The Bumerang is a clean sheet design. It is not based on any previous Russian APC. Actually it resembles Western wheeled armored vehicles. Design flaws of the previous Soviet and Russian APCs, such as rear-mounted engine, side exit and cramped crew compartment were fixed. It is believed that maximum level of all-round protection with add-on armor is against 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds. Vehicle has a V-shaped hull and can survive mine blasts. The Bumerang is fitted with remotely-controlled turret, armed with a 30 mm cannon, coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and 4 launchers with ,Kornet-M, anti-tank guided missiles. There is also a version armed with a single 12.7 mm machine gun. Vehicle is fully-amphibious. On water is is propelled by two waterjets. Nr.9 ,Pandur II, (Austria) The Pandur II is a further development of the previous successful ,Pandur APC,. The Pandur II is also a commercial success. It is in service with Austria, Czech Republic and Portugal. Slovenia produces this APC under license. The Slovenian version, known as Krpan has some improvements. Maximum level of all-round protection with add-on armor is against 14.5 mm ammunition. The baseline version has a flat bottom though, which do not protect well against landmines. The baseline version is armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun. There is a wheeled IFV version, armed with a remotely-controlled 30 mm cannon. Some variants of this APC are fully amphibious. Nr.10 ,AV8, (Turkey) The AV8 armored personnel carrier was developed in Turkey by FNSS to meet a Malaysian Army requirement. It evolved from the Turkish ,Pars,, which in turn was developed by American GPV. First vehicles were delivered to Malaysia in 2013. F ront arc provides protection against 14.5 mm armor-piercing rounds. All-round protection is against 7.62 mm armor-piercing rounds. Vehicle has a V-shaped hull and withstands blasts equivalent to 8 kg of TNT under any wheel and 6 kg under the hull. The most numerous version of this APC is fitted with a 30 mm cannon and coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun. Some APCs will also have anti-tank guided missile launchers. Vehicle is fitted with a powerful engine, developing 523 hp. It seems that the AV8 has the same sophisticated active suspension, used on the GPV armored vehicles and the Pars.

  • Is Toyota Hilux available in Boot Operation?

    No, Toyota Hilux isn't available in Boot Operation.

  • What is the Electronic Stability Control(ESC) of Toyota Hilux?

    Here are the Electronic Stability Control(ESC) and variants of Toyota Hilux:

    Variants2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4 L-Edition AT 4x42018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4G AT 4x4 (IMP)2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4G MT 4x4 (IMP)2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.8 L-Edition AT 4x42018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.8G AT 4x4 (IMP)
    Electronic Stability Control(ESC)YYYYY
  • What are the Diesel variants of Toyota Hilux?

    Toyota Hilux is available in Diesel variants, which are 2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4 L-Edition AT 4x4, 2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4 MT 4x2, 2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4G AT 4x4 (IMP), 2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4 STD MT 4x4, 2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.4G MT 4x4 (IMP), 2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.8 L-Edition AT 4x4, 2018 Toyota Hilux Double Cab 2.8G AT 4x4 (IMP), 2018 Toyota Hilux Single Cab 2.4 MT 4x4.